Texas Instruments TI-80 User Manual

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TI-80

GRAPHING CALCULATOR

GUIDEBOOK

TI-GRAPHLINK,Calculator-BasedLaboratory, CBL, CBL 2,Calculator-BasedRanger, CBR, Constant Memory, Automatic Power Down, APD, and EOS are trademarks of Texas Instruments Incorporated.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

© 1995–1997,2001 by Texas Instruments Incorporated.

Important

Texas Instruments makes no warranty, either expressed or

 

implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of

 

merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding any

 

programs or book materials and makes such materials available

 

solely on an “as-is”basis.

 

In no event shall Texas Instruments be liable to anyone for

 

special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in

 

connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these

 

materials, and the sole and exclusive liability of Texas

 

Instruments, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the

 

purchase price of this calculator. Moreover, Texas Instruments

 

shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against

 

the use of these materials by any other party.

US FCC

This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the

Information

limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC

Concerning

rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection

Radio Frequency

against harmful interference in a residential installation. This

Interference

equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency

 

energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the

 

instructions, may cause harmful interference with radio

 

communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference

 

will not occur in a particular installation.

 

If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or

 

television reception, which can be determined by turning the

 

equipment off and on, you can try to correct the interference by

 

one or more of the following measures:

 

Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.

 

Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.

 

Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different

 

 

from that to which the receiver is connected.

 

Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television

 

 

technician for help.

Caution: Any changes or modifications to this equipment not expressly approved by Texas Instruments may void your authority to operate the equipment.

Table of Contents

This manual describes how to use the TI.80 Graphing Calculator. Getting Started gives a quick overview of its features. The first chapter gives general instructions on operating the TI.80. Other chapters describe its interactive features. The applications in Chapter 11 show how to use these features together.

 

Using this Guidebook Effectively....................

viii

 

Glossary .........................................

xii

Getting Started:

TI-80 Keyboard ...................................

2

Do This First!

First Steps .......................................

3

 

TI-80 Menus......................................

4

 

Entering a Calculation: Compound Interest ...........

5

 

Continuing a Calculation ...........................

6

 

Defining a Function: Box with Lid ...................

7

 

Defining a Table of Values..........................

8

 

Zooming In on the Table ...........................

9

 

Changing the Viewing Window......................

11

 

Displaying and Tracing the Graph ...................

12

 

Zooming In on the Graph...........................

13

 

Other TI-80 Features ..............................

14

Chapter 1:

Turning the TI-80On and Off.......................

1-2

Operating the

Setting the Display Contrast ........................

1-3

TI-80

The Display ......................................

1-4

 

Entering Expressions and Instructions ...............

1-6

 

The Edit Keys ....................................

1-8

 

Setting Modes ....................................

1-9

 

TI-80 Modes......................................

1-10

 

Variable Names ...................................

1-12

 

Storing and Recalling Variable Values................

1-13

 

Last Entry........................................

1-14

 

Last Answer ......................................

1-16

 

TI-80 Menus......................................

1-17

 

The VARS and Y-VARS Menus......................

1-19

 

EOS (Equation Operating System) ..................

1-20

 

Error Conditions .................................

1-22

Introduction iii

Chapter 2:

Getting Started: Lottery Chances ....................

2-2

Math, Angle, and

Using the TI-80 Functions ..........................

2-3

Test Operations

Keyboard Math Operations .........................

2-4

 

MATH MATH Operations ...........................

2-7

 

MATH NUM (Number) Operations...................

2-10

 

MATH PRB (Probability) Operations.................

2-12

 

ANGLE Operations ................................

2-14

 

TEST (Relational) Operations.......................

2-16

Chapter 3:

Getting Started: Working with Fractions .............

3-2

Fractions

Setting Modes for Fraction Results ..................

3-4

 

Entering and Using Fractions in Calculations .........

3-6

 

The FRACTION Menu..............................

3-8

Chapter 4:

Getting Started: Graphing a Circle ...................

4-2

Function

Defining a Graph..................................

4-3

Graphing

Setting Graph Modes ..............................

4-4

 

Defining Functions in the Y= List....................

4-5

 

Evaluating Y= Functions in Expressions.............

4-7

 

Selecting Functions ...............................

4-8

 

Defining the Viewing Window ......................

4-9

 

Displaying a Graph ................................

4-11

 

Exploring a Graph with the Free-MovingCursor......

4-12

 

Exploring a Graph with TRACE .....................

4-13

 

Exploring a Graph with ZOOM ......................

4-15

 

Setting the Zoom Factors ..........................

4-18

Chapter 5:

Getting Started: Path of a Ball ......................

5-2

Parametric

Defining and Displaying a Parametric Graph ..........

5-3

Graphing

Exploring a Parametric Graph ......................

5-6

iv Introduction

Chapter 6:

Getting Started: Roots of a Function .................

6-2

Tables

Defining the Independent Variable ..................

6-3

 

Defining the Dependent Variable ....................

6-4

 

Displaying the Table...............................

6-5

Chapter 7:

Getting Started: Shading a Graph....................

7-2

Draw Operations

DRAW DRAW Menu ...............................

7-3

 

Drawing Lines ....................................

7-4

 

Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines ...............

7-5

 

Drawing a Function ...............................

7-6

 

Shading Areas on a Graph ..........................

7-7

 

Drawing Points ...................................

7-10

 

Clearing a Drawing ................................

7-12

Chapter 8:

Getting Started: Generating a Sequence ..............

8-2

Lists

About Lists.......................................

8-3

 

LIST OPS Operations ..............................

8-6

 

LIST MATH Operations ............................

8-9

Chapter 9:

 

 

Statistics

Getting Started: Building Height and City Size.........

9-2

 

Setting Up a Statistical Analysis.....................

9-8

 

The STAT List Editor ..............................

9-9

 

Viewing, Entering, and Editing Lists .................

9-10

 

Sorting and Clearing Lists ..........................

9-13

 

Statistical Analysis ................................

9-14

 

Types of Statistical Analysis ........................

9-15

 

Statistical Variables ...............................

9-17

 

Statistical Plotting ................................

9-18

 

Statistical Analysis in a Program ....................

9-22

 

Statistical Plotting in a Program.....................

9-23

Introduction v

Chapter 10:

Getting Started: Rolling a Die .......................

10-2

Programming

About TI-80 Programs .............................

10-4

 

Creating and Executing Programs ...................

10-5

 

Editing Programs .................................

10-6

 

PRGM CTL (Control) Instructions...................

10-7

 

PRGM I/O (Input/Output) Instructions...............

10-11

 

Calling Other Programs ............................

10-14

Chapter 11:

Probability Experiments: Coins, Dice, and Spinners ...

11-2

Applications

The Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves............

11-3

 

Program: Newton’s Numerical Solve Routine .........

11-4

 

Program: Numerical Integration.....................

11-6

 

Program: Window Variables Store and Recall .........

11-8

 

Graphing the Inverse of a Function ..................

11-10

 

Graphing a Piecewise Function .....................

11-12

 

Graphing Inequalities ..............................

11-14

 

Graphing a Polar Equation .........................

11-15

 

Program: Guess the Coefficients ....................

11-16

Chapter 12:

Checking Available Memory ........................

12-2

Memory

Deleting Items from Memory .......................

12-3

Management

Resetting the TI-80 ................................

12-4

vi Introduction

Appendix A:

Table of TI-80Functions and Instructions............

A-2

Tables and

Menu Map........................................

A-20

Reference

TI-80 Variables ...................................

A-26

Information

 

 

Appendix B:

Battery Information ...............................

B-2

Service and

Accuracy Information .............................

B-8

Warranty

In Case of Difficulty ...............................

B-10

Information

Service and Support Information ...................

B-14

 

Warranty Information..............................

B-15

Index

Introduction vii

Using this Guidebook Effectively

The structure of the TI-80guidebook and the design of its pages can help you find the information you need quickly. Consistent presentation techniques are used throughout to make the guidebook easy to use.

Structure of the The guidebook is designed to teach you how to use theGuidebook calculator.

¦Getting Started is a fast-paced,keystroke-by-keystrokeintroduction.

¦Chapter 1 describes general operation and lays the foundation for Chapters 2 through 10, which describe specific functional areas of the TI-80.Most chapters begin with a brief Getting Started introduction.

¦Chapter 11 contains application examples that incorporate features from different functional areas of the calculator. These examples can help you see how different functional areas work together to accomplish meaningful tasks.

¦Chapter 12 describes memory management.

Page-Design When possible, units of information are presented on a singleConventions page or on two facing pages. Severalpage-designelements

help you find information quickly.

¦Page headings—Thedescriptive heading at the top of the page ortwo-pageunit identifies the subject of the unit.

¦General text—Justbelow the page heading, a short section of bold text provides general information about the subject covered in the unit.

¦Left-column subheadings—Eachsubheading identifies a specific topic or task related to the page or unit subject.

viii Introduction

¦ Specific text—Thetext to the right of a subheading

 

presents detailed information about that specific topic or

 

task. The information may be presented as paragraphs,

 

numbered procedures, bulleted lists, or illustrations.

 

¦ Page “footers”—Thebottom of each page shows the

 

chapter name, chapter number, and page number.

Information-

Several conventions are used to present information concisely

Mapping

and in an easily referenced format.

Conventions

¦ Numbered procedures—Aprocedure is a sequence of

 

 

steps that performs a task. In this guidebook, each step is

 

numbered in the order in which it is performed. No other

 

text in the guidebook is numbered; therefore, when you

 

see numbered text, you know you should perform the

 

steps sequentially.

 

¦ Lists with bullets—Ifseveral items have equal

 

importance, or if you may choose one of several

 

alternative actions, this guidebook precedes each item

 

with a “bullet” (¦) to highlightit—likethis list.

 

¦ Tables and charts—Setsof related information are

 

presented in tables or charts for quick reference.

 

¦ Keystroke examples—TheGetting Started examples

 

provide keystroke-by-keystrokeinstructions, as do the

 

numerous short examples and several detailed examples

 

that are identified with a .

Introduction ix

Reference Aids Several techniques have been used to help you look up specific information when you need it. These include:

¦A chapter table of contents on the first page of each chapter, as well as the full table of contents at the front of the guidebook.

¦A glossary at the end of this section, defining important terms used throughout the guidebook.

¦An alphabetical table of functions and instructions in Appendix A, showing their correct formats, how to access them, and page references for more information.

¦Information about system variables in Appendix A.

¦A table of error messages in Appendix B, showing the messages and their meanings and giving problem-handlinginformation.

¦An alphabetical index at the back of the guidebook, listing tasks and topics you may need to look up.

x Introduction