Apple CYCLONE G0442 User Manual

3.61 Mb

Mac OS X Server

Version 10.4

Technology Overview

August 2006

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server


Page 3 Introduction

Page 5 New in Version 10.4

Page 7 Operating System Fundamentals



Advanced BSD Networking Architecture

Robust Security

Directory Integration

High Availability

Page 10 Integrated Management Tools

Server Admin

Workgroup Manager

Page 14 Service Deployment and Administration

Open Directory Server

File and Print Services

Mail Services

Web Hosting

Enterprise Applications

Media Streaming

iChat Server

Software Update Server

NetBoot and NetInstall

Networking and VPN

Distributed Computing

Page 29 Product Details

Page 31 Open Source Projects

Page 35 Additional Resources

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server


The Universal release of Mac OS X Server runs on both Inteland PowerPC-basedMac desktop and Xserve systems.

Mac OS X Server version 10.4 Tiger gives you everything you need to manage servers in a mixed-platformenvironment and to con gure, deploy, and manage powerful network services. Featuring the renowned Mac OS X interface, Mac OS X Server streamlines your management tasks with applications and utilities that are robust yet easy to use.

Apple’s award-winningserver software brings people and data together in innovative ways. Whether you want to empower users with instant messaging and blogging, gain greater control over email, reduce the cost and hassle of updating software, or build your own distributed supercomputer, Mac OS X Server v10.4 has the tools you need.

The power and simplicity of Mac OS X Server are a re ection of Apple’s operating system strategy—onethat favors open industry standards over proprietary technologies. It begins with aUNIX-basedfoundation built around the Mach microkernel and the latest advances from the open source BSD community. This foundation provides Mac OS X Server with a stable,high-performance,64-bitcomputing platform for deployingserver-basedapplications and services.

Open source made easy

Tiger Server is the fth major release of Mac OS X Server, providing standards-basedworkgroup and Internet services without the complexity of Linux or the cost inherent in otherUNIX-basedsolutions. Instead of developing proprietary server technologies, Apple has built on the best open source projects: Samba 3, OpenLDAP, Kerberos, Post x, Apache, Jabber, SpamAssassin, and more. Mac OS X Server integrates these robust technologies and enhances them with a uni ed, consistent management interface. Powerful administrative tools permit novices to con gure and maintain core network services, while providing the advanced features and functionality required by experienced IT professionals.

Because it is built on open standards, Mac OS X Server is compatible with existing network and computing infrastructures. It uses native protocols to deliver directory services, le and printer sharing, and secure network access to Mac, Windows, and Linux clients. A standards-baseddirectory services architecture o!ers centralized management of network resources using any LDAPserver—evenproprietary servers such as Microsoft Active Directory. The open sourceUNIX-basedfoundation makes it easy to port and deploy existing tools to Mac OS X Server.

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

Best of all, Mac OS X Server ts easily into IT budgets everywhere. A complete suite of workgroup and Internet services is included in the box, so network administrators can get started right away. Mac OS X Server is available in 10-clientandunlimited-clienteditions. Theunlimited-clientedition does not require additionalper-seatfees for connecting more users, making it an a!ordable solution for organizations of any size.

Mac OS X Server: for supporting Mac and Windows workgroups, deploying powerful Internet services, and hosting enterprise applications—allwith an ease of use that is uniquely Mac.

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

New in Version 10.4

Xserve and Xserve RAID

Mac OS X Server unleashes the power of Xserve, Apple’s rack-optimizedserver

hardware. With phenomenal performance, massive storage capacity, high-bandwidthI/O, and integrated remote management tools, Xserve running Mac OS X Server is an unparalleled server solution for businesses, schools, and research centers. For even more storage, Xserve RAID o!ers ahigh-availability,high-performancestorage solution in a 3U enclosure.

Mac OS X Server v10.4 continues the Mac OS X tradition by delivering a world-classUNIX-basedserver solution that’s easy to deploy and easy to manage. This latest release incorporates more than 100 open source projects and o!ers more than 200 new features. The key new features include:

64-bit applications. Mac OS X Server v10.4 brings the power of64-bitcomputing to mainstream servers. Its64-bitaddressing o!ers access to massive amounts of

memory, and its 64-bitoptimized math libraries providehigh-performance,extremely accurate mathematical calculations. These capabilities make Mac OS X Server the ideal platform for the most demanding databases and scienti c, technical, and creative computing tasks.

Access control lists. To provide greater le sharing exibility inmixed-platformwork-ows,Apple has added support for access control lists (ACLs). With le system ACLs, any le object can be assigned multiple users and groups, including groups within groups. Each le object can also be assigned both allow and deny permissions, as well as a granular set of permissions for administrative control, read, write, and delete operations. For added security, Mac OS X Server v10.4 supports a le permission inheritance model, ensuring that user permissions are inherited when les are moved to the server and rewritten when les are copied to the server.

Software Update Server. Now you can decide whether the users in your organization are noti ed of new Apple software updates. This gives administrators control over which updates and patches users install. By hosting your own Apple software update proxy/cache server, you will also save on network costs. Instead of each client computer having to download an update from Apple, all your clients can obtain updates from a single copy cached on your software update server.

iChat Server. Mac OS X Server v10.4 includes a new iChat Server for secure instantmessaging—designedfor organizations that need to keep internal communication private. Your organization can de ne its own namespace and use SSL encryption to ensure privacy. iChat Server works with Apple’s popular iChat conferencing in Mac OS X client software, and it is compatible with open source Jabber clients available for Windows and Linux systems and popular PDAs.

Weblog Server. With the emergence of weblogs, organizations now have a quick and easy way to share information. Weblog Server, included in Mac OS X Server v10.4, makes it simple to publish and syndicate these online journals. The prede ned blog themes and calendar navigation provide an intuitive interface for managing blogs. Individual users and groups can publish and access weblogs using only their normal browsers; no additional tools or technical expertise is required. That simplicity makes Weblog Server the perfect collaboration tool.

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

Xgrid. Mac OS X Server v10.4 includes Xgrid, the rst distributed computing architecture to be built into a desktop or server operating system. Xgrid makes it easy to turn an ad hoc group of Mac systems into alow-costsupercomputer by streamlining the process of assembling nodes, submitting jobs, and retrieving results. Scientists, animators, and digital content creators now have the opportunity to easily run a single job across multiple computers at once, dramatically improving performance and responsiveness.

Ethernet link aggregation and network interface failover. Also known as IEEE 802.3ad, link aggregation allows you to con gure multiple network interfaces to appear as a single interface, which can increase throughput and availability. First, link aggregation multiplies the potential I/O performance by the number of interfaces. For example, two 1-gigabit interfaces bonded together can provide up to 2 gigabits of aggregate network bandwidth, and four 1-gigabit interfaces can provide up to

4 gigabits. Second, link aggregation eliminates a potential single point of failure. If one interface fails, the remaining interface maintains the network connection.

Gateway Setup Assistant. The new Gateway Setup Assistant helps you quickly and easily set up Mac OS X Server v10.4 to share a single Internet connection across a local network. The assistant eliminates the complexity of setting up network services by automating the process. All you have to do is make a few con guration choices when prompted.

Adaptive junk mail ltering and virus detection. To protect your organization from unwanted mail and destructive viruses, Mac OS X Server v10.4 integrates two popular open source projects: SpamAssassin for adaptive junk mail ltering, and ClamAV for virus detection and quarantine.

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

Operating System


Mac OS X Server has an open source, UNIX-basedfoundation that provides a stable,high-performanceplatform for deployingbusiness-criticalenterprise applications, services, and technologies. The core operating system at the heart of Mac OS X Server is known as Darwin.


Darwin provides Mac OS X Server with the stability, performance, and compatibility associated with UNIX. It’s built around the Mach 3.0 microkernel, which is based on the OSF/mk project from the Open Software Foundation. The Mach kernel in Darwin provides services for memory management, thread control, hardware abstraction, and interprocess communication. It also brings advanced features critical to the operation of a server, including ne-grainedmultithreading, symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), protected memory, a uni ed bu!er cache,64-bitkernel services, and system noti cations.

Darwin also includes the latest technological advances from the open source BSD community. Originally developed at the University of California, Berkeley, BSD is the foundation of most UNIX implementations today. Darwin is based in large part on FreeBSD and includes the latest innovations from that development community.


64-bitcomputing is the next big step in providing greater computing power to solve even the most challenging tasks. It gives scientists, engineers, and other power users the tools to address problems that are billions of times larger than the ones that can be solved with32-bitsystems.

Mac OS X Server v10.4 brings the power of 64-bitcomputing to mainstream servers. Its64-bitaddressing o!ers access to massive amounts of memory, transcending the 4GB memory limitation of32-bitsystems. And its64-bitoptimized math libraries providehigh-performance,extremely accurate mathematical calculations. These capabilities make Mac OS X Server the ideal platform for the most demanding databases and scienti c, technical, and creative computing tasks.

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

Integration with directory services

Workgroup Manager works with Open Directory or any other LDAP solution to access and store user, group, and computer information. Based on open standards, Apple’s Open Directory architecture features built-indirectory access modules that simplify integration withthird-partydirectory services, including IBM Directory Server, Microsoft Active Directory, Novell eDirectory, OpenLDAP, Sun ONE, NIS, and NetInfo.

Advanced BSD Networking Architecture

Mac OS X Server incorporates industry-standardprotocols and the latest in security standards to increase the performance and security of server deployments. Using thetime-testedBSD sockets and TCP/IP stack, this advanced networking architecture ensures compatibility and integration withIP-basednetworks.

The networking architecture in Mac OS X Server v10.4 includes advanced features critical to high-performanceserver operation and deployments. These include:

Multilink multihoming for hosting multiple IP addresses on one or more network interfaces

IPv6 to support the next generation of Internet addressing

IPSec for general-purposeprotection of IP communications

IP over FireWire for ad hoc network deployments and system administration

Ethernet link aggregation and network interface failover (IEEE 802.3ad) for higher aggregated throughput and increased server availability

Virtual local area network (VLAN) tags that let you treat speci ed systems on di!erent physical LANs as though they were all on the same LAN

802.1X network authentication for improved access security

Ethernet jumbo frames to increase network e"ciency and throughput

Robust Security

Mac OS X Server is built on a robust UNIX foundation that contains many security features in its core architecture. State-of-the-art,standards-basedtechnologies protect your server, network, and data. These technologies include abuilt-inrewall with stateful packet analysis, strong encryption and authentication services, data security architectures, and support for access control lists (ACLs). Simple interfaces and con g- uration tools allow you to con gure systems easily and securely. In fact, when you take an Apple server out of the box, it’s already con gured with securesettings—nosecurity expertise is required.

Directory Integration

By using open standards and publishing the schema extensions speci c to the Mac, Apple has made it easy to integrate Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server systems into virtually any directory-basednetwork, including ones that use Open Directory, Microsoft’s Active Directory, or open standardLDAP-basedsolutions.1

Open Directory, Apple’s standards-baseddirectory and network authentication services architecture, is a robust, scalable directory server that’s perfect for organizations that haven’t yet deployed centralized directoryservices—aswell as for businesses and institutions migrating from expensive proprietary solutions. Based on the LDAPv3 standard, the Open Directory architecture allows Mac OS X systems to use any LDAP directory, leveraging the directory services in existing network infrastructures.

The Open Directory architecture comes with directory access modules for various popular directory services solutions. It adheres to the RFC 2307 schema and also allows for customized schema mappings. So attributes in an LDAP-baseddirectory can be mapped to settings on the Mac, eliminating the need to con gure each client system. Apple has published these extensions as part of a comprehensive open source project that includes all interoperability components.

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

High Availability

Computer problems such as unplanned shutdowns can severely impair an organization’s operations. High availability of your computing resources is essential to guarantee service levels, comply with industry regulations, and provide access to business-criticalinformation. Apple has built into Mac OS X Server powerful highavailability features that maximize server uptime and reduce the risks of shutdowns. These features include:

Watchdog processes that continuously monitor activity and recover services in the event of an application, system, or power failure

IP failover to further increase service availability in the event of a failure on one server

File system journaling to dramatically expedite le system repairs on system restarts

Software RAID with disk mirroring to eliminate drive failures bringing down a server

Disk space monitoring to access available drive space and, if necessary, proactively free up space by deleting or backing up noncritical logs and utilities

Technology Overview


Mac OS X Server

Integrated Management


Server Admin displays service activity in

real time, as well as graphs of network tra"c, throughput, and performance history.2

Mac OS X Server comes with industry-leadingmanagement tools that simplify the con guration and deployment of network services for Mac, Windows, and Linux clients. Everything required to deliver powerful network solutions within a department, across an enterprise, or over the Internet is built in and ready to use. With theunlimited-clientedition of Mac OS X Server, your organization can add clients as your needsgrow—withoutdraining the IT budget.

Server Admin

Server Admin provides a graphical user interface that makes it easy to set up, manage, and monitor services from any Internet-connectedMac OS X system.2 Mac OS X Server also supports SSH for secure remote administration from the command line, as well as the open standard SNMPv3 protocol for integration withthird-partymonitoring and management software.

Managing Services with Server Admin







1 Encrypted, authenticated access.



Use Server Admin to securely access





servers from any Internet-connected







Mac OS X system. Manage and




monitor multiple servers from a



single interface.




2 List of services. Select a service to manage settings and monitor activity.

2 Indicator lights displayat-a-glanceinformation about the status of individual services.

3 Activation button.Turn services on or o! with a single click.

4 Admin tools. Choose from a selection of logs and graphs to viewreal-timeand historical information. Or choose Settings for detailed con guration and management options.



Functions. Con gure services and


change settings using contextsensitive functions.