Kalmar DRF450 Service Manual

4.4 (17)

 

A

Foreword

 

B

Safety

 

C

Preventive maintenance

 

0

Complete machine

Workshop manual

1

Engine

 

 

 

2

Transmission

 

3

Driveline/axle

 

4

Brakes

 

5

Steering

 

6

Suspension

 

7

Load handling

 

8

Control system

 

9

Frame, body, cab and accessories

 

10

Common hydraulics

 

11

Common electrics

 

12

Common pneumatics

 

D

Error codes

 

E

Schematics

 

F

Technical data

 

G

Terminology and index

A Foreword

1

A Foreword

 

Table of Contents A Foreword

 

A Foreword ..............................................................................................

3

About the Workshop Manual .....................................................................

3

General ..............................................................................................................

3

Workshop manual contents ..............................................................................

3

References between different information types ............................................

4

Function group breakdown ..............................................................................

5

Conditions .........................................................................................................

5

Storage ..............................................................................................................

5

About the machine version ..............................................................................

5

Copyright ...........................................................................................................

6

Reading instructions ..................................................................................

7

Warning information .........................................................................................

7

Important information ......................................................................................

7

Read the operator's manual/maintenance manual .........................................

7

Optional equipment ..........................................................................................

7

Function descriptions .......................................................................................

8

About the documentation .......................................................................

11

Documentation sections .................................................................................

11

Ordering of documentation ............................................................................

11

Feedback ..................................................................................................

12

Form for copying .............................................................................................

12

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01GB

2

A Foreword

VDRF01.01GB

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

A Foreword – A Foreword

3

AForeword

BSafety

CPreventive maintenance 0 Complete machine

1Engine

2Transmission

3Driveline/axle

4Brakes

5Steering

6Suspension

7Load handling

8Control system

9Frame, body, cab and accessories 10 Common hydraulics

11 Common electrics

12 Common pneumatics D Error codes

ESchematics

FTechnical data

GTerminology and index

AForeword – Foreword

About the Workshop Manual

General

Thank you for choosing Kalmar Industries as your machine supplier. We hope that we'll meet your expectations.

Workshop manual contents

The workshop manual contains information for corrective maintenance (replacement of components) and complements the maintenance manual. Accompanying the workshop manual is supplier documentation for engine, transmission and drive axle. Where practicable, please refer from the workshop manual to the maintenance manual and supplier documentation to avoid duplicated information. The workshop manual is divided into the following sections.

General information about the workshop manual's purpose, contents and reading instructions as well as survey for feedback of views and any inaccuracies.

Keep in mind for your safety.

Reference to maintenance manual: Preventive maintenance.

Technical description, comprehensive function descriptions and a description of the function of components included in the machine, divided into function groups.

The components used for each function are described under each subfunction. Consequently, common components are described in several places, but in general under the first function to use the component.

Together with the general description is a detailed description of what is unique about the specific subfunction. The next subfunction to use the same component only has a description what is unique for the new function.

Work instructions for corrective maintenance (replacement of components).

Reference to maintenance manual: Error code information and instructions for reading error code information.

Reference to maintenance manual: Wiring and hydraulic diagrams

Technical data, conversion tables, information for conversion of units.

General terminology and abbreviations, explanation of terms and abbreviations that can appear in the sections, index for headings in the sections.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

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A Foreword – About the Workshop Manual

 

References between different information

 

types

 

The maintenance manual and workshop manual are mainly divided

 

into function groups, see Workshop manual contents page 3. Certain

 

parts are broken out as separate parts to increase usability, e.g.,

 

“Technical data”.

 

The basic rule of searching for information is to use function groups

 

to find different types of information regarding the function or com-

 

ponent in question. As a complement to this, there are references

 

according to the below.

Function descriptions

Hydraulic diagrams

(Technical description)

(Section E)

Component descriptions

Error codes

(Technical description, usually in Workshop manual)

(Section D)

Diagnostic test

Wiring diagrams

(Group 8.4)

(Section E)

 

• From Function description to Component description, to enable

 

fast finding of more information about the different components

 

that create a function.

 

• From Function description to Hydraulic diagram, to enable fast

 

finding of the right hydraulic diagram for the function in ques-

 

tion.

 

• From Component description or Function description to Diag-

 

nostic test, to enable fast finding of the right diagnostic menu

 

that can be used to check the component (only applies to elec-

 

trical components).

 

• From Diagnostic test to Wiring diagrams. to enable fast finding

 

of the right circuit diagram for further troubleshooting.

 

• From Diagnostic test to Component description or Function de-

 

scription. To enable fast finding of more information about the

 

component's appearance and position when troubleshooting.

 

• From Error codes to Diagnostic test, to enable fast finding of the

 

right diagnostic menu to troubleshoot component or function in

 

question.

 

• From Error codes to Function description or Component de-

 

scription, to enable fast finding of more information about com-

 

ponents or function.

VDRF01.01GB

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

A Foreword – About the Workshop Manual

5

Function group breakdown

Breakdown into function groups is common for all machines from Kalmar Industries, down to two-digit heading level (e.g., 4.3 Powerassisted brake system). Machine-unique adaptations of function groups are done at the third and fourth group levels (e.g., 4.3.9 Wheel brake resp. 4.3.9.1 Disc pack).

This results in certain headings (function groups) being omitted in the documentation for certain machines since the machine lacks that particular function. This means that there may be gaps in the function groups' numbering (e.g., the three-digit heading level 4.8.7 Oil cooler may be included for certain machines, but may be missing for other machines).

References between manual types (of the type "see Workshop manual DFR 400–450") are used since the different manual types have different purposes and thus different information content.

References between sections within the same manual are indicated using section and group number, e.g., "see section 4 Brakes, group 4.3.9 Wheel brake". A reference within the same section is indicated with page number, e.g., "see Sensor fuel level, description page 24".

Conditions

The instructions are based on the use of generally available standard tools. All lifting devices, for example, slings, straps, ratchet blocks, etc., must meet governing national standards and regulations for lifting devices.

Kalmar Industries will not accept any responsibility for modifications performed without permission from Kalmar Industries or if other lifting devices, tools or work methods are used other than those described in this manual.

Storage

NOTE

The Maintenance Manual should be accessible to the service personnel.

About the machine version

The information in this publication corresponds to the machine's design and appearance at the time of delivery from Kalmar Industries. Due to customizations, there may be variations and/or deviations.

Kalmar Industries reserves the right to modify specifications and equipment without prior notice. All information and data in this manual are valid at the time of publication.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01GB

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A Foreword – About the Workshop Manual

Copyright

Kalmar Industries AB

Duplication of the content in this manual, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited without written permission from Kalmar Industries AB.

Duplication by any means such as copying, printing, etc., is prohibited.

VDRF01.01GB

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

A Foreword – Reading instructions

7

Reading instructions

Warning information

Warnings inform on potential dangers which can, if the warnings are not heeded, result in personal injury or product damage.

D A N G E R

Situation that may result in serious personal injury, possible death, if the instruction is not followed.

W A R N I N G

Situation that may result in serious personal injury if the instruction is not followed.

C A U T I O N

Situation that may result in damage to the product if the instruction is not followed.

Important information

Important information marked with NOTE facilitates the work process, operation/handling or increases understanding of the information.

NOTE

Information that is important without being safety related.

000262

Read the operator’s manual/maintenance manual

Read the operator's manual/maintenance manual

The symbol to the left is used in certain cases on the machine and refers to important information in the operator’s/maintenance manual.

000264

Indicates optional equipment

Optional equipment

The symbol to the left is used in the manual to indicate that a function or component is optional equipment. Detailed information on how the machine is equipped is presented by the machine card enclosed with the spare parts catalogue.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01GB

Kalmar DRF450 Service Manual

8

A Foreword – Reading instructions

Function descriptions

Function descriptions are schematic overviews that describe how a function works as well as which components and signals work together.

Function descriptions describe the function in a logical flow from input signal to desired output signal. Most functions require that preset conditions are fulfilled for the function to be activated. In these cases, the conditions are listed above the illustration.

Function descriptions use symbols to illustrate components such as valves, sensors, etc.

1

10

2

3

9

8

4

 

 

5

7

 

 

6

000520

Example of function description

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Workshop manual DRF 400–450

A Foreword – Reading instructions

9

1.Hydraulic force (solid double line)

2.Flag pressure check connection (Check point), indicates that there is pressure check connection for checking pressure signal

3.Flag diagnostic test, indicates that signal can be checked with diagnostic test, see group “8.4 Diagnostic test”

4.Illustration of function, (applied brake)

5.Reference to description of component

6.Signal description, reference value for signal out from component

7.Description of component's function

8.Position number, reference to position in illustration

9.Position number in illustration, reference to row in table

10.Electric power (solid single line)

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

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10

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19 ˚C

21 ˚C

23 Pa

25

26

28

 

 

A Foreword – Reading instructions

 

 

Symbol explanation function descriptions

2

 

The following symbols are used in function descriptions, the sym-

 

bols are based on standard symbols used in wiring and hydraulic di-

 

 

4

 

agrams.

 

1.Electric control signal

6

2.

Electric force

3.

Hydraulic control signal

 

 

4.

Hydraulic force

5.Hydraulic motor

8 M

6. Hydraulic oil pump with variable displacement

7.Hydraulic oil pump with fixed displacement

10

 

8.

Electric motor

 

9.

Accumulator

 

 

 

 

10.

Disc brake

12

 

11.

Filter

 

D790-1

12.

Radiator

 

13.

Bulb

14

 

 

14.

Control system, two control units with CAN-bus

 

D797-F

 

 

15.

Restriction

16

 

16.

Adjustable restriction

18

 

17.

Inductive position sensor

 

 

 

 

 

18.

Electrically controlled servo valve

20

˚C

19.

Thermal by-pass valve

22

Pa

20.

Temperature-controlled switch

21.

Temperature sensor

 

 

24

 

22.

Pressure sensor

 

 

 

 

 

23.

Pressure-controlled switch

 

 

24.

Hydraulic cylinder

 

 

25.

Double-acting hydraulic cylinder

 

 

26.

Spring brake cylinder

27

27.

Valve block

 

 

 

 

 

 

28.

Shuttle valve

29

29.

Non-return valve

000523

 

 

 

VDRF01.01GB

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

A Foreword – About the documentation

11

About the documentation

Documentation sections

The documentation to the machine comprises the following sections:

Operator's manual

The Operator's manual is supplied with the machine in the cab.

Documentation kit

Maintenance manual and spare parts catalogue with machine card are supplied with the machine as a separate documentation kit.

Supplementary documentation

There are Supplementary documentation that can be ordered for the machine in the form of a Workshop manual. The Workshop manual includes supplier documentation for engine, transmission and drive axle.

Ordering of documentation

Extra copies and supplementary documentation is ordered from Kalmar Industries.

Kalmar Industries AB SE-341 81 Ljungby, Sweden.

NOTE

If possible, always indicate publication number when ordering.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01GB

12

A Foreword – Feedback

To:

From:

Manual information

Suggestions, views, remarks, etc.

 

 

Feedback

 

 

Form for copying

 

 

Kalmar Industries’ ambition is that you who work with maintenance

 

 

of Kalmar machines shall have access to correct information.

 

 

Your feedback is important to be able to improve the information.

 

 

Copy this form, write down your views and send it to us. Thank you

 

 

for your participation!

Kalmar Industries AB

 

 

Product Support

 

 

Torggatan 3

 

 

SE-340 10 Lidhult

 

 

SWEDEN

 

 

Fax: +46 372 263 93

 

 

Company / Sender: ..........................................................................................................................................

 

 

Telephone: ..........................................................................................................................................................

 

 

E-mail: .................................................................................................................................................................

 

 

Date: ....................................

- ..................

- ..................

Name / Publication number:

.............................................................................................................................

 

Section / page number: ......................................................................................................................................

 

 

.............................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................

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VDRF01.01GB

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety

1

B Safe ty

 

Table of Contents B Safety

 

B Safety ....................................................................................................

3

General safety information ........................................................................

3

Safety concerns everyone! ...............................................................................

3

A near-accident is a warning signal! ................................................................

3

Safety instructions .....................................................................................

4

General ..............................................................................................................

4

Service position ................................................................................................

4

Hydraulic and brake systems, depressurizing ..................................................

5

Clothing etc. ......................................................................................................

6

Several mechanics on the same machine .......................................................

6

Working under machine ...................................................................................

7

Lifting heavy components ................................................................................

7

Vibrations ..........................................................................................................

8

Noise .................................................................................................................

8

Solvents ............................................................................................................

8

Fire and explosion risks ....................................................................................

9

Fluid or gas under pressure ............................................................................

10

Coolant ............................................................................................................

11

Refrigerant ......................................................................................................

12

Air pollution ....................................................................................................

12

Tensioned springs ...........................................................................................

13

Electric motors ................................................................................................

14

Rotating components and tools .....................................................................

14

Tyre system .....................................................................................................

15

Environment .............................................................................................

16

General ............................................................................................................

16

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01S

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B Safety

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Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – B Safety

3

BSafety – Safety

General safety information

Safety concerns everyone!

The safety information concerns everyone who works with the machine! Persons who do not follow the safety instructions given in this manual must make absolutely sure that the work is performed without risks of personal injury and without risk of damage to machine or property!

Remember to:

follow the instructions in this manual

be trained for the work in question

follow local laws, safety rules and regulations

use the correct equipment and tools for the job

wear the correct clothes

use common sense and work carefully, do not take any risks!

In this publication, Kalmar Industries has documented and warned for situations and risks that may occur/exist in connection with operation as well as service/repairs of the truck under normal conditions.

Therefore, its very important that all who work with the truck, or carry out repairs/service work, acquaint themselves with and act according to the information in the maintenance manual and operators manual.

A near-accident is a warning signal!

A near-accident is an unexpected event where neither persons, machine or property are injured or damaged. However, a near-accident indicates that there is an injury risk and actions must be taken to avoid the risk of injuries.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01S

4

B Safety – Safety instructions

Safety instructions

General

Read, consider and follow the safety instructions below before starting to work in the machine:

Service position page 4

Hydraulic and brake systems, depressurizing page 5

Clothing etc. page 6

Several mechanics on the same machine page 6

Working under machine page 7

Lifting heavy components page 7

Vibrations page 8

Noise page 8

Solvents page 8

Fire and explosion risks page 9

Fluid or gas under pressure page 10

Coolant page 11

Refrigerant page 12

Air pollution page 12

Tensioned springs page 13

Electric motors page 14

Rotating components and tools page 14

Tyre system page 15

Service position

General

Service position is used for service, maintenance and other situations when the machine needs to be secured.

Service position means:

Machine parked, that is, parking brake applied.

Boom fully retracted and lowered to horizontal position.

• Engine off.

• Main electric power off (with battery disconnector).

003603

Machine with fully retracted and lowered boom

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Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – Safety instructions

5

Hydraulic and brake systems, depressurizing

1Machine in service position, see Service position page 4.

2Depressurize the hydraulic system.

Turn the start key to position I and activate extension out, a distinct hissing sound is heard if there is pressure in the hydraulic system. Activate lift, extension and sideshift several times.

3Turn the start key to position 0 and turn off the main electric power.

4 Depressurize the attachment. Open the relief valve top lift.

002269

The above illustration shows closed valve.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

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B Safety – Safety instructions

5Depressurize the brake system by opening the drain valve on the accumulator charging valve.

NOTE

Keep the drain valve open as long as work is in progress.

Clothing etc.

Clothes should be in good condition. Remove loosely hanging clothing (tie, scarf, etc.). Do not wear clothes with wide sleeves, wide trouser legs, etc.

Remove jewelry as it may conduct electricity and get caught in moving parts.

Long hair must be tied up securely, otherwise it may easily get caught in moving parts. Be careful when performing welding work or work requiring open flames since hair catches fire easily.

Several mechanics on the same machine

W A R N I N G

Be extra careful if several mechanics work on the same vehicle, so that unintentional movements do not injury another person. Communicate so that everyone knows where all are and what they are doing.

Risks

Work with wheels or axle suspension, mountings, etc. may result in components on the other side moving and causing damage/injury.

Movements performed from the operator's station, e.g., movement of lifting equipment, may cause severe personal injuries.

Safety actions

Make sure that the machine's lifting equipment is completely lowered or secured in another way.

Move battery disconnector to position zero, remove the key.

Be aware of the risks when several persons work around the vehicle.

Make your co-workers aware of what you’re working with.

Do not work with drive wheels on the machine's both sides at the same time.

VDRF01.01S

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – Safety instructions

7

A

001977

Working under machine

Working under cab

On machines with cab lift the machine shall be secured in raised position with the intended locks.

Working under chassis

A lifted/raised vehicle may under no circumstances be supported or lifted in parts that belong to the wheel suspension or steering. Always support under the frame or wheel axle.

Risks

Mechanical or hydraulic tools and lifting devices can fall over or accidentally be lowered due to malfunctions or incorrect use.

Lock on lift frame for securing cab in raised position. Safety actions

Use axle stands and supports that stand securely.

Lifting tools should be inspected and type approved for use.

Lifting heavy components

W A R N I N G

Careless handling of heavy components can lead to serious personal injury and material damage.

Use type approved lifting tools or other devices to move heavy components. Make sure that the device is stable and intact.

Risks

Unsuitable lift slings, straps, etc. may break or slip.

The centre of gravity (balance point) of the component can change during the course of the work, and the component may then make unexpected movements which may cause severe personal injuries and material damage.

A component lifted with lifting equipment can start to turn if the equilibrium is upset.

A component lifted using an overhead crane may start to swing back and forth, which can cause severe crushing injuries or material damage.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01S

8

B Safety – Safety instructions

Safety precautions

Lift using a lifting device. Use lifting tools or equipment, especially when such equipment is available for specific work operations. See the workshop manual for methods.

If lifting must be performed without lifting device:

Lift near the body.

Keep your back vertical. Raise and lower with legs and arms, do not bend your back. Do not rotate your body while lifting. Ask for assistance in advance.

Wear gloves. They're good protection against minor crushing injuries and cuts to fingers.

Always use protective shoes.

Vibrations

In case of long-term use of vibrating tools, for example, impact nut runners or grinders, injuries may be sustained as vibrations can be transmitted from tools to hands. Especially when fingers are cold.

Safety actions

Use heavy gloves to protect against cold and somewhat against vibrations.

Switch between work duties to give the body time to rest.

Vary work position and grip so that the body is not stressed in only one position by the vibrations.

Noise

Noise louder than 85 dB (A) that lasts for longer than 8 hours is considered harmful to hearing. (Limit values may vary between different countries.) High tones (high frequencies) are more damaging than low tones at the same sound level. Impact noise can also be hazardous, e.g. hammer blows.

Risks

At noise levels higher than the limits hearing damage can occur. In more severe cases, hearing damage can become permanent.

Safety precautions

Use hearing protection. Make sure that it is tested and protects against the noise level in question.

Limit noise with noise-absorbing dividers, for example, noise-ab- sorbing materials in roof and on walls.

Solvents

Fluids that (as opposed to water) dissolve grease, paint, lacquer, wax, oil, adhesive, rubber, etc. are called organic solvents. Examples: White (petroleum) spirits, gasoline, thinner, alcohols, diesel, xylene, trichloroethylene, toluene. Many solvents are flammable and constitute a fire hazard.

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Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – Safety instructions

9

Risks

Products containing solvents produce vapors that can cause dizziness, headaches and nausea.They may also irritate mucous membranes in the throat and respiratory tracts.

If the solvent comes into direct contact with the skin, this may cause drying and cracking.Risk for skin allergies increases. Solvents may also cause injury if they penetrate through the skin and are absorbed by the blood.

If the body is continuously exposed to solvents, the nervous system may be damaged. Symptoms include sleep disorders, depressions, nervousness, poor memory or general tiredness and fatigue. Continuous inhalation of gasoline and diesel fumes is suspected to cause cancer.

Safety precautions

Avoid inhaling solvent fumes by providing good ventilation, or wearing a fresh-air mask or respiratory device with a suitable filter for the toxic gases.

Never leave a solvent container without tight-sealing lid.

Use solvents with low content of aromatic substances. This reduces the risk of injuries.

Avoid skin contact. Use protective gloves.

Make sure that work clothes are solvent-resistant.

Fire and explosion risks

Examples of explosion-prone substances are oils, petrol, diesel fuel, organic solvents (lacquer, plastic, cleaning agents), rust proofing agents, welding gas, gas for heating (acetylene), high concentration of dust particles of combustible materials. Rubber tyres are highly flammable and cause fires that spread explosively.

Risks

Examples of causes of ignition include welding, cutting, smoking, sparks produced by grinding, inflammable materials coming into contact with hot machine parts, the generation of heat in rags saturated with oil or paint (linseed oil) and oxygen.Oxygen cylinders, lines and valves must be kept free from oil and grease.

Fumes from gasoline, for example, are heavier than air and can thus “run down” a sloping grade, or down into a grease pit, where welding flames, grinding sparks or a burning cigarette can cause an explosion. Evaporated gasoline has a very powerful explosive force.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

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B Safety – Safety instructions

Special cases

Diesel fuel oil with an additive of petrol has a reduced flash point. Explosion risk even at room temperature. The explosion risk due to warmed diesel fuel oil is greater than for gasoline.

When changing oil in the engine, hydraulic system and transmission, keep in mind that the oil may be hot and can cause burn injuries.

Welding on or near the machine. If diesel or other oils have leaked out and have been absorbed by rags, absorbing agent, paper or other porous material, glowing welding sparks can cause ignition and an explosive spread of fire.

When a battery is being charged, the battery electrolyte water is divided into oxygen and hydrogen gas. This mixture is very explosive. The risk of explosion is especially high when a booster battery or a rapid-charge unit is used, as these increase the risk of sparks.

The machines nowadays contain a lot of electronic equipment. During welding work, the control units must be disconnected and current turned off using the battery disconnect switch. Otherwise, strong welding currents can short-circuit the electronics, destroy expensive equipment, and may also cause an explosion or fire.

Welding work must never be carried out on painted surfaces (remove paint by blasting at least 10 cm around the welding or cutting point.) Use gloves, breathing protection and protective safety glasses. Also, welding work must never take place near plastic or rubber materials without first protecting them from the heat. Paints, plastics and rubber generate various substances when heated that may be hazardous to health. Be careful with machines that have been exposed to intense heat or a fire.

Safety precautions

Store hazardous substance in approved and sealed container.

Make sure that there is no ignition source near flammable or explosive substances.

Make sure that ventilation is adequate or there is an air extraction unit when handling flammable substances.

Fluid or gas under pressure

High-pressure lines can be damaged during work, and fluid or gas can stream out.

There may be high pressure in a line even if the pump has stopped. Therefore, gas or fluid can leak out when the connection to the hose is loosened.

A gas cylinder subjected to careless handling can explode, for example, if it falls onto a hard surface. Gas can stream out through damaged valves.

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Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – Safety instructions

11

Risks

There are injury risks in connection with work on:

Hydraulic system (for example, working hydraulics and brake system).

Fuel system.

Tyre repairs.

Air conditioning.

Safety precautions

Use safety glasses and protective gloves.

Never work in on a pressurized system.

Never adjust a pressure limiting valve to a higher pressure than recommended by the manufacturer.

A hydraulic hose that swells, for example, at a connection, is about to rupture. Replace it as soon as possible! Check connections thoroughly.

Use fluid when checking for leaks.

Never blow clothes clean with compressed air.

Discarded pressure accumulators must first be punctured before they are deposited as waste (to avoid risk of explosion). Carefully drill a hole with 3 mm diameter after depressurizing.

Never use your hands directly to detect a leak.A fine high-pres- sure stream from a hydraulic hose can easily penetrate a hand and causes very severe injuries.

Coolant

The coolant in the machine’s cooling system consists of water, anticorrosion compound and (when needed) anti-freeze fluid, for example, ethylene glycol.

Coolant must not be drained into the sewer system or directly onto the ground.

Risks

The cooling system operates at high pressure when the engine is warm. Hot coolant can jet out and cause scalding in case of a leak or when the expansion tank cap (filler cap) is opened.

Ingesting ethylene glycol and anti-corrosion compound is dangerous and hazardous to health.

Safety precautions

Use protective gloves and safety glasses if there is a risk of splashing or spraying.

Open the filler cap first, to release the excess pressure. Open carefully.Hot steam and coolant can stream out.

If possible, avoid working on the cooling system when the coolant is hot.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

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B Safety – Safety instructions

Refrigerant

Refrigerant is used in the machines air conditioning.

Work on the air conditioning system must be performed by accredited/authorized and trained personnel according to national legislation and local regulations.

Risks

The air conditioning operates at high pressure. Escaping refrigerant can cause freeze burns.

Heated refrigerant (e.g. during the repair of leaks in the A/C system), produces gases that are very toxic if inhaled.

Safety precautions

Use special instructions and equipment for refrigerant according to the workshop manual when working on the air conditioning system. Special certification and authorization must be held by personnel permitted to do the work. (Follow national legislation and local regulations!)

Use protective gloves and safety glasses if there’s a risk of leaks.

Make sure that heat-producing sources or objects are not close by (cigarette glow, welding flame).

Air pollution

Air pollution is the impurities in the air around us and which are regarded as hazardous to health. Certain pollution is more prominent in certain environments.

The following health-hazardous air pollution is especially prominent in workshops:

Carbon monoxide (fumes) is present in exhaust fumes. Odorless and therefore especially dangerous.

Nitrogen oxides (nitrous gases) are present in exhaust fumes.

Welding smoke especially hazardous to health when welding on oily surfaces, galvanized or lacquered materials.

Oil mist for example, when applying anti-corrosion agent.

Grinding dust and gases generated when grinding and heating plastics, lacquer, anti-corrosion agents, lubricants, paint, etc.

Isocyanates are present in certain paints, fillers, adhesives and foam plastics used on machines.

VDRF01.01S

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – Safety instructions

13

Risks

Sulphuric acid mist is corrosive and injures the respiratory tracts. (Generated when heating certain plastics and paints.)

Isocyanates can be released in the form of steam, dust (or may be present in aerosols) when cutting, grinding or welding. Can irritate mucous membranes producing symptoms similar to asthma and impairing lung function. Even brief exposure to high concentrations can give problems with persistent high sensitivity.

Safety precautions

Make sure of adequate ventilation with fresh air when welding, battery charging and other work when hazardous gases are generated.

Use suitable gloves and breathing protection when there’s a risk of oil mist. Make sure that protective gear is oil-resistant.

Apply oil-resistant protective lotion to unprotected skin.

Make sure that an eye-wash station is in the immediate vicinity when working with corrosive substances.

Avoid unnecessary operation of the machine inside the workshop. Connect an air extractor to the exhaust pipe so that the exhaust fumes are removed from the workshop.

Tensioned springs

Examples of tensioned springs:

1.Torque springs in pedals for example.

2.Return spring (cup springs) in parking brake cylinder.

3.Lock rings

4.Gas springs

Risks

If a tensioned spring releases, it is shot out by the spring force and can also take adjoining parts with it.

Small springs can cause eye injuries.

Parking brake springs are tensioned with high force and can cause very severe accidents if they are accidentally released in an uncontrolled manner.

Gas springs and gas-charged shock absorbers are tensioned with high force and can cause very severe accidents if they are accidentally released in an uncontrolled manner.

Safety precautions

Use safety glasses.

Lock rings should be of a suitable type and in good condition.

Follow the instructions in this and other manual when performing maintenance and changing parts and components.

Always use recommended tools.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01S

14

B Safety – Safety instructions

Electric motors

Safety actions

Always turn off the battery disconnector when working on electric motors.

Always block the machine’s wheels, make sure that the parking brake is activated and that the gear selector is in neutral position before starting any work on the machine.

Rotating components and tools

Examples of rotating components and tools:

Cooling fan

Drive belts

Drive shafts

Drills

Grinders

Risks

Rotating components, for example, fans or shafts, can cause severe injuries if touched.

Drills, lathes, grinders or other machines with rotating parts can cause severe accidents if clothes or hair get caught and are wound up in the machine.

Safety precautions

Do not use gloves when working with a drill.

Remove loose, hanging clothing, scarf or tie.

Never use clothing with wide sleeves or trouser legs.

Make sure that clothing is intact and in good condition.

Long hair should be gathered up in a hair-net or similar.

Remove large or loose hanging jewellery from hands, arms and neck.

VDRF01.01S

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

B Safety – Safety instructions

15

Tyre system

D A N G E R

Tyres should be regarded as pressurized containers. They constitute fatal danger if handled incorrectly.

Parts can be thrown with explosive force and may cause severe injuries.

Never repair damaged tyres, rims or lock rings. Tyre repairs should only be performed by authorized personnel.

Risks

Dismantling wheels: Tyres, rims or lock rings can be thrown. Inflating tyres: Tyres, rims and lock rings can be thrown.

Safety actions

Deflate the tyre before starting to work on the wheel.

Check that tyres, rims and lock rings aren’t damaged. Never repair damaged rims or lock rings.

Use protective screen and safety glasses.

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

VDRF01.01S

16

B Safety – Environment

Environment

General

Ever-increasing industrialisation of our world is having a significant impact on our global environment. Nature, animals and man are subjected daily to risks in connection with various forms of chemical handling.

There are still no environmentally safe chemicals, such as oils and coolants, available on the market. Therefore, all who handle, perform service on or repair machines must use the tools, assisting devices and methods necessary to protect the environment in an environmentally sound manner.

By following the simple rules below, you will contribute to protecting our environment.

Recycling

Deposit discarded materials for recycling or destruction.

Environmentally hazardous waste

Components such as batteries, plastics and other items that may constitute environmentally hazardous waste must be handled and taken care of in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

Discarded batteries contain substances hazardous to personal health and the environment. Therefore, handle batteries in an environmentally safe manner and according to national regulations.

Oils and fluids

Oils freely discharged cause environmental damage and can also be a fire hazard. Therefore, when emptying and draining oils or fuel, take appropriate action to prevent unnecessary spills.

Waste oils and fluids must always be taken care of by an authorised disposal company.

Pay close attention to oil leaks and other fluid leaks! Take immediate action to seal the leaks.

Air conditioning system

The refrigerant in the air conditioning system for the cab adds to the greenhouse effect and may never be intentionally released into open air. Special training is required for all service work on the air conditioning system. Many countries require special certification by an authority for such work.

Working in a contaminated area

Used cab and engine air filters from machines operating in conditions with asbestos dust, or other hazardous dust, must be sealed in air-tight plastic bags before being deposited in the designated area. The machine must be equipped for work in a contaminated area (environmentally contaminated or hazardous to personal health) before work is started. In addition, special local regulations apply when handling and servicing such a machine.

VDRF01.01S

Workshop manual DRF 400–450

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