Intel CORETM 2 DUO MOBILE 320028-001 User Manual

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Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors on 45-nm process for Embedded Applications

Thermal Design Guide

June 2008

Order Number: 320028-001

INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS, INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT.

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Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked “reserved” or “undefined.” Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them.

The Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors on 45-nm process for Embedded Applications may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.

Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order.

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Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors on 45-nm process for Embedded Applications

 

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Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors—Contents

Contents

 

 

 

 

1.0

Introduction .............................................................................................................

6

 

 

 

1.1

Design Flow .......................................................................................................

6

 

 

 

1.2

Definition of Terms .............................................................................................

7

 

 

 

1.3

Reference Documents..........................................................................................

8

 

 

 

1.4

Thermal Design Tool Availability ...........................................................................

8

2.0

Package Information ................................................................................................

9

3.0

Thermal Specifications.............................................................................................

10

 

 

 

3.1

Thermal Design Power........................................................................................

10

 

 

 

3.2

Maximum Allowed Component Temperature ..........................................................

10

4.0

Mechanical Specifications ........................................................................................

11

 

 

 

4.1

Package Mechanical Requirements .......................................................................

11

 

 

 

 

4.1.1 Die Pressure/Load Upper Limit..................................................................

11

 

 

 

 

4.1.2 Die Pressure/Load Lower Limit..................................................................

11

 

 

 

4.2

Package Keep Out Zones Requirements ................................................................

11

 

 

 

4.3

Board Level Keep Out Zone Requirements.............................................................

11

5.0

Thermal Solution Requirements ...............................................................................

15

 

 

 

5.1

Thermal Solution Characterization........................................................................

15

5.1.1Calculating the Required Thermal Performance for the Intel® Core™2 Duo

 

 

 

processor ..............................................................................................

16

6.0

Reference Thermal Solutions ...................................................................................

18

 

6.1

ATCA Reference Thermal Solution ........................................................................

18

 

6.2

Keep Out Zone Requirements ..............................................................................

19

 

6.3

Thermal Performance .........................................................................................

19

 

6.4

1U+ Reference Heatsink .....................................................................................

19

 

 

6.4.1 Keep Out Zone Requirements ...................................................................

20

 

 

6.4.2

Thermal Performance ..............................................................................

20

 

6.5

Compact PCI Reference Heatsink .........................................................................

21

 

 

6.5.1 Keep Out Zone Requirements ...................................................................

22

 

 

6.5.2

Thermal Performance ..............................................................................

22

 

6.6

Heatsink Fastener Assembly................................................................................

22

 

6.7

Thermal Interface Material (TIM) .........................................................................

22

 

6.8

Heatsink Orientation ..........................................................................................

23

7.0

Thermal Metrology...................................................................................................

24

 

7.1

Die Temperature Measurements ..........................................................................

24

 

7.2

Power Simulation Software .................................................................................

24

 

7.3

Additional Thermal Features................................................................................

24

 

7.4

Local Ambient Temperature Measurement Guidelines..............................................

24

 

 

7.4.1

Active Heatsink Measurements .................................................................

25

 

 

7.4.2

Passive Heatsink Measurements................................................................

25

8.0

Reliability Guidelines ...............................................................................................

28

A

Thermal Solution Component Suppliers....................................................................

29

B

Mechanical Drawings ...............................................................................................

30

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Figures—Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors

 

Figures

 

1

Thermal Design Process ..............................................................................................

7

2

Primary Side Keep Out Zone Requirements— Micro-FCPGA ............................................

12

3

Primary Side Keep Out Zone Requirements— Micro-FCBGA ............................................

13

4

Secondary Side Keep Out Zone Requirements..............................................................

14

5

Processor Thermal Characterization Parameter Relationships .........................................

16

6

AdvancedTCA* Reference Heatsink Assembly...............................................................

18

7

AdvancedTCA* Heatsink Thermal Performance vs. Volumetric Airflow Rate ......................

19

8

1U Reference Heatsink Assembly ...............................................................................

20

9

1U Heatsink Thermal Performance vs. Volumetric Airflow Rate .......................................

21

10

CompactPCI Reference Heatsink Assembly ..................................................................

21

11

cPCI Reference Heatsink Thermal Performance vs. Volumetric Flow Rate .........................

22

12

Heatsink Orientation Relative to Airflow Direction .........................................................

23

13

Measuring TLA with an Active Heatsink .......................................................................

26

14

Measuring TLA with a Passive Heatsink .......................................................................

27

15

AdvancedTCA* Reference Heatsink PCB Keep Out Zone Requirements (Sheet 1 of 2) ........

31

16

AdvancedTCA* Reference Heatsink PCB Keep Out Zone Requirements (Sheet 2 of 2) ........

32

17

AdvancedTCA* Reference Heatsink Assembly...............................................................

33

18

AdvancedTCA* Reference Heatsink.............................................................................

34

19

CompactPCI* Reference Heatsink PCB Keep Out Zone Requirements (Sheet 1 of 2) ..........

35

20

CompactPCI* Reference Heatsink PCB Keep Out Zone Requirements (Sheet 2 of 2) ..........

36

21

CompactPCI* Reference Heatsink Assembly.................................................................

37

22

CompactPCI* Reference Heatsink...............................................................................

38

23

1U Reference Heatsink PCB Keep Out Requirements (Sheet 1 of 2).................................

39

24

1U Reference Heatsink PCB Keep Out Requirements (Sheet 2 of 2).................................

40

25

1U Reference Heatsink Assembly ...............................................................................

41

26

1U Reference Heatsink..............................................................................................

42

Tables

 

1

Definition of Terms.....................................................................................................

7

2

Thermal Specifications for the Intel® Core™2 Duo processor..........................................

10

3

Required Heatsink Thermal Performance (ΨJA) .............................................................

17

4

Reliability Requirements............................................................................................

28

5

Reference Heatsink ..................................................................................................

29

6

Mechanical Drawings ................................................................................................

30

 

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Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors—Tables

Revision History

Date

Revision

Description

 

 

 

June 2008

1.0

First Public release.

 

 

 

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Introduction—Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors

1.0Introduction

The power dissipation of electronic components has risen along with the increase in complexity of computer systems. To ensure quality, reliability, and performance goals are met over the product’s life cycle, the heat generated by the device must be properly dissipated. Typical methods to improve heat dissipation include selective use of airflow ducting, and/or the use of heatsinks.

The goals of this document are to:

Identify the thermal and mechanical specification for the device.

Describe a reference thermal solution that meets the specifications.

A properly designed thermal solution will adequately cool the device at or below the thermal specification. This is accomplished by providing a suitable local-ambient temperature, ensuring adequate local airflow, and minimizing the die to local-ambient thermal resistance. Operation outside the functional limits can degrade system performance and may cause permanent changes in the operating characteristics of the component.

This document describes thermal design guidelines for the Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors on 45-nm process for Embedded Applications in the micro Flip Chip Pin Grid Array (micro-FCPGA) package and the micro Flip Chip Ball Grid Array (micro-FCBGA) package. The information provided in this document is for reference only and additional validation must be performed prior to implementing the designs into final production. The intent of this document is to assist each original equipment manufacturer (OEM) with the development of thermal solutions for their individual designs. The final heatsink solution, including the heatsink, attachment method, and thermal interface material (TIM) must comply with the mechanical design, environmental, and reliability requirements delineated in the processor datasheet. It is the responsibility of each OEM to validate the thermal solution design with their specific applications.

This document addresses thermal and mechanical design specifications for the Intel Core 2 Duo processor only. For thermal design information on other Intel components, refer to the respective component datasheets.

1.1Design Flow

Several tools are available from Intel to assist with the development of a reliable, cost-effective thermal solution. Figure 1 illustrates a typical thermal solution design process with available tools noted. The tools are available through your local Intel field sales representative.

 

Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors on 45-nm process for Embedded Applications

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Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors—Introduction

Figure 1. Thermal Design Process

Step 1: Thermal Simulation

 

 

 

 

Package Level Thermal Models

Step 2: Heatsink Design

 

 

Thermal Model User’s Guide

 

 

 

 

and Selection

 

 

 

 

Reference Heatsinks

 

 

 

 

Reference Mounting Hardware

Step 3: Thermal Validation

 

 

Vendor Contacts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thermal Testing Software

 

 

 

 

Thermal Test Vehicle

 

 

 

 

User Guides

1.2Definition of Terms

Table 1.

Definition of Terms (Sheet 1 of 2)

 

 

 

 

Term

Definition

 

 

 

 

FCPGA

Flip Chip Pin Grid Array. A pin grid array packaging technology where the die is

 

exposed on the package substrate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

FCBGA

Flip Chip Ball Grid Array. A ball grid array packaging technology where the die is

 

exposed on the package substrate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TJUNCTION-MAX

Maximum allowed component (junction) temperature. Also referred to as TJ-MAX

 

TDP

Thermal Design Power. Thermal solutions should be designed to dissipate this

 

target power level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TLA

Local ambient temperature. This is the temperature measured inside the chassis,

 

approximately 1 inch upstream of a component heatsink. Also referred to as TA.

 

 

 

 

Junction-to-ambient thermal characterization parameter. A measure of heatsink

 

ΨJA

thermal performance using the total package power. Defined as (T JUNCTION – TLA) /

 

 

Total Package Power

 

 

 

 

 

Thermal interface material thermal characterization parameter. A measure of

 

ΨTIM

thermal interface material performance using total package power. Defined as (T

 

 

CASE – T JUNCTION)/ Total Package Power. Also referred to as ΨJS.

 

 

Sink-to-ambient thermal characterization parameter. A measure of heatsink

 

ΨSA

thermal performance using total package power. Defined as (T SINK – T JUNCTION)/

 

 

Total Package Power.

 

 

 

 

°C

Degrees in Celsius

 

 

 

 

CFM

Volumetric airflow rate in cubic feet per minute

 

 

 

 

in.

Inches

 

 

 

 

LFM

Airflow velocity in linear feet per minute

 

 

 

 

PCB

Printed circuit board

 

 

 

 

TSINK

Heatsink temperature measured on the underside of the heatsink base.

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Introduction—Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors

Table 1. Definition of Terms (Sheet 2 of 2)

Term

Definition

Thermal Interface Material – the thermally conductive compound between the TIM heatsink and die. This material fills air gaps and voids, and enhances spreading of

the heat from the die to the heatsink.

UA unit of measure used to define server rack spacing height. 1U is equal to 1.75 inches, 2U equals 3.50 inches, etc.

WWatt

1.3Reference Documents

The reader of this specification should also be familiar with material and concepts presented in the following documents:

• Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor for Intel® Centrino® Duo Mobile Technology Datasheet

Documents are located at developer.intel.com. Contact your Intel field sales representative for additional information.

1.4Thermal Design Tool Availability

Intel provides thermal simulation models of the device and a thermal model user’s guide to aid system designers in simulating, analyzing, and optimizing thermal solutions in an integrated, systemlevel environment. The models are for use with commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based thermal analysis tools including Flotherm* (version 7.1 or higher) by Flomerics, Inc. or Icepak* by Fluent, Inc. Contact your Intel representative to order the thermal models and associated user’s guides.

 

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Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors—Package Information

2.0Package Information

The Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor (XE and SV) is available in 478-pin Micro-FCPGA packages as well as 479-ball Micro-FCBGA packages. The Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor SFF processor (LV and ULV) is available in 956-ball Micro-FCBGA packages. The package mechanical dimensions can be found in the product’s datasheet.

The Micro-FCBGA package incorporates land-side capacitors. The land-side capacitors are electrically conductive. Care should be taken to prevent the capacitors from contacting any other electrically conductive materials. Doing so may short the capacitors and possibly damage the device or render it inactive.

The processor package has mechanical load limits that are specified in the processor datasheet. These load limits should not be exceeded during heatsink installation, removal, mechanical stress testing, or standard shipping conditions. The heatsink mass can also add additional dynamic compressive load to the package during a mechanical shock event. Amplification factors due to the impact force during shock must be taken into account in dynamic load calculations. The total combination of dynamic and static compressive load should not then exceed the processor datasheet compressive dynamic load specification during a vertical shock. It is not recommended to use any portion of the processor substrate as a mechanical reference or load bearing surface in either static or dynamic compressive load conditions.

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Thermal Specifications—Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors

3.0Thermal Specifications

3.1Thermal Design Power

The Thermal Design Power (TDP) specification is listed in Table 2. Heat transfer through the microFCBGA, micro-FCPGA package and socket via the base board is negligible. The cooling capacity without a thermal solution is also minimal, so Intel requires the use of a heatsink for all usage conditions.

3.2Maximum Allowed Component Temperature

The device must maintain a maximum temperature at or below the value specified in Table 2. The thermal solution is required to meet the temperatures specification while dissipating the Thermal Design Power.

Table 2. Thermal Specifications for the Intel® Core™2 Duo processor

CPU

Processor SKU#

TDP (W)

TJ-MAX

TJ-MIN

 

 

 

(°C)

(°C)

 

 

 

 

 

Intel® Core™ 2 Duo

Standard Voltage (Core 2 Duo-6M, Celeron-2M)

35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mobile Processors

Low Voltage (Core 2 Duo -3M)

17

105

0

on 45-nm process

 

 

 

 

Ultra Low Voltage (Core 2 Duo -2M, Celeron)

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

=

 

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Core™ 2 Duo Mobile Processors—Mechanical Specifications

4.0Mechanical Specifications

4.1Package Mechanical Requirements

4.1.1Die Pressure/Load Upper Limit

From a die mechanical integrity standpoint, the maximum allowable normal die load is the lesser of 15 lbs or 100 psi. Considering the 15 lbs load limit and the nominal die area of 1.45 cm2 (0.22 in.2), this equates to a die pressure of 66.7 psi (below 100 psi specification). Considering the maximum pressure specification, the die load at this pressure would be 22.4 lbs, exceeding the 15 lbs. load limit. Thus, the heatsink clamping mechanism (spring loaded fasteners, spring clips, etc.) should not exceed 15 lbs.

4.1.2Die Pressure/Load Lower Limit

From a TIM performance standpoint, a minimum die pressure is required to ensure consistent and minimal TIM thermal resistance. This lower value is a function of the TIM used. For the phase-change TIM specified for thermal solutions mentioned later, die pressure should not be lower than approximately 138 kPa (20 psi). This will keep TIM resistance better than approximately

0.30 oC-cm2/W.

4.2Package Keep Out Zones Requirements

The heatsink must not touch the package in the areas shown in Figure 2 and Figure 4. The heatsink should include a means to prevent the heatsink from forming an electrical short with the capacitors placed on the top side of the package. The reference thermal solutions include z-stops machined into the base of the heatsink. The z-stops prevent the heatsink from inadvertently tilting when installed. Other methods are suitable including using electrically insulated gasket material at the base of the heatsink.

4.3Board Level Keep Out Zone Requirements

A general description of the keep-out zones and mounting hole pattern for the reference thermal solutions are shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. Detailed drawings for the PCB keep out zones are in Appendix B.

Components placed between the underside of the heatsink and motherboard cannot exceed 4.75 mm in height when using heatsinks that extend beyond the socket envelope shown in Figure 2 for the micro-FCPGA package.

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