NETGEAR WGM124 User Manual.pdf

1.47 Mb
Loading...

NETGEAR Wireless

Router Setup Manual

NETGEAR, Inc.

4500 Great America Parkway

Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA

Version 1.0

December 2004

December 2004

© 2004 by NETGEAR, Inc. All rights reserved. December 2004.

Trademarks

NETGEAR is a trademark of Netgear, Inc.

Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

Other brand and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective holders.

Statement of Conditions

In the interest of improving internal design, operational function, and/or reliability, NETGEAR reserves the right to make changes to the products described in this document without notice.

NETGEAR does not assume any liability that may occur due to the use or application of the product(s) or circuit layout(s) described herein.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Compliance Notice: Radio Frequency Notice

This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to

part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:

Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.

Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.

Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.

Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.

EN 55 022 Declaration of Conformance

This is to certify that the Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124 is shielded against the generation of radio interference in accordance with the application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC, Article 4a. Conformity is declared by the application of EN 55 022 Class B (CISPR 22).

ii

December 2004

Bestätigung des Herstellers/Importeurs

Es wird hiermit bestätigt, daß das Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124 gemäß der im BMPT-AmtsblVfg 243/1991 und Vfg 46/1992 aufgeführten Bestimmungen entstört ist. Das vorschriftsmäßige Betreiben einiger Geräte (z.B. Testsender) kann jedoch gewissen Beschränkungen unterliegen. Lesen Sie dazu bitte die Anmerkungen in der Betriebsanleitung.

Das Bundesamt für Zulassungen in der Telekommunikation wurde davon unterrichtet, daß dieses Gerät auf den Markt gebracht wurde und es ist berechtigt, die Serie auf die Erfüllung der Vorschriften hin zu überprüfen.

Certificate of the Manufacturer/Importer

It is hereby certified that the Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124 has been suppressed in accordance with the conditions set out in the BMPT-AmtsblVfg 243/1991 and Vfg 46/1992. The operation of some equipment (for example, test transmitters) in accordance with the regulations may, however, be subject to certain restrictions. Please refer to the notes in the operating instructions.

Federal Office for Telecommunications Approvals has been notified of the placing of this equipment on the market and has been granted the right to test the series for compliance with the regulations.

Customer Support

Refer to the Support Information Card that shipped with your Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124.

World Wide Web

NETGEAR maintains a World Wide Web home page that you can access at the universal resource locator (URL) http://www.netgear.com. A direct connection to the Internet and a Web browser such as Internet Explorer

or Netscape are required.

iii

December 2004

Product and Publication Details

Model Number:

WGM124

Publication Date:

December 2004

Product Family:

router

Product Name:

Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124

Home or Business Product:

Home

Language:

English

iv

December 2004

Contents

Chapter 1

About This Guide

Audience, Conventions, and Formats ............................................................................

1-1

How to Use This Manual ................................................................................................

1-2

How to Print this Manual .................................................................................................

1-3

Chapter 2

 

Getting to Know Your NETGEAR Wireless Router

 

Package Contents ..........................................................................................................

2-1

The Front Panel .......................................................................................................

2-2

The Rear Panel ........................................................................................................

2-2

Chapter 3

 

Connecting the Router to the Internet

 

Prepare to Install Your Wireless Router ..........................................................................

3-1

Connect the Wireless Router to Your Network ...............................................................

3-1

Troubleshooting Tips ......................................................................................................

3-2

How to Manually Configure Your Internet Connection ....................................................

3-3

NETGEAR Product Registration, Support, and Documentation .....................................

3-5

Chapter 4

 

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

 

Observe Performance, Placement, and Range Guidelines ............................................

4-1

Implement Appropriate Wireless Security ......................................................................

4-2

Understanding Wireless Settings ...................................................................................

4-3

Information to Gather Before Changing Basic Wireless Settings .............................

4-5

Default Factory Settings ...........................................................................................

4-6

Chapter 5

 

Doing Basic Router Housekeeping

 

Changing the Administrator Password ...........................................................................

5-1

Configuration File Management .....................................................................................

5-2

Restoring and Backing Up the Configuration ...........................................................

5-2

Contents

v

December 2004

Erasing the Configuration .........................................................................................

5-3

Upgrading the Wireless Router Software .......................................................................

5-3

Chapter 6

 

Troubleshooting Common Problems

 

Basic Functioning ...........................................................................................................

6-1

Power Light Not On ..................................................................................................

6-1

Lights Never Turn Off ...............................................................................................

6-2

LAN or Internet (WAN) Port Lights Not On ...............................................................

6-2

Troubleshooting the Web Configuration Interface ..........................................................

6-2

Troubleshooting the ISP Connection ..............................................................................

6-3

Troubleshooting a TCP/IP Network Using a Ping Utility .................................................

6-5

Testing the LAN Path to Your Router .......................................................................

6-5

Testing the Path from Your Computer to a Remote Device .....................................

6-6

Restoring the Default Configuration and Password ........................................................

6-7

Appendix A

 

Technical Specifications

 

Appendix B

 

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

 

Related Publications ......................................................................................................

B-1

Basic Router Concepts ..................................................................................................

B-1

What is a Router? ...................................................................................................

B-1

Routing Information Protocol ...................................................................................

B-2

IP Addresses and the Internet .......................................................................................

B-2

Netmask ..................................................................................................................

B-4

Subnet Addressing ..................................................................................................

B-4

Private IP Addresses ...............................................................................................

B-7

Single IP Address Operation Using NAT .......................................................................

B-7

MAC Addresses and Address Resolution Protocol .................................................

B-8

Related Documents .................................................................................................

B-9

Domain Name Server ..............................................................................................

B-9

IP Configuration by DHCP ...........................................................................................

B-10

Internet Security and Firewalls ....................................................................................

B-10

What is a Firewall? ................................................................................................

B-10

Stateful Packet Inspection ......................................................................................

B-11

Denial of Service Attack .........................................................................................

B-11

vi

Contents

December 2004

Ethernet Cabling ...........................................................................................................

B-11

Category 5 Cable Quality ......................................................................................

B-12

Inside Twisted Pair Cables ....................................................................................

B-13

Uplink Switches, Crossover Cables, and MDI/MDIX Switching ............................

B-14

Appendix C

 

Preparing Your Network

 

What You Need To Use a Router with a Broadband Modem .........................................

C-1

Cabling and Computer Hardware ............................................................................

C-1

Computer Network Configuration Requirements ....................................................

C-1

Internet Configuration Requirements ......................................................................

C-2

Where Do I Get the Internet Configuration Parameters? ........................................

C-2

Record Your Internet Connection Information .........................................................

C-3

Preparing Your Computers for TCP/IP Networking .......................................................

C-3

Configuring Windows 95, 98, and Me for TCP/IP Networking .......................................

C-4

Install or Verify Windows Networking Components .................................................

C-4

Enabling DHCP to Automatically Configure TCP/IP Settings in Windows 95B, 98, and Me

C-6

 

Selecting Windows’ Internet Access Method ..........................................................

C-8

Verifying TCP/IP Properties ....................................................................................

C-8

Configuring Windows NT4, 2000 or XP for IP Networking ............................................

C-9

Install or Verify Windows Networking Components .................................................

C-9

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows XP, 2000, or NT4 .............................

C-10

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows XP ...................................................

C-10

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows 2000 ................................................

C-12

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows NT4 ..................................................

C-15

Verifying TCP/IP Properties for Windows XP, 2000, and NT4 ..............................

C-17

Configuring the Macintosh for TCP/IP Networking ......................................................

C-18

MacOS 8.6 or 9.x ..................................................................................................

C-18

MacOS X ...............................................................................................................

C-18

Verifying TCP/IP Properties for Macintosh Computers .........................................

C-19

Verifying the Readiness of Your Internet Account .......................................................

C-20

Are Login Protocols Used? ...................................................................................

C-20

What Is Your Configuration Information? ..............................................................

C-20

Obtaining ISP Configuration Information for Windows Computers .......................

C-21

Obtaining ISP Configuration Information for Macintosh Computers .....................

C-22

Restarting the Network ................................................................................................

C-23

Contents

vii

December 2004

Appendix D

Wireless Networking Basics

Wireless Networking Overview ......................................................................................

D-1

Infrastructure Mode .................................................................................................

D-1

Ad Hoc Mode (Peer-to-Peer Workgroup) ................................................................

D-2

Network Name: Extended Service Set Identification (ESSID) ................................

D-2

Wireless Channels ..................................................................................................

D-2

WEP Wireless Security ..................................................................................................

D-4

WEP Authentication ................................................................................................

D-4

WEP Open System Authentication .........................................................................

D-5

WEP Shared Key Authentication ............................................................................

D-6

Key Size and Configuration ..............................................................................

D-7

How to Use WEP Parameters .................................................................................

D-8

WPA Wireless Security ..................................................................................................

D-8

How Does WPA Compare to WEP? ........................................................................

D-9

How Does WPA Compare to IEEE 802.11i? ........................................................

D-10

What are the Key Features of WPA Security? ......................................................

D-10

WPA Authentication: Enterprise-level User

 

Authentication via 802.1x/EAP and RADIUS ..................................................

D-12

WPA Data Encryption Key Management ........................................................

D-14

Is WPA Perfect? ....................................................................................................

D-16

Product Support for WPA ......................................................................................

D-16

Supporting a Mixture of WPA and WEP Wireless Clients ...............................

D-16

Changes to Wireless Access Points ...............................................................

D-16

Changes to Wireless Network Adapters .........................................................

D-17

Changes to Wireless Client Programs ............................................................

D-18

Glossary

 

List of Glossary Terms ...................................................................................................

G-1

Index

 

viii

Contents

December 2004

Chapter 1

About This Guide

This chapter describes the intended audience, scope, conventions, and formats of this manual.

Audience, Conventions, and Formats

This reference manual assumes that the reader has basic computer and Internet skills. However, basic computer network, Internet, and firewall technologies tutorial information is provided in the Appendices and on the Netgear Web site.

This guide uses the following typographical conventions:

Table 1-1.

Typographical Conventions

 

 

 

italics

 

Emphasis, books, CDs, URL names

 

 

 

bold

 

User input

 

 

 

SMALL CAPS

 

Screen text, file and server names, extensions, commands, IP addresses

 

 

 

This guide uses the following format to highlight special messages:

Note: This format is used to highlight information of importance or special interest.

This manual is written for NETGEAR wireless routers.

Table 1-2.

Manual Publication Details

 

 

 

Product Version

 

Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124

 

 

Manual Publication Date

December 2004

 

 

 

Note: Product updates are available on the NETGEAR Web site at

http://kbserver.netgear.com.

About This Guide

1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

How to Use This Manual

The HTML version of this manual includes the following:

Buttons, and , for browsing forwards or backwards through the manual one page at a time

A button that displays the table of contents and an button. Double-click on a link in the table of contents or index to navigate directly to where the topic is described in the manual.

A button to access the full NETGEAR, Inc. online knowledge base for the product model.

Links to PDF versions of the full manual and individual chapters.

2

About This Guide

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

How to Print this Manual

To print this manual you can choose one of the following several options, according to your needs.

Printing a Page in the HTML View.

Each page in the HTML version of the manual is dedicated to a major topic. Use the Print button on the browser toolbar to print the page contents.

Printing a Chapter.

Use the PDF of This Chapter link at the top left of any page.

Click the “PDF of This Chapter” link at the top right of any page in the chapter you want to print. The PDF version of the chapter you were viewing opens in a browser window.

Note: Your computer must have the free Adobe Acrobat reader installed in order to view and print PDF files. The Acrobat reader is available on the Adobe Web site at http://www.adobe.com.

Click the print icon in the upper left of the window.

Tip: If your printer supports printing two pages on a single sheet of paper, you can save paper and printer ink by selecting this feature.

Printing the Full Manual.

Use the Complete PDF Manual link at the top left of any page.

Click the Complete PDF Manual link at the top left of any page in the manual. The PDF version of the complete manual opens in a browser window.

Click the print icon in the upper left of the window.

Tip: If your printer supports printing two pages on a single sheet of paper, you can save paper and printer ink by selecting this feature.

About This Guide

3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

4

About This Guide

December 2004

Chapter 2 Getting to Know Your NETGEAR Wireless Router

NETGEAR wireless routers provide connections for multiple computers to the Internet through an external broadband access device such as a cable modem or DSL modem that is normally intended for use by a single computer. This chapter introduces the NETGEAR Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124.

Package Contents

The product package should contain the following items:

Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124.

AC power adapter.

A Category 5 (CAT5) Ethernet cable.

The Setup CD, including:

This guide.

Application Notes and other helpful information.

Registration, Warranty Card, and Support Information Card.

If any of the parts are incorrect, missing, or damaged, contact your NETGEAR dealer. Keep the carton, including the original packing materials, in case you need to return the router for repair.

Getting to Know Your NETGEAR Wireless Router

2-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The Front Panel

The front panel of the wireless router includes various status lights.

You can use the status lights to verify connections.

Table 2-1.

Status Light Descriptions

 

 

 

Label

Activity

Description

 

 

 

Power

On Green Solid

Power is supplied to the router.

 

Amber Blink

Power is supplied to the router and it is performing its diagnostic test.

 

Off

Power is not supplied to the router.

 

 

 

WLAN

On

The WLAN wireless interface is enabled.

 

 

 

Link/ACT

On

The router has detected a link with an attached device.

 

Blink

Data is being transmitted or received by the router.

 

 

 

LAN

Green

The LAN port has detected a 100 Mbps link with an attached device.

 

Amber

The LAN port has detected a 100 Mbps link with an attached device.

 

 

 

The Rear Panel

The rear panel of the WGM124 router contains the items listed below.

AC power adapter outlet

Four LAN ports

Internet (WAN) Ethernet port for connecting the router to a cable or DSL modem

Factory default reset push button for Restoring the Default Configuration and Password

One red status LED, which blinks when the default reset button is pushed.

Three wireless antennae

2-2

Getting to Know Your NETGEAR Wireless Router

December 2004

Chapter 3

Connecting the Router to the Internet

This chapter describes how to set up the router on your local area network (LAN) and connect to the Internet. You will find out how to configure your wireless router for Internet access.

Follow these instructions to set up your router.

Prepare to Install Your Wireless Router

For Cable Modem Service: When you perform the wireless router setup steps be sure to use the computer you first registered with your cable ISP.

For DSL Service: You may need information such as the DSL login name/e-mail address and password in order to complete the wireless router setup.

Before proceeding with the wireless router installation, familiarize yourself with the contents of the Setup CD, especially this manual and the tutorials for configuring computers for networking.

Connect the Wireless Router to Your Network

Use the instructions in the Installation Guide to connect the wireless router to the Internet and configure the wireless functions.

Connecting the Router to the Internet

3-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Troubleshooting Tips

Here are some tips for correcting simple problems you may have.

Be sure to restart your network in this sequence:

1) Turn off the modem, wireless router, and computer; 2) Turn on the modem, wait two minutes; 3) Turn on the wireless router and wait 1 minute; 4) Turn on the computer.

Make sure the Ethernet cables are securely plugged in.

The Internet status light on the wireless router will be lit if the Ethernet cable to the wireless router from the modem is plugged in securely and the modem and wireless router are turned on.

For each powered on computer connected to the wireless router with a securely plugged in Ethernet cable, the corresponding wireless router LAN port status light will be lit. The label on the bottom of the wireless router identifies the number of each LAN port.

Make sure the wireless settings in the computer and router match exactly.

The Wireless Network Name (SSID) and security settings of the router and wireless computer must match exactly.

Make sure the network settings of the computer are correct.

LAN and wirelessly connected computers must be configured to obtain an IP address automatically via DHCP. Please see Appendix C, “Preparing Your Network” or the animated tutorials on the CD for help with this.

Some cable modem ISPs require you to use the MAC address of the computer registered on the account. If so, in the Router MAC Address section of the Basic Settings menu, select “Use this Computer’s MAC Address.” The router will then capture and use the MAC address of the computer that you are now using. You must be using the computer that is registered with the ISP. Click Apply to save your settings. Restart the network in the correct sequence.

Check the router status lights to verify correct router operation.

If the Power light does not turn solid green within 2 minutes after turning the router on, reset the router according to the instructions in “Restoring the Default Configuration and Password” on page 6-7.

If the Wireless light does not come on, verify that the wireless feature is turned on according to the instructions in “Understanding Wireless Settings” on page 4-3.

3-2

Connecting the Router to the Internet

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

How to Manually Configure Your Internet Connection

You can manually configure your router using the menu below, or you can allow the Setup Wizard to determine your configuration as described in the previous section.

ISP Does Not Require Login

ISP Does Require Login

Figure 3-1: Browser-based configuration Basic Settings menus

You can manually configure the router using the Basic Settings menu shown in Figure 3-1 using these steps:

1.Connect to the wireless router by typing http://www.routerlogin.net in the address field of your browser, then click Enter.

2.For security reasons, the wireless router has its own user name and password. When prompted, enter admin for the router user name and password for the router password, both in lower case letters.

3.Click Basic Settings on the Setup menu.

4.If your Internet connection does not require a login, click No at the top of the Basic Settings menu and fill in the settings according to the instructions below. If your Internet connection does require a login, click Yes, and skip to step 5.

a.Enter your Account Name (may also be called Host Name) and Domain Name.

These parameters may be necessary to access your ISP’s services such as mail or news servers.

Connecting the Router to the Internet

3-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

b.Internet IP Address:

If your ISP has assigned you a permanent, fixed (static) IP address for your computer, select “Use static IP address”. Enter the IP address that your ISP assigned. Also enter the netmask and the Gateway IP address. The Gateway is the ISP’s router to which your router will connect.

c.Domain Name Server (DNS) Address:

If you know that your ISP does not automatically transmit DNS addresses to the router during login, select “Use these DNS servers” and enter the IP address of your ISP’s Primary DNS Server. If a Secondary DNS Server address is available, enter it also.

Note: If you enter an address here, restart the computers on your network so that these settings take effect.

d.Router’s MAC Address:

This section determines the Ethernet MAC address that will be used by the router on the Internet port. Some ISPs will register the Ethernet MAC address of the network interface card in your computer when your account is first opened. They will then only accept traffic from the MAC address of that computer. This feature allows your router to masquerade as that computer by “cloning” its MAC address.

To change the MAC address, select “Use this Computer’s MAC address.” The router will then capture and use the MAC address of the computer that you are now using. You must be using the one computer that is allowed by the ISP. Or, select “Use this MAC address” and type it in here.

e.Click Apply to save your settings.

5.If your Internet connection does require a login, fill in the settings according to the instructions below. Select Yes if you normally must launch a login program such as Enternet or WinPOET in order to access the Internet.

Note: After you finish setting up your router, you will no longer need to launch the ISP’s login program on your computer in order to access the Internet. When you start an Internet application, your router will automatically log you in.

a.Select your Internet service provider from the drop-down list.

3-4

Connecting the Router to the Internet

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Figure 3-2: Basic Settings ISP list

Note: Not all ISPs are listed here. The ones on this list have special requirements.

b.The screen will change according to the ISP settings requirements of the ISP you select.

c.Fill in the parameters for your Internet service provider.

d.Click Apply to save your settings. Click the Test button to verify you have Internet access.

NETGEAR Product Registration, Support, and Documentation

Register your product at http://www.NETGEAR.com/register. Registration is required before you can use our telephone support service.

Product updates and Web support are always available by going to:

http://kbserver.netgear.com.

When the wireless router is connected to the Internet, click the Knowledge Base or the Documentation link under the Web Support menu to view support information or the documentation for the wireless router.

Connecting the Router to the Internet

3-5

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

3-6

Connecting the Router to the Internet

December 2004

Chapter 4

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

This chapter describes how to configure the wireless features of your wireless router. In planning your wireless network, you should consider the level of security required. You should also select the physical placement of your firewall in order to maximize the network speed.

The full manual with detailed how to instructions is available on line at http://kbserver.netgear.com/ and via the Documentation link in the configuration utility of the wireless router.

Observe Performance, Placement, and Range Guidelines

The operating distance or range of your wireless connection can vary significantly based on the physical placement of the wireless firewall. The latency, data throughput performance, and notebook power consumption of wireless adapters also vary depending on your configuration choices.

Note: Failure to follow these guidelines can result in significant performance degradation or inability to wirelessly connect to the router. For complete range/ performance specifications, please see Appendix A, “Technical Specifications.”

For best results, place your firewall:

Near the center of the area in which your computers will operate.

In an elevated location such as a high shelf where the wirelessly connected computers have line-of-sight access (even if through walls).

Away from sources of interference, such as computers, microwaves, and 2.4 GHz cordless phones.

Away from large metal surfaces.

The time it takes to establish a wireless connection can vary depending on both your security settings and placement. WEP or WPA-PSK connections can take slightly longer to establish.

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

4-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Implement Appropriate Wireless Security

Note: Indoors, computers can connect over 802.11b/g wireless networks at ranges of up to 300 feet. Such distances can allow for others outside of your immediate area to access your network.

Unlike wired network data, your wireless data transmissions can be received well beyond your walls by anyone with a compatible adapter. For this reason, use the security features of your wireless equipment. The wireless router provides highly effective security features which are covered in detail in this chapter. Deploy the security features appropriate to your needs.

There are several ways you can enhance the security of your wireless network.

Restrict Access Based on MAC Address. You can restrict access to only trusted computers so that unknown computers cannot wirelessly connect to the WGM124. MAC address filtering adds an obstacle against unwanted access to your network, but the data broadcast over the wireless link is fully exposed.

Turn Off the Broadcast of the Wireless Network Name SSID. If you disable broadcast of the SSID, only devices that have the correct SSID can connect. This nullifies the wireless network ‘discovery’ feature of some products such as Windows XP, but the data is still fully exposed to a determined snoop using specialized test equipment like wireless sniffers.

WEP. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) data encryption provides data security. WEP Shared Key authentication and WEP data encryption will block all but the most determined eavesdropper.

WPA-PSK. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) data encryption provides strong data security. WPA-PSK will block eavesdropping. Because this is a new standard, wireless device driver and software availability may be limited.

Turn Off the Wired LAN. If you disable the wireless LAN, wireless devices cannot communicate with the router at all. You might choose to turn off the wireless the LAN when you are away and the others in the household all use wired connections.

4-2

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Understanding Wireless Settings

To configure the Wireless settings of your firewall, click the Wireless link in the main menu of the browser interface.

Name (SSID). The SSID is also known as the wireless network name. Enter a value of up to 32 alphanumeric characters. In a setting where there is more than one wireless network, different wireless network names provide a means for separating the traffic. Any device you want to participate in a particular wireless network will need to use this SSID for that network.

Region. This field identifies the region where the WGM124 can be used. It may not be legal to operate the wireless features of the wireless router in a region other than one of those identified in this field.

Channel. This field determines which operating frequency will be used. It should not be necessary to change the wireless channel unless you notice interference problems with another nearby access point.

Mode. This field determines which data communications protocol will be used.

Security Options. These options are the wireless security features you can enable. The table below identifies the various basic wireless security options.

Allow Broadcast of Name (SSID). If you disable broadcast of the SSID, only devices that have the correct SSID can connect. Disabling SSID broadcast nullifies the wireless network ‘discovery’ feature of some products such as Windows XP.

Enable Wireless Access Point. If you disable the wireless access point, wireless devices cannot connect to the WGM124.

Wireless Card Access List. When the Trusted PCs Only radio button is selected, the WGM124 checks the MAC address of the wireless station and only allows connections to computers identified on the trusted computers list.

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

4-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Table 4-1.

Basic Wireless Security Options

 

 

Field

Description

 

 

Automatic

No wireless security.

 

 

WEP

WEP offers the following options:

 

• Open System

 

With Open Network Authentication and 64or 128-bit WEP Data Encryption, the WGM124

 

does perform 64or 128-bit data encryption but does not perform any authentication.

 

• Shared Key

 

Shared Key authentication encrypts the SSID and data.

 

Choose the Encryption Strength (64or 128-bit data encryption). Manually enter the key

 

values or enter a word or group of printable characters in the Passphrase box. Manually

 

entered keys are case sensitive but passphrase characters are not case sensitive.

 

Note: Not all wireless adapter configuration utilities support passphrase key generation.

 

• Auto

 

 

WPA-PSK

WPA-Pre-shared Key does perform authentication, uses 128-bit data encryption and

 

dynamically changes the encryption keys making it nearly impossible to circumvent.

 

Enter a word or group of printable characters in the Password Phrase box. These characters

 

are case sensitive.

 

Note: Not all wireless adapter configuration utilities support WPA. Furthermore, client software

 

is required on the client. Windows XP and Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 do include the

 

client software that supports WPA. Nevertheless, the wireless adapter hardware and driver

 

must also support WPA.

 

 

4-4

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Information to Gather Before Changing Basic Wireless Settings

Before customizing your wireless settings, print this form and record the following information.

Wireless Network Name (SSID): ______________________________

The SSID, identifies the wireless network. You can use up to 32 alphanumeric characters. The SSID is case sensitive. The SSID in the wireless adapter card must match the SSID of the wireless router. In some configuration utilities (such as in Windows XP), the term “wireless network name” is used instead of SSID.

If WEP Authentication is Used. Circle one: Open System, Shared Key, or Auto.

Note: If you select Shared Key, the other devices in the network will not connect unless they are set to Shared Key as well and are configured with the correct key.

WEP Encryption key size. Choose one: 64-bit or 128-bit. Again, the encryption key size must be the same for the wireless adapters and the wireless router.

Data Encryption (WEP) Keys. There are two methods for creating WEP data encryption keys. Whichever method you use, record the key values in the spaces below.

Passphrase method. ______________________________ These characters are case sensitive. Enter a word or group of printable characters and click the Generate Keys button. Not all wireless devices support the passphrase method.

Manual method. These values are not case sensitive. For 64-bit WEP, enter 10 hex digits (any combination of 0-9 or a-f). For 128-bit WEP, enter 26 hex digits.

Key 1: ___________________________________

Key 2: ___________________________________

Key 3: ___________________________________

Key 4: ___________________________________

If WPA-PSK Authentication is Used.

Passphrase: ______________________________ These characters are case sensitive. Enter a word or group of printable characters. When you use WPA-PSK, the other devices in the network will not connect unless they are set to WPA-PSK as well and are configured with the correct Passphrase.

Use the procedures described in the reference manual to configure the WGM124. The reference manual is available on line at http://kbserver.netgear.com.

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

4-5

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Default Factory Settings

When you first receive your WGM124, the default factory settings are shown below. You can restore these defaults with the Factory Default Restore button on the rear panel. After you install the wireless router, use the procedures below to customize any of the settings to better meet your networking needs.

WIRELESS FEATURE

DEFAULT SETTING

Wireless Access Point

Enabled

 

 

Wireless Access List (MAC Filtering)

All wireless stations allowed

 

 

SSID broadcast

Enabled

 

 

Network Name (SSID)

NETGEAR

 

 

Wireless Security

Disabled

 

 

Warning: The Network Name (SSID) and passphrase are case sensitive. Typing nETgear_11a for the 802.11a SSID will not work.

4-6

Optimizing Wireless Connectivity and Security

December 2004

Chapter 5

Doing Basic Router Housekeeping

This chapter describes how to use some of the maintenance features of your Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124. These features can be found by clicking on the Maintenance heading in the Main Menu of the browser interface. Other maintenance features not presented in this chapter can be found accessed via links in the browser interface of the wireless router to the User Guide and in the help screens.

Changing the Administrator Password

Note: Before changing the wireless router password, follow the instructions under “Configuration File Management” on page 5-2 to save your configuration settings. If you forget the new password, you will have to reset the wireless router back to the factory defaults to be able to log in using the default password of password. This means you will have to restore all the wireless router configuration settings. If you ever have to reset the wireless router back to the factory defaults, you can restore your settings from the backup configuration file.

The default password for the wireless router’s Web Configuration Manager is password. Change this password to a more secure password.

From the Main Menu of the browser interface, under the Maintenance heading, select Set Password to bring up the menu shown below.

Figure 5-1: Set Password menu

Doing Basic Router Housekeeping

5-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

To change the password, first enter the old password, then enter the new password twice. Click Apply.

Configuration File Management

The configuration settings of the wireless router are stored within the wireless router in a configuration file. This file can be saved (backed up) to a user’s PC, retrieved (restored) from the user’s PC, or cleared to factory default settings.

From the Main Menu of the browser interface, under the Maintenance heading, select the Settings Backup heading to bring up the menu shown below.

Figure 5-2: Settings Backup menu

Three options are available, and are described in the following sections.

Restoring and Backing Up the Configuration

The Restore and Backup options in the Settings Backup menu allow you to save and retrieve a file containing your wireless router’s configuration settings.

To save your settings, click the Backup button. Your browser will extract the configuration file from the wireless router and will prompt you for a location on your PC to store the file. You can give the file a meaningful name at this time, such as pacbell.cfg.

5-2

Doing Basic Router Housekeeping

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

To restore your settings from a saved configuration file, enter the full path to the file on your PC or click the Browse button to browse to the file. When you have located it, click the Restore button to send the file to the wireless router. The wireless router will then reboot automatically.

Warning: Do not interrupt the reboot process.

Erasing the Configuration

It is sometimes desirable to restore the wireless router to original default settings. This can be done by using the Erase function, which will restore all factory settings. After an erase, the wireless router's password will be password, the LAN IP address will be 192.168.1.1, and the wireless router's DHCP client will be enabled.

To erase the configuration, click the Erase button.

To restore the factory default configuration settings without knowing the login password or IP address, you must use the Default Reset button on the rear panel of the wireless router. See “Restoring the Default Configuration and Password” on page 6-7.

Upgrading the Wireless Router Software

Note: Before upgrading the wireless router software, use the wireless router backup utility to save your configuration settings. Any wireless router upgrade will revert the wireless router settings back to the factory defaults. After completing the upgrade, you can restore your settings from the backup.

The routing software of the wireless router is stored in FLASH memory, and can be upgraded as new software is released by NETGEAR. Upgrade files can be downloaded from the NETGEAR Web site. If the upgrade file is compressed (.ZIP file), you must first extract the file before sending it to the wireless router. The upgrade file can be sent to the wireless router using your browser.

Note: The Web browser used to upload new firmware into the wireless router must support HTTP uploads. NETGEAR recommends using Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator 3.0 or above.

From the Main Menu of the browser interface, under the Maintenance heading, select the Router Upgrade link display the menu shown below.

Doing Basic Router Housekeeping

5-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Figure 5-3: Router Upgrade menu

To upload new firmware:

1.Download and unzip the new software file from NETGEAR.

2.In the Router Upgrade menu, click the Browse button and browse to the location of the upgrade file

3.Click Upload.

Note: When uploading software to the wireless router, it is important not to interrupt the Web browser by closing the window, clicking a link, or loading a new page. If the browser is interrupted, it may corrupt the software. When the upload is complete, your wireless router will automatically restart. The upgrade process will typically take about one minute.

In some cases, you may need to reconfigure the wireless router after upgrading.

5-4

Doing Basic Router Housekeeping

December 2004

Chapter 6

Troubleshooting Common Problems

This chapter gives information about troubleshooting your Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124. After each problem description, instructions are provided to help you diagnose and solve the problem.

Basic Functioning

After you turn on power to the router, the following sequence of events should occur:

1.When power is first applied, verify that the Power light is on.

2.After approximately 10 seconds, verify that:

a.The power light is solid green.

b.The LAN port lights are lit for any local ports that are connected.

c.The Link/ACT light is lit.

If a port’s light is lit, a link has been established to the connected device.

If any of these conditions does not occur, refer to the appropriate following section.

Power Light Not On

If the Power and other lights are off when your router is turned on:

Make sure that the power cord is properly connected to your router and that the power supply adapter is properly connected to a functioning power outlet.

Check that you are using the power adapter supplied by NETGEAR for this product.

If the error persists, you have a hardware problem and should contact technical support.

Troubleshooting Common Problems

6-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Lights Never Turn Off

When the router is turned on, the lights turns on for about 10 seconds and then turn off. If all the lights stay on, there is a fault within the router.

If all lights are still on one minute after power up:

Cycle the power to see if the router recovers.

Clear the router’s configuration to factory defaults. This will set the router’s IP address to 192.168.1.1. This procedure is explained in “Restoring the Default Configuration and Password” on page 6-7.

If the error persists, you might have a hardware problem and should contact technical support.

LAN or Internet (WAN) Port Lights Not On

If either the LAN lights or Internet light do not light when the Ethernet connection is made, check the following:

Make sure that the Ethernet cable connections are secure at the router and at the hub or workstation.

Make sure that power is turned on to the connected hub or workstation.

Be sure you are using the correct cable:

When connecting the router’s Internet port to a cable or DSL modem, use the cable that was supplied with the cable or DSL modem. This cable could be a standard straight-through Ethernet cable or an Ethernet crossover cable.

Troubleshooting the Web Configuration Interface

If you are unable to access the router’s Web Configuration interface from a computer on your local network, check the following:

Check the Ethernet connection between the computer and the router as described in the previous section.

6-2

Troubleshooting Common Problems

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Make sure your computer’s IP address is on the same subnet as the router. If you are using the default addressing schemes, your computer’s address should be in the range of 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.254. Refer to “Verifying TCP/IP Properties” on page C-8 or “Verifying TCP/IP Properties for Macintosh Computers” on page C-19 to find your computer’s IP address. Follow the instructions in Appendix C to configure your computer.

Note: If your computer’s IP address is shown as 169.254.x.x, the computer is not configured correctly for your network. Recent versions of Windows and MacOS will generate and assign a 169.254.x.x IP address if the computer cannot reach a DHCP server. These auto-generated addresses are in the range of 169.254.x.x. If your IP address is in this range, check the connection from the computer to the router and reboot your computer.

Make sure your browser has Java, JavaScript, or ActiveX enabled. If you are using Internet Explorer, click Refresh to be sure the Java applet is loaded.

Try quitting the browser and launching it again.

Make sure you are using the correct login information. The URL for the router is http://www.routerlogin.net or http://www.routerlogin.com. The factory default login name is admin and the password is password, both in lower case letters. Make sure that CAPS LOCK is off when entering this information.

If the router does not save changes you have made in the Web Configuration Interface, check the following:

When entering configuration settings, be sure to click the APPLY button before moving to another menu or tab, or your changes are lost.

Click the Refresh or Reload button in the Web browser. The changes may have occurred, but the Web browser may be caching the old configuration.

Troubleshooting the ISP Connection

If your router is unable to access the Internet, you should first determine whether the router is able to obtain a WAN IP address from the ISP. Unless you have been assigned a static IP address, your router must request an IP address from the ISP. You can determine whether the request was successful using the Web Configuration Manager.

To check the WAN IP address:

1.Launch your browser and select an external site such as www.netgear.com

2.Access the Main Menu of the router’s configuration at http://192.168.1.1.

Troubleshooting Common Problems

6-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

3.Under the Maintenance heading, select Router Status

4.Check that an IP address is shown for the WAN Port

If 0.0.0.0 is shown, your router has not obtained an IP address from your ISP.

If your router is unable to obtain an IP address from the ISP, you may need to force your cable or DSL modem to recognize your new router by performing the following procedure:

1.Turn off power to the cable or DSL modem.

2.Turn off power to your router.

3.Wait five minutes and reapply power to the cable or DSL modem.

4.When the modem’s lights indicate that it has reacquired sync with the ISP, reapply power to your router.

5.Then restart your computer.

If your router is still unable to obtain an IP address from the ISP, the problem may be one of the following:

Your ISP may require a login program.

Ask your ISP whether they require PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) or some other type of login.

If your ISP requires a login, you may have incorrectly set the login name and password in the router.

Your ISP may check for your computer's host name.

Assign the computer Host Name of your ISP account as the Account Name in the Basic Settings menu.

Your ISP only allows one Ethernet MAC address to connect to Internet, and may check for your computer’s MAC address. In this case:

Inform your ISP that you have bought a new network device, and ask them to use the router’s MAC address.

OR

Configure your router to spoof your computer’s MAC address. This can be done in the Basic Settings menu.

If your router can obtain an IP address, but your computer is unable to load any Web pages from the Internet:

Your computer may not recognize any DNS server addresses.

6-4

Troubleshooting Common Problems

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

A DNS server is a host on the Internet that translates Internet names (such as www addresses) to numeric IP addresses. Typically your ISP will provide the addresses of one or two DNS servers for your use. If you entered a DNS address during the router’s configuration, reboot your computer and verify the DNS address as described in “Install or Verify Windows Networking Components” on page C-9. Alternatively, you may configure your computer manually with DNS addresses, as explained in your operating system documentation.

Your computer may not have the router configured as its TCP/IP gateway.

If your computer obtains its information from the router by DHCP, reboot the computer and verify the gateway address as described in “Install or Verify Windows Networking Components” on page C-9.

Troubleshooting a TCP/IP Network Using a Ping Utility

Most TCP/IP terminal devices and routers contain a ping utility that sends an echo request packet to the designated device. The device then responds with an echo reply. Troubleshooting a TCP/IP network is made very easy by using the ping utility in your computer or workstation.

Testing the LAN Path to Your Router

You can ping the router from your computer to verify that the LAN path to your router is set up correctly.

To ping the router from a running Windows 95 or later:

1.From the Windows toolbar, click on the Start button and select Run.

2.In the field provided, type Ping followed by the IP address of the router, as in this example:

ping 192.168.1.1

3. Click on OK.

You should see a message like this one:

Pinging <IP address> with 32 bytes of data

If the path is working, you see this message:

Reply from < IP address >: bytes=32 time=NN ms TTL=xxx

If the path is not working, you see this message:

Request timed out

Troubleshooting Common Problems

6-5

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

If the path is not functioning correctly, you could have one of the following problems:

Wrong physical connections

Make sure the LAN port LED is on. If the LED is off, follow the instructions in “LAN or Internet (WAN) Port Lights Not On” on page 6-2.

Check that the corresponding Link LEDs are on for your network interface card and for the hub ports (if any) that are connected to your workstation and router.

Wrong network configuration

Verify that the Ethernet card driver software and TCP/IP software are both installed and configured on your computer or workstation.

Verify that the IP address for your router and your workstation are correct and that the addresses are on the same subnet.

Testing the Path from Your Computer to a Remote Device

After verifying that the LAN path works correctly, test the path from your computer to a remote device. From the Windows run menu, type:

PING -n 10 <IP address>

where <IP address> is the IP address of a remote device such as your ISP’s DNS server.

If the path is functioning correctly, replies as in the previous section are displayed. If you do not receive replies:

Check that your computer has the IP address of your router listed as the default gateway. If the IP configuration of your computer is assigned by DHCP, this information will not be visible in your computer’s Network Control Panel. Verify that the IP address of the router is listed as the default gateway as described in “Install or Verify Windows Networking Components” on page C-9.

Check to see that the network address of your computer (the portion of the IP address specified by the netmask) is different from the network address of the remote device.

Check that your cable or DSL modem is connected and functioning.

If your ISP assigned a host name to your computer, enter that host name as the Account Name in the Basic Settings menu.

6-6

Troubleshooting Common Problems

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Your ISP could be rejecting the Ethernet MAC addresses of all but one of your computers. Many broadband ISPs restrict access by only allowing traffic from the MAC address of your broadband modem, but some ISPs additionally restrict access to the MAC address of a single computer connected to that modem. If this is the case, you must log in to the router and use the Basic Settings menu to configure your router to “clone” or “spoof” the MAC address from the authorized computer.

Restoring the Default Configuration and Password

This section explains how to restore the factory default configuration settings, changing the router’s administration password to password. You can erase the current configuration and restore factory defaults in two ways:

Use the Erase function of the router.

Use the Default Reset button on the rear panel of the router. Use this method for cases when the administration password or IP address is not known.

To restore the factory default configuration settings without knowing the administration password or IP address, you must use the Default Reset button on the rear panel of the router.

1.Press and hold the Default Reset button until the power light blinks on (about 10 seconds).

2.Release the Default Reset button and wait for the router to reboot.

If the wireless router fails to restart or the power light continues to blink or turns solid amber, the unit may be defective. If the error persists, you might have a hardware problem and should contact technical support.

Troubleshooting Common Problems

6-7

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

6-8

Troubleshooting Common Problems

December 2004

Appendix A

Technical Specifications

This appendix provides technical specifications for the Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124.

Network Protocol and Standards Compatibility

Data and Routing Protocols:

TCP/IP, RIP-1, RIP-2, DHCP

 

PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)

Power Adapter

 

North America:

120V, 60 Hz, input

United Kingdom, Australia:

240V, 50 Hz, input

Europe:

230V, 50 Hz, input

Japan:

100V, 50/60 Hz, input

All regions (output):

5V DC @ 2.8A output

Physical Specifications

 

Dimensions:

33 x 235 x 148 mm (1.3 x 9.25 x 5.83 in.)

Weight:

1.083 kg (2.38 lb)

Environmental Specifications

Operating temperature: Operating humidity:

Electromagnetic Emissions

Meets requirements of:

Interface Specifications

LAN:

0° to 40° C (32º to 104º F)

90% maximum relative humidity, noncondensing

FCC Part 15 Class B

The router incorporates Auto UplinkTM technology which eliminates the need for crossover cables.

10BASE-T or 100BASE-Tx, RJ-45, autosensing and capable of full-duplex or half-duplex operation.

WAN:

10BASE-T or 100BASE-Tx, RJ-45, autosensing and capable of

 

full-duplex or half-duplex operation.

 

 

Technical Specifications

A-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Wireless

 

Radio Data Rates

1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps

 

Auto Rate Sensing, and pre-N up to 108 Mbps

Frequency

2.4-5Ghz

Data Encoding:

802.11b/g2.4GHz to 2.5GHz CCK and OFDM Modulation

Maximum Computers Per Wireless

Limited by the amount of wireless network traffic generated by each

Network:

node. Typically up to 30 nodes.

Operating Frequency Ranges:

2.412~2.462 GHz (US) 2.457~2.462 GHz (Spain)

 

2.412~2.484 GHz (Japan)2.457~2.472 GHz (France)

 

2.412~2.472 GHz (Europe ETSI)

802.11 Security:

40-bits (also called 64-bits) and 128-bits WEP and WPA-PSK

 

 

 

 

A-2

Technical Specifications

December 2004

Appendix B

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

This chapter provides an overview of IP networks, routing, and networking.

Related Publications

As you read this document, you may be directed to various RFC documents for further information. An RFC is a Request For Comment (RFC) published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an open organization that defines the architecture and operation of the Internet. The RFC documents outline and define the standard protocols and procedures for the Internet. The documents are listed on the World Wide Web at www.ietf.org and are mirrored and indexed at many other sites worldwide.

Basic Router Concepts

Large amounts of bandwidth can be provided easily and relatively inexpensively in a local area network (LAN). However, providing high bandwidth between a local network and the Internet can be very expensive. Because of this expense, Internet access is usually provided by a slower-speed wide-area network (WAN) link such as a cable or DSL modem. In order to make the best use of the slower WAN link, a mechanism must be in place for selecting and transmitting only the data traffic meant for the Internet. The function of selecting and forwarding this data is performed by a router.

What is a Router?

A router is a device that forwards traffic between networks based on network layer information in the data and on routing tables maintained by the router. In these routing tables, a router builds up a logical picture of the overall network by gathering and exchanging information with other routers in the network. Using this information, the router chooses the best path for forwarding network traffic.

Routers vary in performance and scale, number of routing protocols supported, and types of physical WAN connection they support. The Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124 is a small office router that routes the IP protocol over a single-user broadband connection.

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Routing Information Protocol

One of the protocols used by a router to build and maintain a picture of the network is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Using RIP, routers periodically update one another and check for changes to add to the routing table.

The wireless router supports both the older RIP-1 and the newer RIP-2 protocols. Among other improvements, RIP-2 supports subnet and multicast protocols. RIP is not required for most home applications.

IP Addresses and the Internet

Because TCP/IP networks are interconnected across the world, every machine on the Internet must have a unique address to make sure that transmitted data reaches the correct destination. Blocks of addresses are assigned to organizations by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

Individual users and small organizations may obtain their addresses either from the IANA or from an Internet service provider (ISP). You can contact IANA at www.iana.org.

The Internet Protocol (IP) uses a 32-bit address structure. The address is usually written in dot notation (also called dotted-decimal notation), in which each group of eight bits is written in decimal form, separated by decimal points.

For example, the following binary address:

11000011 00100010 00001100 00000111

is normally written as:

195.34.12.7

The latter version is easier to remember and easier to enter into your computer.

In addition, the 32 bits of the address are subdivided into two parts. The first part of the address identifies the network, and the second part identifies the host node or station on the network. The dividing point may vary depending on the address range and the application.

There are five standard classes of IP addresses. These address classes have different ways of determining the network and host sections of the address, allowing for different numbers of hosts on a network. Each address type begins with a unique bit pattern, which is used by the TCP/IP software to identify the address class. After the address class has been determined, the software can correctly identify the host section of the address. The follow figure shows the three main address classes, including network and host sections of the address for each address type.

B-2

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Class A

 

 

 

 

Network

Node

Class B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Network

Node

Class C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Network

 

Node

Figure B-1: Three Main Address Classes

The five address classes are:

Class A

Class A addresses can have up to 16,777,214 hosts on a single network. They use an eight-bit network number and a 24-bit node number. Class A addresses are in this range:

1.x.x.x to 126.x.x.x.

Class B

Class B addresses can have up to 65,354 hosts on a network. A Class B address uses a 16-bit network number and a 16-bit node number. Class B addresses are in this range:

128.1.x.x to 191.254.x.x.

Class C

Class C addresses can have 254 hosts on a network. Class C addresses use 24 bits for the network address and eight bits for the node. They are in this range:

192.0.1.x to 223.255.254.x.

Class D

Class D addresses are used for multicasts (messages sent to many hosts). Class D addresses are in this range:

224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.

Class E

Class E addresses are for experimental use.

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

This addressing structure allows IP addresses to uniquely identify each physical network and each node on each physical network.

For each unique value of the network portion of the address, the base address of the range (host address of all zeros) is known as the network address and is not usually assigned to a host. Also, the top address of the range (host address of all ones) is not assigned, but is used as the broadcast address for simultaneously sending a packet to all hosts with the same network address.

Netmask

In each of the address classes previously described, the size of the two parts (network address and host address) is implied by the class. This partitioning scheme can also be expressed by a netmask associated with the IP address. A netmask is a 32-bit quantity that, when logically combined (using an AND operator) with an IP address, yields the network address. For instance, the netmasks for Class A, B, and C addresses are 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, and 255.255.255.0, respectively.

For example, the address 192.168.170.237 is a Class C IP address whose network portion is the upper 24 bits. When combined (using an AND operator) with the Class C netmask, as shown here, only the network portion of the address remains:

11000000 10101000 10101010 11101101 (192.168.170.237)

combined with:

11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 (255.255.255.0)

Equals:

11000000 10101000 10101010 00000000 (192.168.170.0)

As a shorter alternative to dotted-decimal notation, the netmask may also be expressed in terms of the number of ones from the left. This number is appended to the IP address, following a backward slash (/), as “/n.” In the example, the address could be written as 192.168.170.237/24, indicating that the netmask is 24 ones followed by 8 zeros.

Subnet Addressing

By looking at the addressing structures, you can see that even with a Class C address, there are a large number of hosts per network. Such a structure is an inefficient use of addresses if each end of a routed link requires a different network number. It is unlikely that the smaller office LANs would have that many devices. You can resolve this problem by using a technique known as subnet addressing.

B-4

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Subnet addressing allows us to split one IP network address into smaller multiple physical networks known as subnetworks. Some of the node numbers are used as a subnet number instead. A Class B address gives us 16 bits of node numbers translating to 64,000 nodes. Most organizations do not use 64,000 nodes, so there are free bits that can be reassigned. Subnet addressing makes use of those bits that are free, as shown below.

Class B

 

 

 

 

Network

Subnet

Node

Figure B-2: Example of Subnetting a Class B Address

A Class B address can be effectively translated into multiple Class C addresses. For example, the IP address of 172.16.0.0 is assigned, but node addresses are limited to 255 maximum, allowing eight extra bits to use as a subnet address. The IP address of 172.16.97.235 would be interpreted as IP network address 172.16, subnet number 97, and node number 235. In addition to extending the number of addresses available, subnet addressing provides other benefits. Subnet addressing allows a network manager to construct an address scheme for the network by using different subnets for other geographical locations in the network or for other departments in the organization.

Although the preceding example uses the entire third octet for a subnet address, note that you are not restricted to octet boundaries in subnetting. To create more network numbers, you need only shift some bits from the host address to the network address. For instance, to partition a Class C network number (192.68.135.0) into two, you shift one bit from the host address to the network address. The new netmask (or subnet mask) is 255.255.255.128. The first subnet has network number 192.68.135.0 with hosts 192.68.135.1 to 129.68.135.126, and the second subnet has network number 192.68.135.128 with hosts 192.68.135.129 to 192.68.135.254.

Note: The number 192.68.135.127 is not assigned because it is the broadcast address of the first subnet. The number 192.68.135.128 is not assigned because it is the network address of the second subnet.

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-5

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The following table lists the additional subnet mask bits in dotted-decimal notation. To use the table, write down the original class netmask and replace the 0 value octets with the dotted-decimal value of the additional subnet bits. For example, to partition your Class C network with subnet mask 255.255.255.0 into 16 subnets (4 bits), the new subnet mask becomes 255.255.255.240.

Table 6-1. Netmask Notation Translation Table for One Octet

Number of Bits Dotted-Decimal Value

1128

2192

3224

4240

5248

6252

7254

8255

The following table displays several common netmask values in both the dotted-decimal and the masklength formats.

Table 6-2. Netmask Formats

Dotted-Decimal

Masklength

 

 

255.0.0.0

/8

255.255.0.0

/16

255.255.255.0

/24

255.255.255.128

/25

255.255.255.192

/26

255.255.255.224

/27

255.255.255.240

/28

255.255.255.248

/29

255.255.255.252

/30

255.255.255.254

/31

255.255.255.255

/32

 

 

Configure all hosts on a LAN segment to use the same netmask for the following reasons:

B-6

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

So that hosts recognize local IP broadcast packets

When a device broadcasts to its segment neighbors, it uses a destination address of the local network address with all ones for the host address. In order for this scheme to work, all devices on the segment must agree on which bits comprise the host address.

So that a local router or bridge recognizes which addresses are local and which are remote

Private IP Addresses

If your local network is isolated from the Internet (for example, when using NAT), you can assign any IP addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the IANA has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

Choose your private network number from this range. The DHCP server of the wireless router is preconfigured to automatically assign private addresses.

Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the guidelines explained here. For more information about address assignment, refer to RFC 1597,

Address Allocation for Private Internets, and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) publishes RFCs on its Web site at www.ietf.org.

Single IP Address Operation Using NAT

In the past, if multiple computers on a LAN needed to access the Internet simultaneously, you had to obtain a range of IP addresses from the ISP. This type of Internet account is more costly than a single-address account typically used by a single user with a modem, rather than a router. The wireless router employs an address-sharing method called Network Address Translation (NAT). This method allows several networked computers to share an Internet account using only a single IP address, which may be statically or dynamically assigned by your ISP.

The router accomplishes this address sharing by translating the internal LAN IP addresses to a single address that is globally unique on the Internet. The internal LAN IP addresses can be either private addresses or registered addresses. For more information about IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-7

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The following figure illustrates a single IP address operation.

Private IP addresses assigned by user

IP addresses assigned by ISP

192.168.0.2

192.168.0.3

192.168.0.1 172.21.15.105

Internet

192.168.0.4

192.168.0.5

Figure B-3: Single IP Address Operation Using NAT

This scheme offers the additional benefit of firewall-like protection because the internal LAN addresses are not available to the Internet through the translated connection. All incoming inquiries are filtered out by the router. This filtering can prevent intruders from probing your system. However, using port forwarding, you can allow one computer (for example, a Web server) on your local network to be accessible to outside users.

MAC Addresses and Address Resolution Protocol

An IP address alone cannot be used to deliver data from one LAN device to another. To send data between LAN devices, you must convert the IP address of the destination device to its media access control (MAC) address. Each device on an Ethernet network has a unique MAC address, which is a 48-bit number assigned to each device by the manufacturer. The technique that associates the IP address with a MAC address is known as address resolution. Internet Protocol uses the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to resolve MAC addresses.

B-8

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

If a device sends data to another station on the network and the destination MAC address is not yet recorded, ARP is used. An ARP request is broadcast onto the network. All stations on the network receive and read the request. The destination IP address for the chosen station is included as part of the message so that only the station with this IP address responds to the ARP request. All other stations discard the request.

Related Documents

The station with the correct IP address responds with its own MAC address directly to the sending device. The receiving station provides the transmitting station with the required destination MAC address. The IP address data and MAC address data for each station are held in an ARP table. The next time data is sent, the address can be obtained from the address information in the table.

For more information about address assignment, refer to the IETF documents RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets, and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.

For more information about IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).

Domain Name Server

Many of the resources on the Internet can be addressed by simple descriptive names such as www.NETGEAR.com. This addressing is very helpful at the application level, but the descriptive name must be translated to an IP address in order for a user to actually contact the resource. Just as a telephone directory maps names to phone numbers, or as an ARP table maps IP addresses to MAC addresses, a domain name system (DNS) server maps descriptive names of network resources to IP addresses.

When a computer accesses a resource by its descriptive name, it first contacts a DNS server to obtain the IP address of the resource. The computer sends the desired message using the IP address. Many large organizations, such as ISPs, maintain their own DNS servers and allow their customers to use the servers to look up addresses.

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-9

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

IP Configuration by DHCP

When an IP-based local area network is installed, each computer must be configured with an IP address. If the computers need to access the Internet, they should also be configured with a gateway address and one or more DNS server addresses. As an alternative to manual

configuration, there is a method by which each computer on the network can automatically obtain this configuration information. A device on the network may act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. The DHCP server stores a list or pool of IP addresses, along with other information (such as gateway and DNS addresses) that it may assign to the other devices on the network. The wireless router has the capacity to act as a DHCP server.

The wireless router also functions as a DHCP client when connecting to the ISP. The firewall can automatically obtain an IP address, subnet mask, DNS server addresses, and a gateway address if the ISP provides this information by DHCP.

Internet Security and Firewalls

When your LAN connects to the Internet through a router, an opportunity is created for outsiders to access or disrupt your network. A NAT router provides some protection because by the very nature of the process, the network behind the router is shielded from access by outsiders on the Internet. However, there are methods by which a determined hacker can possibly obtain information about your network or at the least can disrupt your Internet access. A greater degree of protection is provided by a firewall router.

What is a Firewall?

A firewall is a device that protects one network from another, while allowing communication between the two. A firewall incorporates the functions of the NAT router, while adding features for dealing with a hacker intrusion or attack. Several known types of intrusion or attack can be recognized when they occur. When an incident is detected, the firewall can log details of the attempt, and can optionally send E-mail to an administrator notifying them of the incident. Using information from the log, the administrator can take action with the ISP of the hacker. In some types of intrusions, the firewall can fend off the hacker by discarding all further packets from the hacker’s IP address for a period of time.

B-10

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Stateful Packet Inspection

Unlike simple Internet sharing routers, a firewall uses a process called stateful packet inspection to ensure secure firewall filtering to protect your network from attacks and intrusions. Since user-level applications such as FTP and Web browsers can create complex patterns of network traffic, it is necessary for the firewall to analyze groups of network connection states. Using Stateful Packet Inspection, an incoming packet is intercepted at the network layer and then analyzed for state-related information associated with all network connections. A central cache within the firewall keeps track of the state information associated with all network connections. All traffic passing through the firewall is analyzed against the state of these connections in order to determine whether or not it will be allowed to pass through or rejected.

Denial of Service Attack

A hacker may be able to prevent your network from operating or communicating by launching a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. The method used for such an attack can be as simple as merely flooding your site with more requests than it can handle. A more sophisticated attack may attempt to exploit some weakness in the operating system used by your router or gateway. Some operating systems can be disrupted by simply sending a packet with incorrect length information.

Ethernet Cabling

Although Ethernet networks originally used thick or thin coaxial cable, most installations currently use unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. The UTP cable contains eight conductors, arranged in four twisted pairs, and terminated with an RJ45 type connector. A normal straight-through UTP Ethernet cable follows the EIA568B standard wiring as described below in Table B-1.

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-11

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Table B-1.

UTP Ethernet cable wiring, straight-through

 

 

 

 

Pin

Wire color

Signal

 

 

 

 

 

1

Orange/White

Transmit (Tx) +

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Orange

 

Transmit (Tx) -

 

 

 

 

 

3

Green/White

Receive (Rx) +

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Blue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Blue/White

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Green

 

Receive (Rx) -

 

 

 

 

 

7

Brown/White

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Brown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Category 5 Cable Quality

Category 5 distributed cable that meets ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-A building wiring standards can be a maximum of 328 feet (ft.) or 100 meters (m) in length, divided as follows:

20 ft. (6 m) between the hub and the patch panel (if used)

295 ft. (90 m) from the wiring closet to the wall outlet

10 ft. (3 m) from the wall outlet to the desktop device

The patch panel and other connecting hardware must meet the requirements for 100 Mbps operation (Category 5). Only 0.5 inch (1.5 cm) of untwist in the wire pair is allowed at any termination point.

A twisted pair Ethernet network operating at 10 Mbits/second (10BASE-T) will often tolerate low quality cables, but at 100 Mbits/second (10BASE-Tx) the cable must be rated as Category 5, or Cat 5, by the Electronic Industry Association (EIA). This rating will be printed on the cable jacket. A Category 5 cable will meet specified requirements regarding loss and crosstalk. In addition, there are restrictions on maximum cable length for both 10 and 100 Mbits/second networks.

B-12

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Inside Twisted Pair Cables

For two devices to communicate, the transmitter of each device must be connected to the receiver of the other device. The crossover function is usually implemented internally as part of the circuitry in the device. Computers and workstation adapter cards are usually media-dependent interface ports, called MDI or uplink ports. Most repeaters and switch ports are configured as media-dependent interfaces with built-in crossover ports, called MDI-X or normal ports. Auto Uplink technology automatically senses which connection, MDI or MDI-X, is needed and makes the right connection.

Figure B-4 illustrates straight-through twisted pair cable.

Figure B-4: Straight-Through Twisted-Pair Cable

Figure B-5 illustrates crossover twisted pair cable.

Figure B-5: Crossover Twisted-Pair Cable

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-13

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Figure B-6: Category 5 UTP Cable with Male RJ-45 Plug at Each End

Note: Flat “silver satin” telephone cable may have the same RJ-45 plug. However, using telephone cable results in excessive collisions, causing the attached port to be partitioned or disconnected from the network.

Uplink Switches, Crossover Cables, and MDI/MDIX Switching

In the wiring table above, the concept of transmit and receive are from the perspective of the computer, which is wired as Media Dependant Interface (MDI). In this wiring, the computer transmits on pins 1 and 2. At the hub, the perspective is reversed, and the hub receives on pins 1 and 2. This wiring is referred to as Media Dependant Interface - Crossover (MDI-X).

When connecting a computer to a computer, or a hub port to another hub port, the transmit pair must be exchanged with the receive pair. This exchange is done by one of two mechanisms. Most hubs provide an Uplink switch which will exchange the pairs on one port, allowing that port to be connected to another hub using a normal Ethernet cable. The second method is to use a crossover cable, which is a special cable in which the transmit and receive pairs are exchanged at one of the two cable connectors. Crossover cables are often unmarked as such, and must be identified by comparing the two connectors. Since the cable connectors are clear plastic, it is easy to place them side by side and view the order of the wire colors on each. On a straight-through cable, the color order will be the same on both connectors. On a crossover cable, the orange and green pairs will be exchanged from one connector to the other.

B-14

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The wireless router incorporates Auto UplinkTM technology (also called MDI/MDIX). Each LOCAL Ethernet port will automatically sense whether the Ethernet cable plugged into the port should have a normal connection (e.g. connecting to a computer) or an uplink connection (e.g. connecting to a router, switch, or hub). That port will then configure itself to the correct configuration. This feature also eliminates the need to worry about crossover cables, as Auto UplinkTM will accommodate either type of cable to make the right connection.

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

B-15

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

B-16

Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics

December 2004

Appendix C

Preparing Your Network

This appendix describes how to prepare your network to connect to the Internet through the Pre-N Wireless Router WGM124 and how to verify the readiness of broadband Internet service from an Internet service provider (ISP).

Note: If an ISP technician configured your computer during the installation of a broadband modem, or if you configured it using instructions provided by your ISP, you may need to copy the current configuration information for use in the configuration of your firewall. Write down this information before reconfiguring your computers. Refer to “Obtaining ISP Configuration Information for Windows Computers” on page C-21 or “Obtaining ISP Configuration Information for Macintosh Computers” on page C-22 for further information.

What You Need To Use a Router with a Broadband Modem

You need to prepare these three things before you begin:

Cabling and Computer Hardware

To use the wireless router on your network, each computer must have an 802.11g or 802.11b wireless adapter or an installed Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) and an Ethernet cable. If the computer will connect to your network using an Ethernet NIC at 100 Mbps, you must use a Category 5 (Cat 5) cable such as the one provided with your router. For an explanation of Ethernet cabling, see “Ethernet Cabling“ on page B-11. The cable or DSL broadband modem must provide a standard 10 Mbps (10BASE-T) or 100 Mbps (100BASE-Tx) Ethernet interface.

Computer Network Configuration Requirements

The WGM124 includes a built-in Web Configuration Manager. To access the configuration menus on the WGM124, your must use a Java-enabled Web browser program which supports HTTP uploads such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Use Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above.

Preparing Your Network

C-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

For the initial setup of your router, you will need to connect a computer to the router. This computer has to be set to automatically get its TCP/IP configuration from the router via DHCP.

Note: For help with DHCP configuration, please use the Windows TCP/IP Configuration Tutorials on the NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup CD, or in this appendix.

Internet Configuration Requirements

Depending on how your Internet service set up your account, you may need one or more of these configuration parameters to connect your router to the Internet:

Host and Domain Names

ISP Login Name and Password

ISP Domain Name Server (DNS) Addresses

Fixed IP Address which is also known as Static IP Address

Where Do I Get the Internet Configuration Parameters?

There are several ways you can gather the required Internet connection information.

Your Internet service provides all the information needed to connect to the Internet. If you cannot locate this information, you can ask your Internet service to provide it or you can try one of the options below.

If you have a computer already connected using the Internet, you can gather the configuration information from that computer.

For Windows 95/98/ME, open the Network control panel, select the TCP/IP entry for the Ethernet adapter, and click Properties. Record all the settings for each tab page.

For Windows 2000/XP, open the Local Area Network Connection, select the TCP/IP entry for the Ethernet adapter, and click Properties. Record all the settings for each tab page.

For Macintosh computers, record the settings in the TCP/IP or Network control panel.

You may also refer to the NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup CD for the NETGEAR Router ISP Guide which provides Internet connection information for many ISPs.

Once you locate your Internet configuration parameters, you may want to record them on the page below.

C-2

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Record Your Internet Connection Information

Print this page. Fill in the configuration parameters from your Internet Service Provider (ISP).

ISP Login Name: The login name and password are case sensitive and must be entered exactly as given by your ISP. Some ISPs use your full e-mail address as the login name. The Service Name is not required by all ISPs. If you connect using a login name and password, enter the following:

Login Name: ______________________________

Password: ____________________________

Service Name: _____________________________

Fixed or Static IP Address: If you have a static IP address, record the following information. For example, 169.254.141.148 could be a valid IP address.

Fixed or Static Internet IP Address: ______ ______ ______ ______

Gateway IP Address: ______ ______ ______ ______

Subnet Mask: ______ ______ ______ ______

ISP DNS Server Addresses: If you were given DNS server addresses, fill in the following: Primary DNS Server IP Address: ______ ______ ______ ______

Secondary DNS Server IP Address: ______ ______ ______ ______

Host and Domain Names: Some ISPs use a specific host or domain name like CCA7324-A or home. If you haven’t been given host or domain names, you can use the following examples as a guide:

If your main e-mail account with your ISP is aaa@yyy.com, then use aaa as your host name. Your ISP might call this your account, user, host, computer, or system name.

If your ISP’s mail server is mail.xxx.yyy.com, then use xxx.yyy.com as the domain name. ISP Host Name: _________________________ ISP Domain Name: _______________________

For Wireless Access: See the configuration worksheet at “Information to Gather Before Changing Basic Wireless Settings“ on page 4-5.

Preparing Your Computers for TCP/IP Networking

Computers access the Internet using a protocol called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol). Each computer on your network must have TCP/IP installed and selected as its networking protocol. If a Network Interface Card (NIC) is already installed in your computer, then TCP/IP is probably already installed as well.

Preparing Your Network

C-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Most operating systems include the software components you need for networking with TCP/IP:

Windows® 95 or later includes the software components for establishing a TCP/IP network.

Windows 3.1 does not include a TCP/IP component. You need to purchase a third-party TCP/ IP application package such as NetManage Chameleon.

Macintosh Operating System 7 or later includes the software components for establishing a TCP/IP network.

All versions of UNIX or Linux include TCP/IP components. Follow the instructions provided with your operating system or networking software to install TCP/IP on your computer.

In your IP network, each computer and the firewall must be assigned a unique IP addresses. Each computer must also have certain other IP configuration information such as a subnet mask (netmask), a domain name server (DNS) address, and a default gateway address. In most cases, you should install TCP/IP so that the computer obtains its specific network configuration information automatically from a DHCP server during bootup. For a detailed explanation of the meaning and purpose of these configuration items, refer to “Appendix B, “Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics.”

The wireless router is shipped preconfigured as a DHCP server. The firewall assigns the following TCP/IP configuration information automatically when the PCs are rebooted:

PC or workstation IP addresses—192.168.1.2 through 192.168.1.254

Subnet mask—255.255.255.0

Gateway address (the firewall)—192.168.1.1

These addresses are part of the IETF-designated private address range for use in private networks.

Configuring Windows 95, 98, and Me for TCP/IP Networking

As part of the PC preparation process, you need to manually install and configure TCP/IP on each networked PC. Before starting, locate your Windows CD; you may need to insert it during the TCP/IP installation process.

Install or Verify Windows Networking Components

To install or verify the necessary components for IP networking:

1. On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.

C-4

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

2.Double-click the Network icon.

The Network window opens, which displays a list of installed components:

You must have an Ethernet adapter, the TCP/IP protocol, and Client for Microsoft Networks.

Note: It is not necessary to remove any other network components shown in the Network window in order to install the adapter, TCP/IP, or Client for Microsoft Networks.

If you need to install a new adapter, follow these steps:

a.Click the Add button.

b.Select Adapter, and then click Add.

c.Select the manufacturer and model of your Ethernet adapter, and then click OK. If you need TCP/IP:

a.Click the Add button.

b.Select Protocol, and then click Add.

Preparing Your Network

C-5

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

c.Select Microsoft.

d.Select TCP/IP, and then click OK.

If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:

a.Click the Add button.

b.Select Client, and then click Add.

c.Select Microsoft.

d.Select Client for Microsoft Networks, and then click OK.

3.Restart your PC for the changes to take effect.

Enabling DHCP to Automatically Configure TCP/IP Settings in Windows 95B, 98, and Me

After the TCP/IP protocol components are installed, each PC must be assigned specific information about itself and resources that are available on its network. The simplest way to configure this information is to allow the PC to obtain the information from a DHCP server in the network.

You will find there are many similarities in the procedures for different Windows systems when using DHCP to configure TCP/IP.

The following steps will walk you through the configuration process for each of these versions of Windows.

C-6

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Locate your Network Neighborhood icon.

If the Network Neighborhood icon is on the Windows desktop, position your mouse pointer over it and right-click your mouse button.

If the icon is not on the desktop,

Click Start on the task bar located at the bottom left of the window.

Choose Settings, and then Control Panel.

Locate the Network Neighborhood icon and click on it. This will open the Network panel as shown below.

Verify the following settings as shown:

Client for Microsoft Network exists

Ethernet adapter is present

TCP/IP is present

Primary Network Logon is set to Windows logon

Click on the Properties button. The following TCP/IP Properties window will display.

Preparing Your Network

C-7

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

By default, the IP Address tab is open on this window.

Verify the following:

Obtain an IP address automatically is selected. If not selected, click in the radio button to the left of it to select it. This setting is required to enable the DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address.

Click OK to continue.

Restart the PC.

Repeat these steps for each PC with this version of Windows on your network.

Selecting Windows’ Internet Access Method

1.On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.

2.Double-click the Internet Options icon.

3.Select “I want to set up my Internet connection manually” or “I want to connect through a Local Area Network” and click Next.

4.Select “I want to connect through a Local Area Network” and click Next.

5.Uncheck all boxes in the LAN Internet Configuration screen and click Next.

6.Proceed to the end of the Wizard.

Verifying TCP/IP Properties

After your PC is configured and has rebooted, you can check the TCP/IP configuration using the utility winipcfg.exe:

1. On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button, and then click Run.

C-8

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

2.Type winipcfg, and then click OK.

The IP Configuration window opens, which lists (among other things), your IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.

3.From the drop-down box, select your Ethernet adapter.

The window is updated to show your settings, which should match the values below if you are using the default TCP/IP settings that NETGEAR recommends for connecting through a router or gateway:

The IP address is between 192.168.1.2 and 192.168.1.254

The subnet mask is 255.255.255.0

The default gateway is 192.168.1.1

Configuring Windows NT4, 2000 or XP for IP Networking

As part of the PC preparation process, you may need to install and configure

TCP/IP on each networked PC. Before starting, locate your Windows CD; you may need to insert it during the TCP/IP installation process.

Install or Verify Windows Networking Components

To install or verify the necessary components for IP networking:

1.On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.

2.Double-click the Network and Dialup Connections icon.

3.If an Ethernet adapter is present in your PC, you should see an entry for Local Area Connection. Double-click that entry.

4.Select Properties.

5.Verify that ‘Client for Microsoft Networks’ and ‘Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)’ are present. If not, select Install and add them.

6.Select ‘Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)’, click Properties, and verify that “Obtain an IP address automatically is selected.

7.Click OK and close all Network and Dialup Connections windows.

8.Then, restart your PC.

Preparing Your Network

C-9

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows XP, 2000, or NT4

You will find there are many similarities in the procedures for different Windows systems when using DHCP to configure TCP/IP.

The following steps will walk you through the configuration process for each of these versions of Windows.

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows XP

Locate your Network Neighborhood icon.

Select Control Panel from the Windows XP new Start Menu.

Select the Network Connections icon on the Control Panel. This will take you to the next step.

Now the Network Connection window displays.

The Connections List that shows all the network connections set up on the PC, located to the right of the window.

Right-click on the Connection you will use and choose Status.

C-10

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Now you should be at the Local Area Network Connection Status window. This box displays the connection status, duration, speed, and activity statistics.

Administrator logon access rights are needed to use this window.

Click the Properties button to view details about the connection.

The TCP/IP details are presented on the Support tab page.

Select Internet Protocol, and click

Properties to view the configuration information.

Preparing Your Network

C-11

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Verify that the Obtain an IP address automatically radio button is selected.

Verify that Obtain DNS server address automatically radio button is selected.

Click the OK button.

This completes the DHCP configuration of TCP/

IP in Windows XP.

Repeat these steps for each PC with this version of Windows on your network.

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows 2000

Once again, after you have installed the network card, TCP/IP for Windows 2000 is configured. TCP/IP should be added by default and set to DHCP without your having to configure it. However, if there are problems, follow these steps to configure TCP/IP with DHCP for Windows 2000.

C-12

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Click on the My Network Places icon on the Windows desktop. This will bring up a window called Network and Dial-up Connections.

Right click on Local Area Connection and select Properties.

The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box appears.

Verify that you have the correct Ethernet card selected in the Connect using: box.

Verify that at least the following two items are displayed and selected in the box of “Components checked are used by this connection:”

Client for Microsoft Networks and

Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Click OK.

Preparing Your Network

C-13

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

With Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) selected, click on Properties to open the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialogue box.

Verify that

Obtain an IP address automatically is selected.

Obtain DNS server address automatically is selected.

Click OK to return to Local Area Connection Properties.

Click OK again to complete the configuration process for Windows 2000.

Restart the PC.

Repeat these steps for each PC with this version of Windows on your network.

C-14

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

DHCP Configuration of TCP/IP in Windows NT4

Once you have installed the network card, you need to configure the TCP/IP environment for Windows NT 4.0. Follow this procedure to configure TCP/IP with DHCP in Windows NT 4.0.

Choose Settings from the Start Menu, and then select Control Panel. This will display Control Panel window.

Double-click the Network icon in the Control Panel window.

The Network panel will display.

Select the Protocols tab to continue.

Preparing Your Network

C-15

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Highlight the TCP/IP Protocol in the Network Protocols box, and click on the

Properties button.

C-16

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The TCP/IP Properties dialog box now displays.

Click the IP Address tab.

Select the radio button marked Obtain an IP address from a DHCP server.

Click OK. This completes the configuration of TCP/IP in Windows NT.

Restart the PC.

Repeat these steps for each PC with this version of Windows on your network.

Verifying TCP/IP Properties for Windows XP, 2000, and NT4

To check your PC’s TCP/IP configuration:

1.On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button, and then click Run. The Run window opens.

2.Type cmd and then click OK. A command window opens

3.Type ipconfig /all

Your IP Configuration information will be listed, and should match the values below if you are using the default TCP/IP settings that NETGEAR recommends for connecting through a router or gateway:

The IP address is between 192.168.1.2 and 192.168.1.254

The subnet mask is 255.255.255.0

Preparing Your Network

C-17

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

• The default gateway is 192.168.1.1

4.Type exit

Configuring the Macintosh for TCP/IP Networking

Beginning with Macintosh Operating System 7, TCP/IP is already installed on the Macintosh. On each networked Macintosh, you will need to configure TCP/IP to use DHCP.

MacOS 8.6 or 9.x

1.From the Apple menu, select Control Panels, then TCP/IP. The TCP/IP Control Panel opens:

2.From the “Connect via” box, select your Macintosh’s Ethernet interface.

3.From the “Configure” box, select Using DHCP Server. You can leave the DHCP Client ID box empty.

4.Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.

5.Repeat this for each Macintosh on your network.

MacOS X

1. From the Apple menu, choose System Preferences, then Network.

C-18

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

2.If not already selected, select Built-in Ethernet in the Configure list.

3.If not already selected, Select Using DHCP in the TCP/IP tab.

4.Click Save.

Verifying TCP/IP Properties for Macintosh Computers

After your Macintosh is configured and has rebooted, you can check the TCP/IP configuration by returning to the TCP/IP Control Panel. From the Apple menu, select Control Panels, then TCP/IP.

The panel is updated to show your settings, which should match the values below if you are using the default TCP/IP settings that NETGEAR recommends:

The IP Address is between 192.168.1.2 and 192.168.1.254

The Subnet mask is 255.255.255.0

The Router address is 192.168.1.1

If you do not see these values, you may need to restart your Macintosh or you may need to switch the “Configure” setting to a different option, then back again to “Using DHCP Server”.

Preparing Your Network

C-19

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Verifying the Readiness of Your Internet Account

For broadband access to the Internet, you need to contract with an Internet service provider (ISP) for a single-user Internet access account using a cable modem or DSL modem. This modem must be a separate physical box (not a card) and must provide an Ethernet port intended for connection to a Network Interface Card (NIC) in a computer. Your firewall does not support a USB-connected broadband modem.

For a single-user Internet account, your ISP supplies TCP/IP configuration information for one computer. With a typical account, much of the configuration information is dynamically assigned when your PC is first booted up while connected to the ISP, and you will not need to know that dynamic information.

In order to share the Internet connection among several computers, your firewall takes the place of the single PC, and you need to configure it with the TCP/IP information that the single PC would normally use. When the firewall’s Internet port is connected to the broadband modem, the firewall appears to be a single PC to the ISP. The firewall then allows the PCs on the local network to masquerade as the single PC to access the Internet through the broadband modem. The method used by the firewall to accomplish this is called Network Address Translation (NAT) or IP masquerading.

Are Login Protocols Used?

Some ISPs require a special login protocol, in which you must enter a login name and password in order to access the Internet. If you normally log in to your Internet account by running a program such as WinPOET or EnterNet, then your account uses PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE).

When you configure your router, you will need to enter your login name and password in the router’s configuration menus. After your network and firewall are configured, the firewall will perform the login task when needed, and you will no longer need to run the login program from your PC. It is not necessary to uninstall the login program.

What Is Your Configuration Information?

More and more, ISPs are dynamically assigning configuration information. However, if your ISP does not dynamically assign configuration information but instead used fixed configurations, your ISP should have given you the following basic information for your account:

C-20

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

An IP address and subnet mask

A gateway IP address, which is the address of the ISP’s router

One or more domain name server (DNS) IP addresses

Host name and domain suffix

For example, your account’s full server names may look like this:

mail.xxx.yyy.com

In this example, the domain suffix is xxx.yyy.com.

If any of these items are dynamically supplied by the ISP, your firewall automatically acquires them.

If an ISP technician configured your PC during the installation of the broadband modem, or if you configured it using instructions provided by your ISP, you need to copy the configuration information from your PC’s Network TCP/IP Properties window or Macintosh TCP/IP Control Panel before reconfiguring your PC for use with the firewall. These procedures are described next.

Obtaining ISP Configuration Information for Windows Computers

As mentioned above, you may need to collect configuration information from your PC so that you can use this information when you configure the wireless router. Following this procedure is only necessary when your ISP does not dynamically supply the account information.

To get the information you need to configure the firewall for Internet access:

1.On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.

2.Double-click the Network icon.

The Network window opens, which displays a list of installed components.

3.Select TCP/IP, and then click Properties. The TCP/IP Properties dialog box opens.

4.Select the IP Address tab.

If an IP address and subnet mask are shown, write down the information. If an address is present, your account uses a fixed (static) IP address. If no address is present, your account uses a dynamically-assigned IP address. Click “Obtain an IP address automatically”.

5.Select the Gateway tab.

Preparing Your Network

C-21

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

If an IP address appears under Installed Gateways, write down the address. This is the ISP’s gateway address. Select the address and then click Remove to remove the gateway address.

6.Select the DNS Configuration tab.

If any DNS server addresses are shown, write down the addresses. If any information appears in the Host or Domain information box, write it down. Click Disable DNS.

7.Click OK to save your changes and close the TCP/IP Properties dialog box. You are returned to the Network window.

8.Click OK.

9.Reboot your PC at the prompt. You may also be prompted to insert your Windows CD.

Obtaining ISP Configuration Information for Macintosh Computers

As mentioned above, you may need to collect configuration information from your Macintosh so that you can use this information when you configure the wireless router. Following this procedure is only necessary when your ISP does not dynamically supply the account information.

To get the information you need to configure the firewall for Internet access:

1.From the Apple menu, select Control Panels, then TCP/IP.

The TCP/IP Control Panel opens, which displays a list of configuration settings. If the “Configure” setting is “Using DHCP Server”, your account uses a dynamically-assigned IP address. In this case, close the Control Panel and skip the rest of this section.

2.If an IP address and subnet mask are shown, write down the information.

3.If an IP address appears under Router address, write down the address. This is the ISP’s gateway address.

4.If any Name Server addresses are shown, write down the addresses. These are your ISP’s DNS addresses.

5.If any information appears in the Search domains information box, write it down.

6.Change the “Configure” setting to “Using DHCP Server”.

7.Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.

C-22

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Restarting the Network

Once you’ve set up your computers to work with the firewall, you must reset the network for the devices to be able to communicate correctly. Restart any computer that is connected to the firewall.

After configuring all of your computers for TCP/IP networking and restarting them, and connecting them to the local network of your wireless router, you are ready to access and configure the firewall.

Preparing Your Network

C-23

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

C-24

Preparing Your Network

December 2004

Appendix D

Wireless Networking Basics

Wireless Networking Overview

The wireless router conforms to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11g standard for wireless LANs (WLANs). On an 802.11 wireless link, data is encoded using direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology and is transmitted in the unlicensed radio spectrum at 2.5GHz. The maximum data rate for the 802.11g wireless link is 54 Mbps, but it will automatically back down from 54 Mbps when the radio signal is weak or when interference is detected.

The 802.11 standard is also called Wireless Ethernet or Wi-Fi by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA, see http://www.wi-fi.net), an industry standard group promoting interoperability among 802.11 devices. The 802.11 standard offers two methods for configuring a wireless network - ad hoc and infrastructure.

Infrastructure Mode

With a wireless access point, you can operate the wireless LAN in the infrastructure mode. This mode provides wireless connectivity to multiple wireless network devices within a fixed range or area of coverage, interacting with wireless nodes via an antenna.

In the infrastructure mode, the wireless access point converts airwave data into wired Ethernet data, acting as a bridge between the wired LAN and wireless clients. Connecting multiple access points via a wired Ethernet backbone can further extend the wireless network coverage. As a mobile computing device moves out of the range of one access point, it moves into the range of another. As a result, wireless clients can freely roam from one access point domain to another and still maintain seamless network connection.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Ad Hoc Mode (Peer-to-Peer Workgroup)

In an ad hoc network, computers are brought together as needed; thus, there is no structure or fixed points to the network - each node can generally communicate with any other node. There is no access point involved in this configuration. This mode enables you to quickly set up a small wireless workgroup and allows workgroup members to exchange data or share printers as supported by Microsoft networking in the various Windows operating systems. Some vendors also refer to ad hoc networking as peer-to-peer group networking.

In this configuration, network packets are directly sent and received by the intended transmitting and receiving stations. As long as the stations are within range of one another, this is the easiest and least expensive way to set up a wireless network.

Network Name: Extended Service Set Identification (ESSID)

The Extended Service Set Identification (ESSID) is one of two types of Service Set Identification (SSID). In an ad hoc wireless network with no access points, the Basic Service Set Identification (BSSID) is used. In an infrastructure wireless network that includes an access point, the ESSID is used, but may still be referred to as SSID.

An SSID is a thirty-two character (maximum) alphanumeric key identifying the name of the wireless local area network. Some vendors refer to the SSID as network name. For the wireless devices in a network to communicate with each other, all devices must be configured with the same SSID.

Wireless Channels

IEEE 802.11g/b wireless nodes communicate with each other using radio frequency signals in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band between 2.4 GHz and 2.5 GHz. Neighboring channels are 5 MHz apart. However, due to spread spectrum effect of the signals, a node sending signals using a particular channel will utilize frequency spectrum 12.5 MHz above and below the center channel frequency. As a result, two separate wireless networks using neighboring channels (for example, channel 1 and channel 2) in the same general vicinity will interfere with each other. Applying two channels that allow the maximum channel separation will decrease the amount of channel cross-talk, and provide a noticeable performance increase over networks with minimal channel separation.

D-2

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The radio frequency channels used are listed in Table D-1:

Table D-1.

802.11g Radio Frequency Channels

 

 

 

Channel

Center Frequency

Frequency Spread

 

 

 

1

2412 MHz

2399.5 MHz - 2424.5 MHz

 

 

 

2

2417 MHz

2404.5 MHz - 2429.5 MHz

 

 

 

3

2422 MHz

2409.5 MHz - 2434.5 MHz

 

 

 

4

2427 MHz

2414.5 MHz - 2439.5 MHz

 

 

 

5

2432 MHz

2419.5 MHz - 2444.5 MHz

 

 

 

6

2437 MHz

2424.5 MHz - 2449.5 MHz

 

 

 

7

2442 MHz

2429.5 MHz - 2454.5 MHz

 

 

 

8

2447 MHz

2434.5 MHz - 2459.5 MHz

 

 

 

9

2452 MHz

2439.5 MHz - 2464.5 MHz

 

 

 

10

2457 MHz

2444.5 MHz - 2469.5 MHz

 

 

 

11

2462 MHz

2449.5 MHz - 2474.5 MHz

 

 

 

12

2467 MHz

2454.5 MHz - 2479.5 MHz

 

 

 

13

2472 MHz

2459.5 MHz - 2484.5 MHz

 

 

 

Note: The available channels supported by the wireless products in various countries are different.

The preferred channel separation between the channels in neighboring wireless networks is 25 MHz (5 channels). This means that you can apply up to three different channels within your wireless network. There are only 11 usable wireless channels in the United States. It is recommended that you start using channel 1 and grow to use channel 6, and 11 when necessary, as these three channels do not overlap.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-3

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

WEP Wireless Security

The absence of a physical connection between nodes makes the wireless links vulnerable to eavesdropping and information theft. To provide a certain level of security, the IEEE 802.11 standard has defined two types of authentication methods, Open System and Shared Key. With Open System authentication, a wireless computer can join any network and receive any messages that are not encrypted. With Shared Key authentication, only those computers that possess the correct authentication key can join the network. By default, IEEE 802.11 wireless devices operate in an Open System network. Recently, Wi-Fi, the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (http://www.wi-fi.net) developed the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), a new strongly enhanced Wi-Fi security. WPA will soon be incorporated into the IEEE 802.11 standard. WEP and WPA are discussed below.

WEP Authentication

The 802.11 standard defines several services that govern how two 802.11 devices communicate. The following events must occur before an 802.11 Station can communicate with an Ethernet network through an access point such as the one built in to the WGM124:

1.Turn on the wireless station.

2.The station listens for messages from any access points that are in range.

3.The station finds a message from an access point that has a matching SSID.

4.The station sends an authentication request to the access point.

5.The access point authenticates the station.

6.The station sends an association request to the access point.

7.The access point associates with the station.

8.The station can now communicate with the Ethernet network through the access point.

An access point must authenticate a station before the station can associate with the access point or communicate with the network. The IEEE 802.11 standard defines two types of WEP authentication: Open System and Shared Key.

Open System Authentication allows any device to join the network, assuming that the device SSID matches the access point SSID. Alternatively, the device can use the “ANY” SSID option to associate with any available access point within range, regardless of its SSID.

D-4

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

Manual

WEP

802.11b Authentication

 

Open System Steps

 

1) Authentication request sent to AP

Access Point

2) AP authenticates

 

 

FVM318

3) Client connects to network

Cable or

DLS modem

Client

 

attempting

 

to connect

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wireless Networking Basics

 

D-5

December 2004

Client attempting to connect

802.11b Authentication

 

Shared Key Steps

 

1) Authentication

Access Point

request sent to AP

 

2) AP sends challenge text

FVM318

 

Cable or DLS modem

3) Client encrypts challenge text and sends it back to AP

4) AP decrypts, and if correct, authenticates client

5) Client connects to network

and

point

do not share the same WEP Key), then the access point will refuse to authenticate the station and the station will be unable to communicate with either the 802.11 network or Ethernet network.

D-6

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Key Size and Configuration

The IEEE 802.11 standard supports two types of WEP encryption: 40-bit and 128-bit.

The 64-bit WEP data encryption method, allows for a five-character (40-bit) input. Additionally, 24 factory-set bits are added to the forty-bit input to generate a 64-bit encryption key. (The 24 factory-set bits are not user-configurable). This encryption key will be used to encrypt/decrypt all data transmitted via the wireless interface. Some vendors refer to the 64-bit WEP data encryption as 40-bit WEP data encryption since the user-configurable portion of the encryption key is 40 bits wide.

The 128-bit WEP data encryption method consists of 104 user-configurable bits. Similar to the forty-bit WEP data encryption method, the remaining 24 bits are factory set and not user configurable. Some vendors allow passphrases to be entered instead of the cryptic hexadecimal characters to ease encryption key entry.

128-bit encryption is stronger than 40-bit encryption, but 128-bit encryption may not be available outside of the United States due to U.S. export regulations.

When configured for 40-bit encryption, 802.11 products typically support up to four WEP Keys. Each 40-bit WEP Key is expressed as 5 sets of two hexadecimal digits (0-9 and A-F). For example, “12 34 56 78 90” is a 40-bit WEP Key.

When configured for 128-bit encryption, 802.11g products typically support four WEP Keys but some manufacturers support only one 128-bit key. The 128-bit WEP Key is expressed as 13 sets of two hexadecimal digits (0-9 and A-F). For example, “12 34 56 78 90 AB CD EF 12 34 56 78 90” is a 128-bit WEP Key.

Typically, 802.11 access points can store up to four 128-bit WEP Keys but some 802.11 client adapters can only store one. Therefore, make sure that your 802.11 access and client adapters configurations match.

Whatever keys you enter for an AP, you must also enter the same keys for the client adapter in the same order. In other words, WEP key 1 on the AP must match WEP key 1 on the client adapter, WEP key 2 on the AP must match WEP key 2 on the client adapter, etc.

Note: The AP and the client adapters can have different default WEP Keys as long as the keys are in the same order. In other words, the AP can use WEP key 2 as its default key to transmit while a client adapter can use WEP key 3 as its default key to transmit. The two devices will communicate as long as the AP’s WEP key 2 is the same as the client’s WEP key 2 and the AP’s WEP key 3 is the same as the client’s WEP key 3.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-7

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

How to Use WEP Parameters

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) data encryption is used when the wireless devices are configured to operate in Shared Key authentication mode. There are two shared key methods implemented in most commercially available products, 64-bit and 128-bit WEP data encryption.

Before enabling WEP on an 802.11 network, you must first consider what type of encryption you require and the key size you want to use. Typically, there are three WEP Encryption options available for 802.11 products:

1.Do Not Use WEP: The 802.11 network does not encrypt data. For authentication purposes, the network uses Open System Authentication.

2.Use WEP for Encryption: A transmitting 802.11 device encrypts the data portion of every packet it sends using a configured WEP Key. The receiving 802.11g device decrypts the data using the same WEP Key. For authentication purposes, the 802.11g network uses Open System Authentication.

3.Use WEP for Authentication and Encryption: A transmitting 802.11 device encrypts the data portion of every packet it sends using a configured WEP Key. The receiving 802.11 device decrypts the data using the same WEP Key. For authentication purposes, the 802.11 network uses Shared Key Authentication.

Note: Some 802.11 access points also support Use WEP for Authentication Only (Shared Key Authentication without data encryption). However, the WGM124 does not offer this option.

WPA Wireless Security

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a specification of standards-based, interoperable security enhancements that increase the level of data protection and access control for existing and future wireless LAN systems.

The IEEE introduced the WEP as an optional security measure to secure 802.11g (Wi-Fi) WLANs, but inherent weaknesses in the standard soon became obvious. In response to this situation, the Wi-Fi Alliance announced a new security architecture in October 2002 that remedies the short comings of WEP. This standard, formerly known as Safe Secure Network (SSN), is designed to work with existing 802.11 products and offers forward compatibility with 802.11i, the new wireless security architecture being defined in the IEEE.

WPA offers the following benefits:

D-8

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Enhanced data privacy

Robust key management

Data origin authentication

Data integrity protection

The Wi-Fi Alliance is now performing interoperability certification testing on Wi-Fi Protected Access products. Starting August of 2003, all new Wi-Fi certified products will have to support WPA. NETGEAR will implement WPA on client and access point products and make this available in the second half of 2003. Existing Wi-Fi certified products will have one year to add WPA support or they will loose their Wi-Fi certification.

The 802.11i standard is currently in draft form, with ratification due at the end of 2003. While the new IEEE 802.11i standard is being ratified, wireless vendors have agreed on WPA as an interoperable interim standard.

How Does WPA Compare to WEP?

WEP is a data encryption method and is not intended as a user authentication mechanism. WPA user authentication is implemented using 802.1x and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Support for 802.1x authentication is required in WPA. In the 802.11 standard, 802.1x authentication was optional. For details on EAP specifically, refer to IETF's RFC 2284.

With 802.11 WEP, all access points and client wireless adapters on a particular wireless LAN must use the same encryption key. A major problem with the 802.11 standard is that the keys are cumbersome to change. If you don't update the WEP keys often, an unauthorized person with a sniffing tool can monitor your network for less than a day and decode the encrypted messages. Products based on the 802.11 standard alone offer system administrators no effective method to update the keys.

For 802.11, WEP encryption is optional. For WPA, encryption using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is required. TKIP replaces WEP with a new encryption algorithm that is stronger than the WEP algorithm, but that uses the calculation facilities present on existing wireless devices to perform encryption operations. TKIP provides important data encryption enhancements including a per-packet key mixing function, a message integrity check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism. Through these enhancements, TKIP addresses all of known WEP vulnerabilities.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-9

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

How Does WPA Compare to IEEE 802.11i?

WPA will be forward compatible with the IEEE 802.11i security specification currently under development. WPA is a subset of the current 802.11i draft and uses certain pieces of the 802.11i draft that are ready to bring to market today, such as 802.1x and TKIP. The main pieces of the 802.11i draft that are not included in WPA are secure IBSS (Ad-Hoc mode), secure fast handoff (for specialized 802.11 VoIP phones), as well as enhanced encryption protocols such as AES-CCMP. These features are either not yet ready for market or will require hardware upgrades to implement.

What are the Key Features of WPA Security?

The following security features are included in the WPA standard:

WPA Authentication

WPA Encryption Key Management

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)

Michael message integrity code (MIC)

AES Support

Support for a Mixture of WPA and WEP Wireless Clients

These features are discussed below.

WPA addresses most of the known WEP vulnerabilities and is primarily intended for wireless infrastructure networks as found in the enterprise. This infrastructure includes stations, access points, and authentication servers (typically RADIUS servers). The RADIUS server holds (or has access to) user credentials (e.g., user names and passwords) and authenticates wireless users before they gain access to the network.

The strength WPA comes from an integrated sequence of operations that encompass 802.1X/EAP authentication and sophisticated key management and encryption techniques. Its major operations include:

Network security capability determination. This occurs at the 802.11 level and is communicated through WPA information elements in Beacon, Probe Response, and (Re) Association Requests. Information in these elements includes the authentication method (802.1X or Pre-shared key) and the preferred cipher suite (WEP, TKIP, or AES).

D-10

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The primary information conveyed in the Beacon frames is the authentication method and the cipher suite. Possible authentication methods include 802.1X and Pre-shared key. Pre-shared key is an authentication method that uses a statically configured pass phrase on both the stations and the access point. This obviates the need for an authentication server, which in many home and small office environments will not be available nor desirable. Possible cipher suites include: WEP, TKIP, and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). We’ll talk more TKIP and AES when addressing data privacy below.

Authentication. EAP over 802.1X is used for authentication. Mutual authentication is gained by choosing an EAP type supporting this feature and is required by WPA. 802.1X port access control prevents full access to the network until authentication completes. 802.1X EAPOL-Key packets are used by WPA to distribute per-session keys to those stations successfully authenticated.

The supplicant in the station uses the authentication and cipher suite information contained in the information elements to decide which authentication method and cipher suite to use. For example, if the access point is using the Pre-shared key method then the supplicant need not authenticate using full-blown 802.1X. Rather, the supplicant must simply prove to the access point that it is in possession of the pre-shared key. If the supplicant detects that the service set does not contain a WPA information element then it knows it must use pre-WPA 802.1X authentication and key management in order to access the network.

Key management. WPA features a robust key generation/management system that integrates the authentication and data privacy functions. Keys are generated after successful authentication and through a subsequent 4-way handshake between the station and Access Point (AP).

Data Privacy (Encryption). Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is used to wrap WEP in sophisticated cryptographic and security techniques to overcome most of its weaknesses.

Data integrity. TKIP includes a message integrity code (MIC) at the end of each plaintext message to ensure messages are not being spoofed.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-11

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

WPA Authentication: Enterprise-level User Authentication via 802.1x/EAP and RADIUS

Wireless LAN

 

 

 

 

WPA enabled

WPA

enabled

 

 

Access Point

wireless

 

 

 

using

client with

 

 

pre-shared key

“supplicant”

 

 

or

 

 

 

 

802.1x

 

 

 

 

 

Figure D-3: WPA Overview

Wired Network with Optional 802.1x Port Based Network Access Control

 

 

 

TCP/IP

 

 

Certificate

 

 

Ports Closed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Until

 

 

 

Authority

 

 

 

 

 

RADIUS Server

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(eg Win

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Login

 

Server,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authentication

 

VeriSign,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TCP/IP

 

 

 

 

etc)

 

 

Ports Opened

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authenticated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IEEE 802.1x offers an effective framework for authenticating and controlling user traffic to a protected network, as well as providing a vehicle for dynamically varying data encryption keys via EAP from a RADIUS server, for example. This framework enables using a central authentication server, which employs mutual authentication so that a rogue wireless user does not join the network.

It's important to note that 802.1x doesn't provide the actual authentication mechanisms. When using 802.1x, the EAP type, such as Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) or EAP Tunneled Transport Layer Security (EAP-TTLS) defines how the authentication takes place.

Note: For environments with a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) infrastructure, WPA supports Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). For environments without a RADIUS infrastructure, WPA supports the use of a preshared key.

Together, these technologies provide a framework for strong user authentication.

Windows XP implements 802.1x natively, and several Netgear switch and wireless access point products support 802.1x.

D-12

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Client with a WPA-

 

 

enabled wireless

 

 

adapter and supplicant

For example, a

For example, a

(Win XP, Funk,

Meetinghouse, etc.)

WPA-enabled AP

RADIUS server

1 2

3

4

6

5

7

Figure D-4: 802.1x Authentication Sequence

The AP sends Beacon Frames with WPA information element to the stations in the service set. Information elements include the required authentication method (802.1x or Pre-shared key) and the preferred cipher suite (WEP, TKIP, or AES). Probe Responses (AP to station) and Association Requests (station to AP) also contain WPA information elements.

1.Initial 802.1x communications begin with an unauthenticated supplicant (i.e., client device) attempting to connect with an authenticator (i.e., 802.11 access point). The client sends an EAP-start message. This begins a series of message exchanges to authenticate the client.

2.The access point replies with an EAP-request identity message.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-13

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

3.The client sends an EAP-response packet containing the identity to the authentication server. The access point responds by enabling a port for passing only EAP packets from the client to an authentication server located on the wired side of the access point. The access point blocks all other traffic, such as HTTP, DHCP, and POP3 packets, until the access point can verify the client's identity using an authentication server (e.g., RADIUS).

4.The authentication server uses a specific authentication algorithm to verify the client's identity. This could be through the use of digital certificates or some other EAP authentication type.

5.The authentication server will either send an accept or reject message to the access point.

6.The access point sends an EAP-success packet (or reject packet) to the client.

7.If the authentication server accepts the client, then the access point will transition the client's port to an authorized state and forward additional traffic.

The important part to know at this point is that the software supporting the specific EAP type resides on the authentication server and within the operating system or application “supplicant” software on the client devices. The access point acts as a “pass through” for 802.1x messages, which means that you can specify any EAP type without needing to upgrade an 802.1x-compliant access point. As a result, you can update the EAP authentication type to such devices as token cards (Smart Cards), Kerberos, one-time passwords, certificates, and public key authentication or as newer types become available and your requirements for security change.

WPA Data Encryption Key Management

With 802.1x, the rekeying of unicast encryption keys is optional. Additionally, 802.11 and 802.1x provide no mechanism to change the global encryption key used for multicast and broadcast traffic. With WPA, rekeying of both unicast and global encryption keys is required.

For the unicast encryption key, the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) changes the key for every frame, and the change is synchronized between the wireless client and the wireless access point (AP). For the global encryption key, WPA includes a facility (the Information Element) for the wireless AP to advertise the changed key to the connected wireless clients.

If configured to implement dynamic key exchange, the 802.1x authentication server can return session keys to the access point along with the accept message. The access point uses the session keys to build, sign and encrypt an EAP key message that is sent to the client immediately after sending the success message. The client can then use contents of the key message to define applicable encryption keys. In typical 802.1x implementations, the client can automatically change encryption keys as often as necessary to minimize the possibility of eavesdroppers having enough time to crack the key in current use.

D-14

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)

WPA uses TKIP to provide important data encryption enhancements including a per-packet key mixing function, a message integrity check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism. TKIP also provides for the following:

The verification of the security configuration after the encryption keys are determined.

The synchronized changing of the unicast encryption key for each frame.

The determination of a unique starting unicast encryption key for each preshared key authentication.

Michael

With 802.11 and WEP, data integrity is provided by a 32-bit integrity check value (ICV) that is appended to the 802.11 payload and encrypted with WEP. Although the ICV is encrypted, you can use cryptanalysis to change bits in the encrypted payload and update the encrypted ICV without being detected by the receiver.

With WPA, a method known as Michael specifies a new algorithm that calculates an 8-byte message integrity code (MIC) using the calculation facilities available on existing wireless devices. The MIC is placed between the data portion of the IEEE 802.11 frame and the 4-byte ICV. The MIC field is encrypted together with the frame data and the ICV.

Michael also provides replay protection. A new frame counter in the IEEE 802.11 frame is used to prevent replay attacks.

AES Support

One of the encryption methods supported by WPA beside TKIP is the advanced encryption standard (AES), although AES support will not be required initially for Wi-Fi certification. This is viewed as the optimal choice for security conscience organizations, but the problem with AES is that it requires a fundamental redesign of the NIC’s hardware in both the station and the access point. TKIP was a pragmatic compromise that allows organizations to deploy better security while AES capable equipment is being designed, manufactured, and incrementally deployed.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-15

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Is WPA Perfect?

WPA is not without its vulnerabilities. Specifically, it is susceptible to denial of service (DoS) attacks. If the access point receives two data packets that fail the Message Integrity Code (MIC) check within 60 seconds of each other then the network is under an active attack, and as a result, the access point employs counter measures, which includes disassociating each station using the access point. This prevents an attacker from gleaning information about the encryption key and alerts administrators, but it also causes users to lose network connectivity for 60 seconds. More than anything else, this may just prove that no single security tactic is completely invulnerable. WPA is a definite step forward in WLAN security over WEP and has to be thought of as a single part of an end-to-end network security strategy.

Product Support for WPA

Starting in August, 2003, NETGEAR, Inc. wireless Wi-Fi certified products will support the WPA standard. NETGEAR, Inc. wireless products that had their Wi-Fi certification approved before August, 2003 will have one year to add WPA so as to maintain their Wi-Fi certification.

WPA requires software changes to the following:

Wireless access points

Wireless network adapters

Wireless client programs

Supporting a Mixture of WPA and WEP Wireless Clients

To support the gradual transition of WEP-based wireless networks to WPA, a wireless AP can support both WEP and WPA clients at the same time. During the association, the wireless AP determines which clients use WEP and which clients use WPA. The disadvantage to supporting a mixture of WEP and WPA clients is that the global encryption key is not dynamic. This is because WEP-based clients cannot support it. All other benefits to the WPA clients, such as integrity, are maintained.

However, a mixed mode supporting WPA and non-WPA clients would offer network security that is no better than that obtained with a non-WPA network, and thus this mode of operation is discouraged.

Changes to Wireless Access Points

Wireless access points must have their firmware updated to support the following:

D-16

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

The new WPA information element

To advertise their support of WPA, wireless APs send the beacon frame with a new 802.11 WPA information element that contains the wireless AP's security configuration (encryption algorithms and wireless security configuration information).

The WPA two-phase authentication

Open system, then 802.1x (EAP with RADIUS or preshared key).

TKIP

Michael

AES (optional)

To upgrade your wireless access points to support WPA, obtain a WPA firmware update from your wireless AP vendor and upload it to your wireless AP.

Changes to Wireless Network Adapters

Wireless network adapters must have their firmware updated to support the following:

The new WPA information element

Wireless clients must be able to process the WPA information element and respond with a specific security configuration.

The WPA two-phase authentication

Open system, then 802.1x (EAP or preshared key).

TKIP

Michael

AES (optional)

To upgrade your wireless network adapters to support WPA, obtain a WPA update from your wireless network adapter vendor and update the wireless network adapter driver.

For Windows wireless clients, you must obtain an updated network adapter driver that supports WPA. For wireless network adapter drivers that are compatible with Windows XP (Service Pack 1) and Windows Server 2003, the updated network adapter driver must be able to pass the adapter's WPA capabilities and security configuration to the Wireless Zero Configuration service.

Microsoft has worked with many wireless vendors to embed the WPA firmware update in the wireless adapter driver. So, to update you Windows wireless client, all you have to do is obtain the new WPA-compatible driver and install the driver. The firmware is automatically updated when the wireless network adapter driver is loaded in Windows.

Wireless Networking Basics

D-17

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Changes to Wireless Client Programs

Wireless client programs must be updated to permit the configuration of WPA authentication (and preshared key) and the new WPA encryption algorithms (TKIP and the optional AES component).

To obtain the Microsoft WPA client program, visit the following Microsoft Web site.

D-18

Wireless Networking Basics

December 2004

Glossary

Use the list below to find definitions for technical terms used in this manual.

List of Glossary Terms

802.11b

IEEE specification for wireless networking at 11 Mbps using direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology and operating in the unlicensed radio spectrum at 2.5GHz.

802.11g

A soon to be ratified IEEE specification for wireless networking at 54 Mbps using direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology and operating in the unlicensed radio spectrum at 2.5GHz. 802.11g is backwards compatible with 802.11b.

Cat 5

Category 5 unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. An Ethernet network operating at 10 Mbits/second (10BASE-T) will often tolerate low quality cables, but at 100 Mbits/second (10BASE-Tx) the cable must be rated as Category 5, or Cat 5 or Cat V, by the Electronic Industry Association (EIA).

This rating will be printed on the cable jacket. Cat 5 cable contains eight conductors, arranged in four twisted pairs, and terminated with an RJ45 type connector. In addition, there are restrictions on maximum cable length for both 10 and 100 Mbits/second networks.

DHCP

An Ethernet protocol specifying how a centralized DHCP server can assign network configuration information to multiple DHCP clients. The assigned information includes IP addresses, DNS addresses, and gateway (router) addresses.

DNS

Short for Domain Name System (or Service), an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses.

Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.example.com might translate to 198.105.232.4. The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned.

Glossary

1

December 2004

NETGEAR Wireless Router Setup Manual

Domain Name

A descriptive name for an address or group of addresses on the Internet. Domain names are of the form of a registered entity name plus one of a number of predefined top level suffixes such as .com, .edu, .uk, etc. For example, in the address mail.NETGEAR.com, mail is a server name and NETGEAR.com is the domain.

DSL

Short for digital subscriber line, but is commonly used in reference to the asymmetric version of this technology (ADSL) that allows data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines at data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate).

ADSL requires a special ADSL modem. ADSL is growing in popularity as more areas around the world gain access.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHCP. An Ethernet protocol specifying how a centralized DHCP server can assign network configuration information to multiple DHCP clients. The assigned information includes IP addresses, DNS addresses, and gateway (router) addresses.

Gateway

A local device, usually a router, that connects hosts on a local network to other networks.

IP

Internet Protocol is the main internetworking protocol used in the Internet. Used in conjunction with the Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) to form TCP/IP.

IP Address

A four-byte number uniquely defining each host on the Internet, usually written in dotted-decimal notation with periods separating the bytes (for example, 134.177.244.57).

Ranges of addresses are assigned by Internic, an organization formed for this purpose.

ISP

Internet service provider.

Internet Protocol

The main internetworking protocol used in the Internet. Used in conjunction with the Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) to form TCP/IP.

local area network

LAN. A communications network serving users within a limited area, such as one floor of a building. A LAN typically connects multiple personal computers and shared network devices such as storage and printers. Although many technologies exist to implement a LAN, Ethernet is the most common for connecting personal computers.

2

Glossary

December 2004