Cisco Systems CE-100T-8 User Manual

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C H A P T E R 16

CE-100T-8Ethernet Operation

This chapter covers the operation of the CE-100T-8(Carrier Ethernet) card supported on the ONS 15310(15310-CE-100T-8).ACE-100T-8card is also supported on the ONS 15454(15454-CE-100T-8).Provisioning is done through Cisco Transport Controller (CTC) or Transaction Language One (TL1). Cisco IOS is not supported on theCE-100T-8card.

For Ethernet card specifications, refer to the Cisco ONS 15310-CL Reference Manual. Forstep-by-step

Ethernet card circuit configuration procedures and hard-resetandsoft-resetprocedures, refer to the

Cisco ONS 15310-CLProcedure Guide. Refer to the Cisco ONS SONET TL1 Command Guidefor TL1 provisioning commands. For specific details on ONS 15310-CL Ethernet card interoperability with other ONS platforms, refer to the “POS on ONS Ethernet Cards” chapter of the Ethernet Card Software Feature and Configuration Guide for the ONS 15454 SDH, ONS 15454, and ONS 15327.

Chapter topics include:

CE-100T-8 Overview, page 16-1

CE-100T-8 Ethernet Features, page 16-2

CE-100T-8 SONET Circuits and Features, page 16-6

CE-100T-8Overview

The CE-100T-8is a Layer 1 mapper card with eight 10/100 Ethernet ports. It maps each port to a unique SONET circuit in apoint-to-pointconfiguration.Figure 16-1 illustrates a sampleCE-100T-8application. In this example, data traffic from the Fast Ethernet port of a switch travels across thepoint-to-pointcircuit to the Fast Ethernet port of another switch.

Figure 16-1CE-100T-8Point-to-PointCircuit

Ethernet

Point-to-PointCircuit

Ethernet

115797

The CE-100T-8cards allow you to provision and manage an Ethernet private line service like a traditional SONET line.CE-100T-8card applications include providing Ethernet private line services andhigh-availabilitytransport.

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CE-100T-8Ethernet Features

The CE-100T-8card supportsITU-TG.707 and TelcordiaGR-253based standards for SONET. It offers acarrier-classlevel of features and reliability. This includes errorless(0-msecimpact on traffic) reprovisioning. When circuit or port provisioning takes place, this operation does not affect the performance of other ports and circuit configurations that are already established on the card.

Software upgrades are errorless. However when the CE-100T-8firmware is upgraded, the upgrade has an effect on traffic similar to the effect of a hard reset on theCE-100T-8.A software upgrade or a firmware upgrade does not affect the existing provisioning of the ports and circuits on theCE-100T-8card.

Span upgrades are hitless. Protection and maintenance switches are also hitless.

The CE-100T-8offers fullTL1-basedprovisioning capability. Refer to theCisco ONS SONET TL1 Command Guide forCE-100T-8TL1 provisioning commands.

CE-100T-8Ethernet Features

The CE-100T-8card has eightfront-endEthernet ports which use standardRJ-45connectors for10BASE-TEthernet/100BASE-TXEthernet media. Ethernet Ports 1 through 8 each map to a POS port with a corresponding number. The console port on theCE-100T-8card is not functional.

The CE-100T-8cards forward valid Ethernet frames unmodified over the SONET network. Information in the headers is not affected by the encapsulation and transport. For example, included IEEE 802.1Q information will travel through the process unaffected.

The ONS 15454 CE-100T-8and the ONS 15310CE-100T-8support maximum Ethernet frame sizes of 1600 bytes including the CRC. The MTU size is not configureable and is set at a 1500 byte maximum (standard Ethernet MTU). Baby giant frames in which the standard Ethernet frame is augmented by 802.1 Q tags or MPLS tags are also supported. Full Jumbo frames (9000 byte maximum) are not supported.

The CE-100T-8cards discard certain types of erroneous Ethernet frames rather than transport them over SONET. Erroneous Ethernet frames include corrupted frames with cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors and undersized frames that do not conform to the minimum64-bytelength Ethernet standard.

Note Many Ethernet attributes are also available through the network element default feature. For more information on NE defaults, refer to the "Network Element Defaults" appendix in the Cisco ONS 15454 Reference Manual.

Autonegotiation, Flow Control, and Frame Buffering

On the CE-100T-8,Ethernet link autonegotiation is on by default. The user can also set the link speed, duplex, and flow control manually under thecard-levelProvisioning tab of CTC.

The CE-100T-8supports IEEE 802.3x flow control and frame buffering to reduce data traffic congestion. Flow control is on by default.

To prevent over-subscription,buffer memory is available for each port. When the buffer memory on the Ethernet port nears capacity, theCE-100T-8uses IEEE 802.3x flow control to transmit a pause frame to the attached Ethernet device. Flow control and autonegotiation frames are local to the Fast Ethernet interfaces and the attached Ethernet devices. These frames do not continue through the POS ports.

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CE-100T-8Ethernet Features

The CE-100T-8card has symmetric flow control and proposes symmetric flow control when autonegotiating flow control with attached Ethernet devices. Symmetric flow control allows theCE-100T-8cards to respond to pause frames sent from external devices and to send pause frames to external devices.

The pause frame instructs the source to stop sending packets for a specific period of time. The sending station waits the requested amount of time before sending more data. Figure 16-2 illustrates pause frames being sent and received byCE-100T-8cards and attached switches.

Figure 16-2Flow Control

 

 

ONS 15310-CL

 

ONS 15310-CL

Ethernet

STS-N

Ethernet

 

 

SONET

 

Pause Frames

 

Pause Frames

115795

This flow-controlmechanism matches the sending and receiving device throughput to that of the bandwidth of the STS circuit. For example, a router might transmit to the Ethernet port on theCE-100T-8card. This particular data rate might occasionally exceed 51.84 Mbps, but the SONET circuit assigned to theCE-100T-8port might be onlySTS-1(51.84 Mbps). In this example, theCE-100T-8sends out a pause frame and requests that the router delay its transmission for a certain period of time. With flow control and a substantialper-portbuffering capability, a private line service provisioned at less than full line rate capacity(STS-1)is efficient because frame loss can be controlled to a large extent.

Ethernet Link Integrity Support

The CE-100T-8supportsend-to-endEthernet link integrity (Figure 16-3).This capability is integral to providing an Ethernet private line service and correct operation of Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols on the attached Ethernet devices.

End-to-endEthernet link integrity means that if any part of theend-to-endpath fails, the entire path fails. It disables the Ethernet port on theCE-100T-8card if the remote Ethernet port is unable to transmit over the SONET network or if the remote Ethernet port is disabled.

Failure of the entire path is ensured by turning off the transmit pair at each end of the path. The attached Ethernet devices recognize the disabled transmit pair as a loss of carrier and consequently an inactive link or link fail.

Figure 16-3End-to-EndEthernet Link Integrity Support

Ethernet port

 

Ethernet port

ONS 310

STS-N

ONS 310

 

Rx

 

Rx

115796

Tx

 

Tx

 

 

SONET

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CE-100T-8Ethernet Features

Note Some network devices can be configured to ignore a loss of carrier condition. If a device configured to ignore a loss of carrier condition attaches to aCE-100T-8card at one end, alternative techniques (such as use of Layer 2 or Layer 3keep-alivemessages) are required to route traffic around failures. The response time of such alternate techniques is typically much longer than techniques that use link state as indications of an error condition.

IEEE 802.1Q CoS and IP ToS Queuing

The CE-100T-8references IEEE 802.1Q class of service (CoS) thresholds and IP type of service (ToS) (IP Differentiated Services Code Point [DSCP]) thresholds for priority queueing. CoS and ToS thresholds

for the CE-100T-8are provisioned on a per port level. This allows the user to provide priority treatment based on open standard quality of service (QoS) schemes already existing in the data network attached to theCE-100T-8.The QoS treatment is applied to both Ethernet and POS ports.

Any packet or frame with a priority greater than the set threshold is treated as priority traffic. This priority traffic is sent to the priority queue instead of the normal queue. When buffering occurs, packets on the priority queue preempt packets on the normal queue. This results in lower latency for the priority traffic, which is often latency-sensitivetraffic, such as VoIP.

Because these priorities are placed on separate queues, the priority queuing feature should not be used to separate rate-basedCIR/EIR marked traffic (sometimes done at a Metro Ethernet service provider edge). This could result inout-of-orderpacket delivery for packets of the same application, which would cause performance issues with some applications.

For an IP ToS-taggedpacket, theCE-100T-8can map any of the 256 priorities specified in IP ToS to priority or best effort. The user can configure a different ToS on CTC at thecard-levelview under the Provisioning > Ether Ports tabs. Any ToS class higher than the class specified in CTC is mapped to the priority queue, which is the queue geared towards low latency. By default, the ToS is set to 255, which is the highest ToS value. This results in all traffic being treated with equal priority by default.

Table 16-3 shows which values are mapped to the priority queue for sample IP ToS settings. (ToS settings span the full 0 to 255 range, but only selected settings are shown.)

Table 16-1IP ToS Priority Queue Mappings

ToS Setting in CTC

ToS Values Sent to Priority Queue

 

 

255 (default)

None

 

 

250

251–255

 

 

150

151–255

 

 

100

101–255

 

 

50

51–255

 

 

0

1–255

 

 

For a CoS-taggedframe, theCE-100T-8can map the eight priorities specified in CoS to priority or best effort. The user can configure a different CoS on CTC at thecard-levelview under theProvisioning > Ether Ports tabs. Any CoS class higher than the class specified in CTC is mapped to the priority queue, which is the queue geared towards low latency. By default, the CoS is set to 7, which is the highest CoS value. This results in all traffic being treated with equal priority by default.

Table 16-3 shows which values are mapped to the priority queue for CoS settings.

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Table 16-2CoS Priority Queue Mappings

CoS Setting in CTC

CoS Values Sent to Priority Queue

 

 

7 (default)

none

 

 

6

7

 

 

5

6, 7

 

 

4

5, 6, 7

 

 

3

4, 5, 6, 7

 

 

2

3, 4, 5, 6, 7

 

 

1

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

 

 

0

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

 

 

Ethernet frames without VLAN tagging use ToS-basedpriority queueing if both ToS and CoS priority queueing is active on the card. TheCE-100T-8card’s ToS setting must be lower than 255 (default) and the CoS setting lower than 7 (default) for CoS and ToS priority queueing to be active. A ToS setting of 255 (default) disables ToS priority queueing, so in this case the CoS setting would be used.

Ethernet frames with VLAN tagging use CoS-basedpriority queueing if both ToS and CoS are active on the card. The ToS setting is ignored. CoS based priority queueing is disabled if the CoS setting is the 7 (default), so in this case the ToS setting would be used.

If the CE-100T-8card’s ToS setting is 255 (default) and the CoS setting is 7 (default), priority queueing is not active on the card, and data gets sent to the default normal traffic queue. Also if data is not tagged with a ToS value or a CoS value before it enters theCE-100T-8card, it gets sent to the default normal traffic queue.

Note Priority queuing has no effect when flow control is enabled (default) on theCE-100T-8.Under flow control a 6 kilobytesingle-priorityfirst in first out (FIFO) buffer fills, then a PAUSE frame is sent. This results in the packet ordering priority becoming the responsibility of the external device, which is buffering as a result of receiving the PAUSEflow-controlframes.

Note Priority queuing has no effect when theCE-100T-8is provisioned withSTS-3Ccircuits. TheSTS-3ccircuit has more data capacity than Fast Ethernet, soCE-100T-8buffering is not needed. Priority queuing only takes effect when buffering occurs.

RMON and SNMP Support

The CE-100T-8card features remote monitoring (RMON) that allows network operators to monitor the health of the network with a network management system (NMS). TheCE-100T-8uses the ONG RMON. The ONG RMON contains the statistics, history, alarms, and events MIB groups from the standard RMON MIB, as well as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). A user can access RMON

threshold provisioning through TL1 or CTC. For RMON threshold provisioning with CTC, see the

Cisco ONS 15310-CLProcedure Guideand the Cisco ONS15310-CLTroubleshooting Guide. For TL1 information, see the Cisco ONS SONET TL1 Command Guide.

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Statistics and Counters

The CE-100T-8has a full range of Ethernet and POS statistics underPerformance > Ether Ports orPerformance > POS Ports. These are detailed in the “Performance Monitoring” chapter of theCisco ONS 15310 Reference Manual.

CE-100T-8SONET Circuits and Features

The CE-100T-8has eight POS ports, numbered one through eight, which are exposed to management with CTC or TL1. Each POS port is statically mapped to a matching Ethernet port. By clicking thecard-levelProvisioning tab > POS Ports tab, the user can configure the Administrative State, Framing Type, and Encapsulation Type. By clicking thecard-levelPerformance tab > POS Ports tab, the user can view the statistics, utilization, and history for the POS ports.

Available Circuit Sizes and Combinations

Each POS port terminates an independent contiguous SONET concatenation (CCAT) or virtual SONET concatenation (VCAT). The SONET circuit is created for these ports through CTC or TL1 in the same manner as a SONET circuit for a non-Ethernetline card.Table 16-3 shows the circuit sizes available for theCE-100T-8on the ONS15310-CL.

Table 16-3CE-100T-8Supported Circuit Sizes

CCAT High Order

VCAT High Order

VCAT Low Order

 

 

 

STS-1

STS-1-1v

VT1.5-nV(n= 1 to 64)

 

 

 

STS-3c

STS-1-2v

 

 

 

 

 

STS-1-3v

 

 

 

 

A single circuit provides a maximum of 100 Mbps of throughput, even when an STS-3ccircuit, which has a bandwidth equivalent of 155 Mbps, is provisioned. This is due to the hardware restriction of the Fast Ethernet port. A VCAT circuit is also restricted in this manner.Table 16-3 shows the minimum SONET circuit sizes required for 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps wire speed service.

Table 16-4SONET Circuit Size Required for Ethernet Wire Speeds

Ethernet Wire Speed

CCAT High Order

VCAT High Order

VCAT Low Order

 

 

 

 

Line Rate 100BaseT

STS-3c

STS-1-3v,STS-1-2v*

Not applicable

 

 

 

 

Sub Rate 100BaseT

STS-1

STS-1-1v

VT1.5-xV(x=1-64)

 

 

 

 

Line Rate 10BaseT

STS-1

Not applicable

VT1.5-7V

 

 

 

 

Sub Rate 10BaseT

Not applicable

Not applicable

VT1.5-xV(x=1-6)

 

 

 

 

*STS-1-2vprovides a total transport capacity of 98 Mbps.

The number of available circuits and total combined bandwidth for the CE-100T-8depends on the combination of circuit sizes configured.Table 16-5 shows the circuit size combinations available forCE-100T-8CCAThigh-ordercircuits on the ONS15310-CL.Table 16-6 shows the circuit size combinations available forCE-100T-8VCAThigh-ordercircuits on the ONS15310-CL.

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Table 16-5CCAT High Order Circuit Size Combinations

Number of STS-3cCircuits

Maximum Number of STS-1Circuits

 

 

None

6

 

 

1

3

 

 

2

None

 

 

Table 16-6VCAT High Order Circuit Size Combinations

 

 

Number of STS-1-3vCircuits

Maximum Number of STS-1-2vCircuits

 

 

None

2

 

 

1

1

 

 

2

None

 

 

The CE-100T-8supports up to eight low order VCAT circuits. The available circuit sizes areVT1.5-nv,wheren ranges from 1 to 64. The total number of VT members cannot exceed 168 VT1.5s with each of the two pools on the card supporting 84 VT1.5s. The user can create a maximum of two circuits at the largest low order VCAT circuit size,VT1.5-64v.

A user can combine CCAT high order, VCAT high order, and VCAT low order circuits in any way as long as there is a maximum of eight circuits and the mapper chip bandwidth restrictions are observed. The following table details the maximum density service combinations.

Table 16-7CE-100T-8Maximum Service Densities

Service

STS-3cor

 

 

 

Number of Active

Combination

STS-1-3v

STS-1-2v

STS-1

VT1.5-xV(x=1-7)

Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

0

0

0

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

1

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

0

3

0

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

0

0

7(x=1-12)*

8*

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

0

2

2

0

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

0

1

1

6(x=1-14)

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

0

1

0

7(x=1-12)*

8*

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

0

0

6

0

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

0

0

3

5(x=1-16)

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

0

0

0

8 (x=1-21)

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

* This LO-VCATCircuit combination is achievable if the first circuit created on the card is an LO VCAT circuit. If the first circuit created on the card isHO-VCATor CCAT STS circuits, then a maximum of sixLO-VCATcircuits can be added on the card.

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CE-100T-8STS/VT Allocation Tab

The CE-100T-8has two pools, each with a maximum capacity of three STSs. At the CTCcard-levelview under the Maintenance tab, the STS/VT Allocation tab displays how the provisioned circuits populate the two pools. This information can be useful in freeing up the bandwidth required for provisioning a circuit, if there is not enough existing capacity on any one pool for provisioning the desired circuit. The user can look at the distribution of the existing circuits among the two pools and decide which circuits to delete in order to free up space for the desired circuit.

Figure 16-4CE-100T-8STS/VT Allocation Tab

124894

Port 5 belongs to Pool 2

For example if a user needs to provision an STS-3corSTS-1-3von theCE-100T-8card shown inFigure 16-4,anSTS-3corSTS-1-3vworth of bandwidth is not available from either of the two pools. The user needs to delete circuits from the same pool to free up bandwidth. If the bandwidth is available but scattered among the pools, the circuit cannot be provisioned.

Looking at the POS Port Map table, the user can determine which circuits belong to which pools. The Pool and Port columns in Figure 16-4 show that the circuit on port 5 is drawn from Pool 2, and no other circuits are drawn from Pool 2. Deleting this one circuit will free up anSTS-3corSTS-1-3vworth of bandwidth from a single pool.

The POS Port table has a row for each port with three columns (Figure 16-4).They show the port number, the circuit size and type, and the pool it is drawn from. The Pool Utilization table has two columns and shows the pool number, the type of circuits on that pool, how much of the pool’s capacity is being used, and whether additional capacity is available.

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CE-100T-8VCAT Characteristics

The ML-100T-8card and theCE-100T-8card (both the ONS15310-CLversion and the ONS 15454 SONET/SDH version) havehardware-basedsupport for theITU-TG.7042 standard link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS). This allows the user to dynamically resize a high order or low order VCAT circuit through CTC or TL1 without affecting other members of the VCG (errorless).ML-100T-8LCAS support is high order only and is limited to a two member VCG.

The ONS 15454 SONET/SDH ML-Seriescard has asoftware-basedLCAS(SW-LCAS)scheme. This scheme is also supported by both theML-100T-8card and both versions of theCE-100T-8,but only for circuits terminating on a ONS 15454 SONET/SDHML-Seriescard.

The CE-100T-8card allows independent routing and protection preferences for each member of a VCAT circuit. The user can also control the amount of VCAT circuit capacity that is fully protected, unprotected or if the circuit is on a bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR), uses protection channel access (PCA). Alarms are supported on aper-memberas well as per virtual concatenation group (VCG) basis.

Note The maximum tolerable VCAT differential delay for theCE-100T-8is 48 milliseconds. The VCAT differential delay is the relative arrival time measurement between members of a virtual concatenation group (VCG).

CE-100T-8POS Encapsulation, Framing, and CRC

The CE-100T-8uses Cisco EoS LEX (LEX). LEX is the primary encapsulation of ONS Ethernet cards. In this encapsulation the protocol field is set to the values specified in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request For Comments (RFC) 1841. The user can provisionGPF-Fframing (default) orhigh-leveldata link control (HDLC) framing. WithGFP-Fframing, the user can also configure a32-bitCRC (the default) or no CRC (none). When LEX is used overGFP-Fit is standard Mapped Ethernet overGFP-Faccording toITU-TG.7041. HDLC framing provides a set32-bitCRC.

Figure 16-5 illustratesCE-100T-8framing and encapsulation.

Figure 16-5ONSCE-100T-8Encapsulation and Framing Options

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GFP-FFrame Types

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEX

 

Encapsulation

 

 

GFP-Mapped

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethernet (LEX)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flag

Address

Control

Protocol

Payload

FCS

 

Core

Payload

 

Payload

FCS

 

Header

Header

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HDLC Framing Mode

 

or

GFP-FFraming Mode

Transport Overhead

SONET/SDH Payload Envelope

 

 

115444

SONET/SDH Frame

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The CE-100T-8card supportsGFP-Fnull mode.GFP-FCMFs are counted and discarded.

The CE-100T-8card is interoperable with theML-100T-8card and several other ONS Ethernet cards. For specific details on ONS Ethernet card interoperability, refer to the “POS on ONS Ethernet Cards” chapter of theEthernet Card Guide Software Feature and Configuration Guide—for the ONS 15454, ONS 15454 SDH and ONS 15327.

CE-100T-8Loopback, J1 Path Trace, and SONET Alarms

The CE-100T-8card supports terminal and facility loopbacks when in the Out of Service, Maintenance state (OOS, MT). It also reports SONET alarms and transmits and monitors the J1 Path Trace byte in the same manner asOC-Ncards. Support for path termination functions includes:

H1 and H2 concatenation indication

C2 signal label

Bit interleaved parity 3 (BIP-3)generation

G1 path status indication

C2 path signal label read/write

Path level alarms and conditions, including loss of pointer, unequipped, payload mismatch, alarm indication signal (AIS) detection, and remote defect indication (RDI)

J1 path trace for high order paths

J2 path trace for low order paths

J2 path trace for low order VCAT circuits at the member level

Extended signal label for the low order paths

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