Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance 1520, 1520 User Manual

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Intel® NetStructure

1520 Cache Appliance

Administrator’s Guide

Copyright © 2000, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.

Intel Corporation

5200 N. E. Elam Young Parkway

Hillsboro, Oregon 97124-6497

No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Intel Corporation. INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OR ANY OTHER RIGHTS OF THIRD PARTIES OR OF INTEL, FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OTHERWISE ARISING OUT OF ANY SPECIFICATION, DOCUMENTATION, SOFTWARE OR OTHER MATERIALS REFERENCED HEREIN. Nothing in this document constitutes a guarantee, warranty or license to any intellectual property right, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise. Intel makes no representations or warranties and specifically disclaims all liability as to this document or the information contained herein with respect to:

(i) liability for infringement of any proprietary rights, including without limitation, intellectual property rights; (ii) sufficiency, reliability, accuracy, completeness or usefulness of same; and (iii) ability or sufficiency of same to function accurately as a representation of any standard. Furthermore, Intel makes no commitment to update the information contained in this document, and Intel reserves the right to make changes at any time, without notice, the information contained in this document. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. IN NO EVENT SHALL INTEL BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, LOST PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, OR LOST INFORMATION) SUFFERED AS A RESULT OF USE OF THE PRODUCT.

Intel® cache products may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.

*Other product and corporate names may be trademarks of other companies and are used only for explanation and to the owners’ benefit, without the intent to infringe.

July 2000

A29914-001

Contents

 

Preface

ix

 

Who should read this manual ...................................................................

x

 

Conventions used in this manual..............................................................

x

Chapter 1

Introduction

1

 

What is an Intel® NetStructure™ Cache Appliance? ...............................

2

 

Why use this caching appliance?.......................................................

2

 

Flexible cache architecture ................................................................

2

 

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance features .....................................

3

 

How to use this guide ...............................................................................

5

Chapter 2

Getting Started

7

 

Starting the system for the first time .........................................................

8

 

Accessing the Manager UI .....................................................................

12

 

Using Monitor and Configure mode .................................................

13

 

Using online help..............................................................................

15

 

Accessing the command-line interface...................................................

15

 

Verifying that caching works...................................................................

15

 

Changing passwords ..............................................................................

15

Chapter 3 Monitoring Appliance Performance

17

 

Accessing monitor pages .......................................................................

18

 

Using the Dashboard page.....................................................................

18

 

Dashboard alert lights ......................................................................

19

 

Changing the selected node ............................................................

20

 

Using the Node page..............................................................................

20

 

Using the Graphs page...........................................................................

21

 

Using the Protocols page .......................................................................

21

 

Using the Cache page ............................................................................

21

iii

Using the ARM page..............................................................................

21

Using the Other page.............................................................................

22

Using the MRTG page ...........................................................................

22

Chapter 4 Configuring the Appliance

23

Accessing configure pages ....................................................................

24

Using the Server Basics page................................................................

24

Setting general options....................................................................

25

Setting Web management options ..................................................

26

Setting virtual IP addressing options ...............................................

26

Setting browser auto configuration options .....................................

28

Setting throttling of network connections.........................................

28

Configuring load-shedding...............................................................

28

Enabling SNMP agents ...................................................................

29

Using the Protocols page.......................................................................

30

Configuring HTTP............................................................................

30

Configuring NNTP ...........................................................................

31

Configuring FTP ..............................................................................

34

Using the Cache page............................................................................

35

Cache activation ..............................................................................

35

Storage ............................................................................................

36

Freshness........................................................................................

36

Variable content...............................................................................

38

Using the Security page.........................................................................

39

Using the Routing page..........................................................................

39

Setting HTTP parent caching options..............................................

40

Setting ICP options..........................................................................

41

Setting server accelerator options ...................................................

43

Checking transparency....................................................................

44

Checking WCCP..............................................................................

44

Using the Host Database page ..............................................................

44

Configuring the host database.........................................................

45

Configuring DNS..............................................................................

47

Using the Snapshots page.....................................................................

47

iv Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Chapter 5 Using the Command-Line Interface

49

Starting the command-line interface.......................................................

50

Starting the appliance the first time..................................................

50

Using the appliance after initial start-up ...........................................

50

Navigating the command-line interface ..................................................

51

Using the setup menu.............................................................................

52

Changing network addresses configuration .....................................

52

Changing the controller speed and transmission mode ...................

53

Changing the DNS address and domain name................................

53

Changing the gateway address........................................................

53

Configuring time zone settings.........................................................

54

Configuring date and time settings...................................................

54

Viewing current network address settings........................................

54

Using the main menu..............................................................................

54

Checking the status of the Server and Manager..............................

55

Starting the appliance ......................................................................

55

Stopping the appliance.....................................................................

55

Viewing and maintaining versions of the software ...........................

56

Clearing statistics .............................................................................

59

Rebooting the System......................................................................

60

Halting the System ...........................................................................

60

Changing the administrator password for telnet or serial access.....

60

Resetting to factory settings.............................................................

61

Preparing a cache disk.....................................................................

61

Using the config menu............................................................................

61

Setting general controls ...................................................................

62

Configuring protocol options ............................................................

63

Configuring the cache ......................................................................

76

Configuring security options.............................................................

82

Configuring routing options ..............................................................

84

Configuring the Adaptive Redirection Module (ARM) ......................

93

Configuring the host database options.............................................

96

Configuring logging options..............................................................

98

Contents v

Using the monitor menu.........................................................................

99

Viewing Node statistics....................................................................

99

Viewing Protocol statistics .............................................................

100

Viewing Cache statistics................................................................

104

Viewing Other statistics .................................................................

105

Using the expert menu.........................................................................

107

Using the save menu ...........................................................................

108

Using the load menu ............................................................................

108

Using the logoff menu ..........................................................................

108

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting Problems

109

Rebooting your system ........................................................................

110

Rebooting your system from the CLI .............................................

110

Upgrading software..............................................................................

111

Appendix A Caching Solutions and Performance

113

Web proxy caching...............................................................................

114

A day in the life of a cache request ...............................................

114

Ensuring cached object freshness.................................................

115

Revalidating objects ......................................................................

116

HTTP object freshness tests .........................................................

116

Deciding whether to serve HTTP objects ......................................

117

Configuring HTTP freshness options.............................................

118

Caching HTTP alternates ..............................................................

119

To cache or not to cache? .............................................................

119

Transparent proxy caching...................................................................

120

Serving requests transparently......................................................

121

Interception strategies ...................................................................

121

ARM redirection.............................................................................

125

Adaptive interception bypass.........................................................

126

Server acceleration ..............................................................................

128

Advantages of server acceleration ................................................

129

How server acceleration works......................................................

129

Retrieving requested documents...................................................

129

Web server redirects .....................................................................

131

Understanding server acceleration mapping rules ........................

132

Examples of rules and translations................................................

133

vi Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Appendix B

List of

Procedures

Understanding cache hierarchies .........................................................

135

HTTP cache hierarchies.................................................................

135

ICP cache hierarchies ....................................................................

136

NNTP cache hierarchies ................................................................

137

News article caching.............................................................................

138

The appliance as a news server ....................................................

139

The appliance as a caching proxy news server .............................

139

Supporting several parent news servers........................................

139

Blocking particular groups..............................................................

140

Clustering .......................................................................................

140

Transparency .................................................................................

141

Posting ...........................................................................................

141

Maintaining the cache: updates and feeds.....................................

141

Configuring Access control ............................................................

142

Obeying NNTP control messages..................................................

143

Client bandwidth throttling..............................................................

143

Carrier-class architecture .....................................................................

143

Performance...................................................................................

143

High-availability ..............................................................................

145

Node fault tolerance .......................................................................

147

Expansion capabilities....................................................................

147

Centralized administration..............................................................

148

Error Messages

151

HTML messages sent to clients ...........................................................

152

Standard HTTP response messages ...................................................

154

Glossary

157

Index

163

Initially configuring and starting your system............................................

8

Accessing the Manager UI .....................................................................

12

Reaching Monitor pages.........................................................................

18

Reaching the Dashboard page...............................................................

18

Changing the selected node...................................................................

20

Reaching the Node Page .......................................................................

20

Reaching the Graphs page.....................................................................

21

Reaching the Protocols page .................................................................

21

Contents vii

Reaching the Cache page......................................................................

21

Reaching the ARM page........................................................................

22

Reaching the Other page.......................................................................

22

Reaching the MRTG page .....................................................................

22

Reaching the configure pages ...............................................................

24

Reaching the Server Basics page..........................................................

24

Modifying the Virtual IP address list.......................................................

27

Adding a Virtual IP address....................................................................

27

Reaching the Protocols page.................................................................

30

Reaching the Cache page......................................................................

35

Reaching the Security page...................................................................

39

Reaching the Routing page....................................................................

40

Adding an ICP Peer ...............................................................................

42

Creating a document route rewriting rule...............................................

43

Reaching the Host Database page ........................................................

44

Reaching the Snapshots page...............................................................

48

Changing network address configuration on the NIC.............................

52

Changing speed and transmission mode...............................................

53

Changing the DNS address ...................................................................

53

Changing the gateway address..............................................................

53

Configuring the time zone setting...........................................................

54

Configuring the date and time settings...................................................

54

Checking Server and Manager status....................................................

55

Starting the appliance ............................................................................

55

Stopping the appliance...........................................................................

55

Identifying which versions of the appliance software are installed.........

56

Setting up the FTP server ......................................................................

56

Starting the upgrade from the appliance side ........................................

57

Running a different version of the appliance software ...........................

58

Deleting a version of the appliance software .........................................

59

Viewing the current version of the appliance .........................................

59

Clearing statistics for the appliance .......................................................

59

Rebooting the system ............................................................................

60

Halting the system..................................................................................

60

Changing the password .........................................................................

60

Resetting the appliance to default factory settings.................................

61

viii Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Preparing a cache disk ...........................................................................

61

Setting general controls..........................................................................

62

Configuring HHTP options......................................................................

63

Configuring NNTP options......................................................................

64

Adding NNTP server rules......................................................................

65

Configuring the FTP options...................................................................

71

Adding filter rules....................................................................................

72

Deleting filter rules..................................................................................

74

Viewing filter rules ..................................................................................

74

Adding remap rules ................................................................................

74

Deleting remap rules ..............................................................................

75

Viewing remap rules ...............................................................................

75

Enabling caching for different protocols .................................................

76

Setting disk storage options ...................................................................

77

Setting freshness properties...................................................................

77

Adding caching rules ..............................................................................

79

Deleting cache rules ...............................................................................

81

Viewing cache rules................................................................................

82

Adding IP Allow rules..............................................................................

82

Deleting IP Allow rules............................................................................

82

Viewing IP Allow rules ............................................................................

83

Adding Manager Allow rules...................................................................

83

Deleting Manager Allow rules.................................................................

84

Viewing Manager Allow rules .................................................................

84

Enabling parent proxy caching rules ......................................................

89

Disabling parent proxy caching rules......................................................

89

Adding parent proxy caching rules .........................................................

89

Deleting parent proxy caching rules .......................................................

91

Viewing parent proxy caching rules........................................................

92

Enabling WCCP......................................................................................

92

Disabling WCCP.....................................................................................

92

Configuring WCCP options.....................................................................

92

Viewing current WCCP options ..............................................................

93

Enabling transparent redirection.............................................................

93

Disabling transparent redirection............................................................

93

Adding ARM bypass rules ......................................................................

94

Contents ix

Deleting ARM bypass rules....................................................................

95

Viewing ARM bypass rules ....................................................................

95

Configuring load-shedding options.........................................................

96

Configuring host database options.........................................................

96

Viewing host database options ..............................................................

98

Enabling logging options........................................................................

98

Disabling logging options .......................................................................

98

Configuring logging options....................................................................

98

Viewing logging options .........................................................................

99

Viewing node statistics...........................................................................

99

Viewing protocol statistics....................................................................

100

Viewing Cache statistics ......................................................................

104

Viewing host database statistics ..........................................................

105

Viewing DNS statistics .........................................................................

106

Viewing cluster statistics ......................................................................

106

Viewing logging statistics .....................................................................

107

Entering expert mode...........................................................................

107

Saving the current configuration to a floppy disk .................................

108

Loading a previously saved configuration from a floppy ......................

108

Logging off the system.........................................................................

108

Rebooting the appliance from the CLI..................................................

110

Rebooting the appliance from the front panel ......................................

110

x

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Preface

This manual describes how to use and configure an Intel® NetStructureCache Appliance system (referred to as “appliance” in this manual) either as a single node or as a cluster of nodes.

The manual covers the following topics:

Chapter 1 contains an overview of the appliance and an overview of this guide.

Chapter 2 through Chapter 1 contain procedural information about starting, monitoring, and configuring the appliance.

Chapter 6 contains information to help you troubleshoot problems you might have with the appliance.

Appendix A contains background information about the appliance’s main components and features of the appliance.

Appendix B provides error information.

xi

Who should read this manual

This manual is intended for system administrators who configure, run, and administer Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance systems. Consequently, the information in the manual was written with the assumption that the reader has experience in Web server administration and configuring TCP/IP networking.

Conventions used in this manual

This manual uses the following conventions.

Convention

Purpose

 

 

italics

Represent emphasis and introduce terms, for example,

 

“the management cluster.”

 

 

bold

Represents graphical user interface options and menu

 

names, for example, “Reset

 

 

monospaced

Represents commands, file names, file content, computer

font

input, and output, for example, “use the reconfigure

 

command.”

 

 

monospaced

Represents commands that you should enter literally, for

bold

example, type reboot.

 

 

monospaced

Represents variables for which you should substitute a

italic

value, for example, “enter a filename.”

 

 

brackets [ ]

Represent optional command arguments in command

 

syntax, for example, add pathname [size]

 

 

xii Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Chapter 1

Introduction

The Intel® NetStructureCache Appliance is a carrier-class caching appliance that offers high performance, high availability, and simple centralized management. The appliance automatically and efficiently copies network documents and images, bringing them closer and serving them faster to your users.

When placed strategically in a network, the appliance can serve user requests for objects from its cache or the caches of neighboring appliances rather than have requests served from an origin server. This relief results in improved network performance, and a perceived higher quality of service. At the same time, the appliances reduce Internet bandwidth usage by eliminating redundant requests for popular documents.

This chapter provides the following overviews:

What is an Intel® NetStructure™ Cache Appliance?‚ on page 2

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance features‚ on page 3

How to use this guide‚ on page 5

1

What is an Intel® NetStructureCache

Appliance?

Internet users request billions of documents each day all over the world. Unfortunately, global data networking has become difficult for professionals as they struggle with overloaded servers trying to keep pace with society’s growing data demands.

The Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance family provides you with a turnkey, scalable solution you can place in your network to deliver industry-leading caching capabilities. Your system is designed for fast and reliable caching for Internet Service Providers (ISPs), backbone providers, and large intranets.

Why use this caching appliance?

Caching can significantly reduce pressure on busy networks and servers by storing copies of popular documents near their users. Instead of making multiple requests for the same document across congested networks to overloaded servers, users access copies from the caching appliance’s large, fast local cache. This reduces backbone congestion, provides faster response, and improves the quality of service.

The following design features make the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance a carrier-class caching product:

Speed (the ability to handle thousands of simultaneous user connections)

Scalability (you can easily add nodes to a management cluster as needed)

Fault tolerance (redundant boot images)

Secure single-point administration (you can configure many nodes at once)

See Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance features‚ on page 3 for more information about these features.

Flexible cache architecture

You can use the appliance alone or with other enterprise software, including other caching products. Here are some examples of ways to use the appliance.

Web proxy cache

User requests go to the appliance on the way to the destined web server. If the cache contains the requested document, the appliance serves the requested document directly. If the cache does not have the desired document, the appliance acts as a proxy, fetching the document from the web server on the user’s behalf, and keeps a copy to satisfy future requests.

2

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Server accelerator

The appliance can be configured as a web server to accelerate slower traditional web servers. Documents stored in cache are served at high speed, while documents not in cache are requested on demand from slower, traditional web servers. This server accelerator feature is also called reverse proxy.

Part of an HTTP cache hierarchy

The appliance can participate in flexible cache hierarchies, where Internet requests not fulfilled in one cache can be routed to other regional caches, taking advantage of the of nearby caches.

ICP sibling

The appliance supports the standard Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) to interoperate with existing ICP cache hierarchies. The appliance can send ICP queries to neighboring caches as part of an ICP cache hierarchy.

NNTP news cache

The appliance caches and serves NNTP news articles and can accept news feeds for designated news groups.

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance features

The appliance provides a rich set of features to ensure high performance and superior stability and to offer broad flexibility. The following list provides a brief overview of the appliance’s primary features. For a more exhaustive list and description of features, refer to Carrier-class architecture‚ on page 143.

Scalability

The appliance scales from a single node into multiple-node clusters, allowing you to improve system performance and reliability simply by adding more nodes to your cluster. Support exists for two types of clusters: soft clustering and management-only clustering. For more information on clustering, see

Clustering‚ on page 140.

Boot Image Redundancy

The appliance features both a primary and secondary boot image on separate hard drives. When a drive with a boot image fails, a system administrator can detect and replace the faulty hard drive. This feature helps maximize the time your system is up and running uninterrupted.

Chapter 1 Introduction

3

Multithreading process support

The appliance is the first commercial caching proxy server to aggressively implement multithreading, breaking down large transactions into small, efficient tasks. The appliance processes multiple outstanding requests simultaneously and efficiently, even under peak loads.

High-speed caching

The cache consists of a high speed object database stored on raw disk. Objects are stored and indexed according to their URL and associated headers. This enables the appliance to store, retrieve, and serve not only web pages, but parts of web pages, providing optimum bandwidth savings.

Broad protocol support

The Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance supports the following protocols:

HTTP versions 0.9 through 1.1

FTP

NNTP

ICP

SSL encryption

WCCP 2.0

HTTP cache hierarchy support

In a hierarchy of proxy servers, the appliance can act either as a parent or child cache, either to other Intel NetStructure Cache Appliances, or to other caching products.

Web server acceleration

Through reverse proxy, the appliance can act as a web server accelerator, handling requests for and relieving stress from web servers.

Transparency option

With transparent interception of user traffic, user requests are automatically injected into the cache on their way to the eventual destination. Users request Internet data as usual without any browser configuration, and the appliance automatically serves their requests.

Secure, single-point administration

The appliance offers two administration alternatives to suit the needs of different environments:

Browser-based interface: The Manager User Interface (UI) offers password-protected, single-point administration for an entire cluster.

Command-line interface: The command-line interface lets you configure the system’s network addresses and lets you control, configure, and monitor the appliance.

4

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

SNMP Network Management

The appliance can be monitored and managed through SNMP network management facilities. The appliance supports two management information bases (MIBs). The first, MIB-2 is a well known standard MIB. The second, the proprietary Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance MIB provides more specific node and cluster information.

Performance reporting

You can get performance statistics at a glance from the Manager UI or from the command-line interface.

How to use this guide

The rest of this guide contains three parts: background information, procedural chapters, and reference appendixes.

 

To find out about …

See …

 

 

 

Procedures

how to get started

Starting the system for the first time‚ on

 

 

page 8

 

 

 

 

how to use the Manager UI

Accessing the Manager UI‚ on page 12

 

 

 

 

how to monitor and configure the

Using Monitor and Configure mode‚ on

 

appliance using the Manager UI

page 13

 

 

 

 

how to use the command line

Accessing the command-line interface‚

 

interface

on page 15

 

 

 

 

how to upgrade software

Installing a new version of the appliance

 

 

software‚ on page 56

 

 

 

 

how to troubleshoot system

Chapter 6‚ Troubleshooting Problems

 

problems

 

 

 

 

Appendices

background information including

Appendix A‚ Caching Solutions and

 

web proxy caching, transparent

Performance

 

proxy caching, server acceleration,

 

 

cache hierarchies, news article

 

 

caching, and carrier-class

 

 

architecture

 

 

 

 

 

error messages

Appendix B‚ Error Messages

 

 

 

Chapter 1 Introduction

5

Chapter 2

Getting Started

This chapter contains the following sections:

Starting the system for the first time‚ on page 8

Accessing the Manager UI‚ on page 12

Accessing the command-line interface‚ on page 15

Verifying that caching works‚ on page 15

Changing passwords‚ on page 15

7

Starting the system for the first time

Before you can start the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance, make sure it is physically connected properly. Connections include:

Connecting to the network through the primary network interface.

Connecting a Terminal Emulator or Concentrator to the appliance’s COM1 port using the serial cable that came packaged with the appliance.

Attaching the supplied power cord to the appliance and plugging the cord into an approved receptacle.

You can find instructions on how to physically set up your system in the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Quick Start.

Note Safety regulations and warranty require that the front bezel mounts and panel must be in place during operation of the appliance.

Once you have made the physical connections, you can initially configure your appliance and start it up.

Initially configuring and starting your system

1From the Terminal Emulator or Serial Concentrator, make sure you are emulating a VT100 terminal. Use these port specifications for the connection:

9600 baud

8 data bits

No parity

1 stop bit

Hardware flow control

2From the window emulating the VT100 terminal, open the connection to the appliance.

3Power on the appliance by pressing the power button, located behind the front bezel. Supplying power to the appliance starts the initial boot process. The initial boot process takes approximately three to four minutes. During this time random characters might appear on the screen of your VT100 terminal emulator.

Note

See the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Quick Start for locations of

 

controls and physical features on your system.

8

Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

4

After your system completes the boot procedure, a console login prompt

 

appears with fields for both a login and password. At the prompt, supply

 

admin for both the login and password, and press Enter.

5

After you login, the VT100 terminal emulator screen displays this initial set

 

of menu selections.

 

—setup

Initial Intel Cache Setup

 

install

Install Intel Cache

 

commit

Commit Setup Changes

6

Use the arrow keys to select setup and press the Enter key.

Note

For information on how to navigate within the CLI, refer to Navigating the

 

command-line interface‚ on page 51.

7The setup menu appears. This menu allows you to configure network and time parameters as well as view settings you have entered.

—network

Configure Network

timezone

Configure Time Zone

time

Configure Date and Time

view

View Settings

8Use the arrow keys to select network and press the Enter key. The following network setup fields appear:

Enter IP Address

192.168.1.10______________

Enter Hostname

Intel-NetStructure-Cache__

Enter Netmask

255.255.255.0_____________

Enter Nameserver IP

__________________________

Enter Gateway IP

192.168.1.1_______________

Enter Domain

_________________________

9In each field supply an appropriate value and press the Enter key. Pressing the Enter key moves the cursor to the next field. After you have supplied values for all six fields, press CTRL+X to save your changes and return to the previous menu.

10The bottom of the screen displays a message that indicates the setup has completed. When the message appears, entries to the screen have been successfully changed and stored. The menu on this screen should appear as follows:

network

Configure Network

–timezone

Configure Time Zone

time

Configure Date and Time

view

View Settings

Chapter 2 Getting Started

9

11Use the arrow keys to highlight timezone and press the Enter key. Pressing the Enter key causes a scrollable list of available timzones to appear. Here is a partial list:

–United States Eastern

United States Central

United States Mountain

United States Pacific

12Use the arrow keys to scroll through the available zones and highlight the appropriate zone for your area. After highlighting the applicable zone, press the Enter key. Next, press any key to save your selection and return to the previous screen as follows:

network

Configure Network

timezone

Configure Time Zone

–time

Configure Date and Time

view

View Settings

Note In order for the timezone change to become effective, the appliance must be rebooted. A reboot operation occurs later during the initial setup.

13Use the arrow keys to highlight time and press the Enter key. Pressing the Enter key causes the following fields to appear:

Enable(1)/Disable(0) Daylight Savings Time__

Currently Inside (1)/Outside(0) Daylight Savings Time__

Enter

Time

[HH:MM:SS]

__:__:__

Enter

Date

[MM/DD/YYYY]

__/__/__

14Set your Daylight Savings Time options. Then enter the time using a 24-hour format (e.g., for 2:14:56 PM enter 14:14:56). For each part of the format, you must press Enter to accept the value and to move to the next part of the field. For example, after entering the two-digit hour value, pressing Enter causes the value to be accepted and positions the cursor over the minutes part of the time field. Supply the date using the MM/DD/YYYY format. After supplying the date, press the CTRL-X key combination to save your changes and return to the previous menu as follows:

network

Configure Network

timezone

Configure Time Zone

time

Configure Date and Time

–view

View Settings

15From this menu you can select view to verify the network and time information you have entered. After you are sure all the information you have entered is correct, press the CTRL-X key combination twice to move back to the main menu as follows:

setup

Initial Intel Cache Setup

–install

Install Intel Cache

commit

Commit Setup Changes

16From the main screen, highlight install and press the Enter key. Selecting install causes the settings to be written to the boot image. During the

10 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

installation, the bottom of the screen keeps you apprised of the installation’s progress.

17After the installation is complete, use the arrow keys to position the cursor on commit as follows:

setup

Initial Intel Cache Setup

install

Install Intel Cache

–commit

Commit Setup Changes

18Pressing the Enter key starts the final phase of the initialization process as well as the cache application. The bottom of the screen indicates that the cache application has started and prompts you to press the Enter key a second time.

19When the Initialization Complete! prompt appears, press the Enter key to reboot the appliance. Rebooting the appliance takes several minutes. During the reboot process, random characters might appear in the window of the VT100 terminal emulator screen.

20After your system completes the boot procedure, a console login prompt appears with fields for both a login and password. At the prompt, supply admin for both the login and password, and press Enter.

21After the login completes, the initial menu appears with additional selections:

setup

Initial Intel Cache Setup

–main

Main Intel Cache Controls

config

Intel Cache Configuration

monitor

View Statistics

expert

Enter Expert Mode

save

Save Config to Floppy

load

Load Config from Floppy

logoff

Logoff

Note The system starts with factory settings. You can further configure or customize the appliance by following the guidelines in Chapter 4‚ Configuring the Appliance.

Once the software is running, you can access the system through a web browser by using the system’s IP Address with an appended :8081 as the URL. For information on accessing the manager UI, refer to Accessing the Manager UI‚ on page 12.

Chapter 2 Getting Started

11

Accessing the Manager UI

The Manager UI is a browser-based interface, consisting of a series of web pages. Use the Manager UI to monitor performance and configure and fine-tune selected nodes in your cluster. You can access any node in the cluster through the same Manager UI.

Accessing the Manager UI

1Open your web browser.

The Manager UI requires Java and JavaScript; be sure to enable Java and JavaScript.

2Point your browser at this location, where nodename is the IP address you have assigned to the appliance or the qualified DNS name. If the appliance is part of a cluster, you will be logging into that specific node:

http://nodename:8081/

3Provide your appliance administrator’s ID and password. By default, the administrator ID is admin and the password is admin. It is recommended that you change the default administrator ID and password. You can change these values by using the Security page. For information on how to use the

Security page, see Using the Security page‚ on page 39.

Note

Should you forget your password, contact Customer Service at Intel

 

Corporation for assistance. For information on how to contact Intel Customer

 

Service, see the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Product Support booklet

 

that came with your system.

Note

Changing ID and password values by using the Manager UI changes those

 

values for the node you are logging into only. Furthermore, changing the ID

 

and password for the Manager UI does not change the ID and password for

 

telnet access. You must use the command-line interface (CLI) to change the

 

telnet ID and password for the node.

 

The Manager UI appears in your browser in the default monitor mode. The

 

Dashboard page, as shown Figure 1, is the default page. From the

 

MONITOR and CONFIGURE tabs to the left of the Dashboard page, you

 

can reach all other Manager UI pages.

12 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Figure 1 The Dashboard page

Using Monitor and Configure mode

The Manager UI has two modes, Monitor and Configure:

In Monitor mode, view performance statistics and graphs. To access Monitor mode, click the top of the MONITOR tab.

In Configure mode, view and modify the appliance’s configuration options. To access Configure mode, click the top of the CONFIGURE tab.

Chapter 2 Getting Started

13

Figure 2 shows the control frame buttons for both the Monitor and Configure modes.

Monitor mode frame

Configure mode frame

Figure 2 The Monitor and Configure Control Frames

When you are in Monitor mode, you can access all the pages that report information about the appliance’s performance. With the exception of the information on the Dashboard page, information on the Monitor pages pertain to the selected node. You can change nodes at any time by returning to the Dashboard and clicking the node of your choice. For information about how to use each of the performance screens, see Accessing monitor pages‚ on page 18.

When you are in Configure mode, you can access pages that change system configuration values for the selected node. Each time you click the Make These Changes button the selected node’s configuration is updated.

Note It is recommended that you save current configuration values before making any changes.

To save and restore an entire set of configuration files, refer to Using the Snapshots page‚ on page 47. For information about all the values you can set in Configuration mode, see Chapter 4‚ Configuring the Appliance.

14 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Using online help

Both the MONITOR and CONFIGURE tabs have a Help page button. When you click the Help page button, the online help opens in another browser window. Each of the Manager UI pages has online help available.

Accessing the command-line interface

You can access the command-line interface using one of two methods:

Provide a serial connection to the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance machine. Refer to the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Quick Start Guide for detailed information.

Access the machine through a telnet connection. This method requires you to enter a telnet Administrator ID and password. Refer to Changing the administrator password for telnet or serial access‚ on page 60 for information on this ID and password.

For information on using the command-line interface, refer to Chapter 1‚ Using the Command-Line Interface.

Verifying that caching works

After starting the appliance, you should verify that it is up and running. To see if the appliance is processing HTTP requests, do the following:

1From the Monitor tab in the Manager UI, click the Protocols button.

2Make a note of the current HTTP User Agent Total Document Bytes statistic.

3Set your browser to the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance proxy port.

4Browse the Internet.

5Check the HTTP User Agent Total Document Bytes value. This value should have increased if caching is working.

Changing passwords

Two IDs and passwords exist for each appliance: one to access the Manager UI and one to access the CLI when you are connected to the appliance through a telnet or serial connection. By default, the appliance uses admin for both the Administrator’s ID and password in each case.

For a given Manager UI session, an ID and password are required the first time you access an appliance or the cluster, or when you attempt to connect to a node through a telnet connection. The Administrator’s ID and password are unique for each node in the cluster. It is recommended that you change the default

Chapter 2 Getting Started

15

Administrator’s ID and password for both telnet and Manager UI access as soon as possible after installing each node.

To change the password for the Manager UI, see Using the Security page‚ on page 39. To change the password for the telnet or serial connection, see

Changing the administrator password for telnet or serial access‚ on page 60.

16 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Chapter 3

Monitoring Appliance Performance

This chapter describes how to use the Manager UI to collect and interpret performance statistics on the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance.

This chapter contains the following sections:

Accessing monitor pages‚ on page 18

Using the Dashboard page‚ on page 18

Using the Node page‚ on page 20

Using the Graphs page‚ on page 21

Using the Protocols page‚ on page 21

Using the Cache page‚ on page 21

Using the ARM page‚ on page 21

Using the Other page‚ on page 22

Using the MRTG page‚ on page 22

17

Accessing monitor pages

The Manager UI uses monitor pages to present performance information on the selected appliance and the cluster as a whole. A monitor page is a browser page displayed as a result of “clicking” on a page button in the Manager UI. By default, the Manager UI starts in monitor mode (as opposed to configure mode), which displays Monitor page buttons.

Reaching Monitor pages

1 Open your browser to the Manager UI.

2 Enter the Administrator ID and password. By default, the Administrator ID is admin and the password is also admin. Intel recommends that the administrator change these values when the appliance is initially installed.

Note

Should you forget your password, contact Customer Service at Intel

 

Corporation for assistance. For information on how to contact Intel Customer

 

Service, see the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Product Support booklet

 

that came with your system.

 

3 Click on a MONITOR tab.

Note

Some performance displays rely on Java. To use the Monitor pages or any

 

other pages in the UI, make sure your browser is set to enable Java and

 

JavaScript.

 

Information displayed on the monitor mode pages fall into two categories:

 

information for the selected node in the cluster, and information for the cluster as

 

a whole. To view information on a given node, you need to access that node as

 

described in Changing the selected node‚ on page 20.

Using the Dashboard page

The Dashboard page provides a concise view of the appliance and of the cluster. The page displays all nodes in the cluster by name and tracks essential statistics for each node. In the list of nodes, a single node is currently selected. Its name appears in black text without underlining, while the rest of the node names appear appear as hypertext links.

Reaching the Dashboard page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Dashboard page button.

Note

Nodespecific information

By default, the Dashboard page appears after you log onto Manager UI with your Administrator ID and password.

With the exception of the information on the Dashboard page and the cluster information on the Node page, performance information pertains to a single node.

18 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Use the Dashboard page to:

Select a node

See which nodes are on and which are off

See if an alarm condition exists on any node

If an alarm condition exists, you can click the alarm light to view a description of the alarm and resolve it.

See the number (cumulative to date) of objects served to users from each node

See the traffic load (as current transactions per second)

The meter dial shows you how hard a node is working. When the needle is to the left on the dial, the work load is light. When the needle is to the far right (red), the node is overloaded.

Dashboard alert lights

The Dashboard contains two alert lights: an on/off light and an alarm light. Alert lights indicate the following about a node:

Alert light

Condition

Description

 

 

 

on/off light

Green

Caching is active.

 

 

 

on/off light

Dark

Caching is not active.

 

 

 

alarm light

Green

No alarms.

 

 

 

alarm light

Red with link to alarms

Alarms exist for that node. Click the

 

 

red alarm light for more information.

 

 

 

alarm light

Yellow

A cluster problem exists.

 

 

 

Resolving alarms

Alarms alert you to problems or warn you of potential problems. Alarm conditions themselves are built into the appliance—you cannot change them.

If an alarm light is on, you can click it to view a description of the alarm conditions. Click the Resolve button to acknowledge that you have been informed of the condition.

Important Clicking the Resolve button only dismisses alarm messages; it does not actually resolve the cause of the alarms.

Exposing node detail

Click the More Detail link to expose the following information for the listed nodes in the cluster:

Cache hit rate

Cache hit rate, fresh

Chapter 3 Monitoring Appliance Performance

19

Cache hit rate, refresh

Errors

Aborts

Active clients/servers

Average fresh hit

Note Online help provides descriptions for each of these statistics.

Changing the selected node

As mentioned earlier, information on pages accessed in monitor mode exists for the selected node and for the cluster as a whole. You start the process to change the selected node from the Dashboard page by clicking on a node name.

Changing the selected node

1 Click on the node name.

2 Provide the Administrator ID and password, if necessary. It is only necessary to log on to a node once during a given Manager UI session.

Note

Should you forget your password, contact Customer Service at Intel

 

Corporation for assistance. For information on how to contact Intel Customer

 

Service, see the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Product Support booklet

 

that came with your system.

 

After changing the selected node, that name appears as black text without

 

underlining, while the remaining node names appear as hypertext links.

 

If you need more information about the selected node, click the Node page

 

button (described in Using the Node page‚ on page 20).

Note

The online help provides descriptions of each of the statistics in the Dashboard

 

page.

Using the Node page

The Node page provides performance statistics for the currently selected node in your cluster and the cluster as a whole. These statistics include document hit rates, DNS lookups, and client and server transactions.

Reaching the Node Page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Node page button.

Note Online help provides descriptions for each of the statistics on the Node page.

20 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Using the Graphs page

The Graphs page provides a list of options for generating performance graphs for cache results, garbage collection, transfer rates, and object size for the currently selected node.

Reaching the Graphs page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Graphs page button.

Once you reach the Graphs page, click a link to generate a graph for viewing.

Using the Protocols page

The Protocols page provides cluster-wide statistics for use of the HTTP, FTP, NNTP, ICP, and WCCP protocols for the selected node.

Reaching the Protocols page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Protocols page button.

Note Online help provides descriptions for each of the statistics in the Protocols page.

Using the Cache page

The Cache page provides cache statistics for the selected node. Cache statistics report cumulative and current information about connections, transactions, object reads and writes, and document hits and misses.

Reaching the Cache page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Cache page button.

Note Online help provides descriptions of each of the statistics in the Cache page.

Using the ARM page

The ARM page provides statistics about the Adaptive Redirection Module used for transparent proxy caching for the selected node. The statistics include information about ARM configuration, WCCP fragments (if you are using a WCCP-enabled router), the Network Address Table (NAT), and security (for example, the number of dropped TCP connections).

Chapter 3 Monitoring Appliance Performance

21

Reaching the ARM page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Arm page button.

Note Online help provides descriptions of each of the statistics in the ARM page.

Using the Other page

The Other page reports statistics for the various appliance functions, including host database and DNS lookups for the selected node.

Reaching the Other page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the Other page button.

Host database and

DNS statistics

If you see more lookups on the DNS server than in the host database, you might need to increase the size of your database or adjust database time-out settings. Or, you might need to adjust the time-out and retry settings for DNS look-ups. To make adjustments, see Using the Host Database page‚ on page 44.

Note Online help provides descriptions of each of the statistics in the Other page.

Using the MRTG page

Multi Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) is a graphing tool that enables you to monitor the appliance’s performance. The MRTG page shows information about virtual memory usage, client connections, document hit rates, hit and miss rates, and so on. MRTG uses five-minute intervals to formulate the statistics and provides useful historical information about your appliance’s performance.

Reaching the MRTG page

1 Be sure you are in monitor mode. If not, click the MONITOR tab.

2 Click the MRTG page button.

Once the page is displayed, click on a graph to see daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly statistics for that particular graph.

You can also click on the daily view link at the bottom of the MRTG page to see daily statistics and on the weekly view link to see weekly statistics. Clicking on these links provides a more extensive selection of related graphs.

Note Online help provides descriptions of the graphs.

22 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Chapter 4

Configuring the Appliance

This chapter describes the configuration options that control the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance behavior and performance, and instructs you on how to set these values in the Manager UI.

This chapter contains the following sections:

Accessing configure pages‚ on page 24

Using the Server Basics page‚ on page 24

Using the Protocols page‚ on page 30

Using the Cache page‚ on page 35

Using the Security page‚ on page 39

Using the Routing page‚ on page 39

Using the Host Database page‚ on page 44

Using the Snapshots page‚ on page 47

23

Accessing configure pages

The Manager UI uses configure pages to display and allow configuration changes to the selected appliance. A configure page is a browser page displayed as a result of “clicking” on a configure page button in the Manager UI.

Note Some performance displays rely on Java. To use the configure pages or any other pages in the UI, make sure your browser is set to enable Java and JavaScript.

Reaching the configure pages

1 Open your browser to the Manager UI.

2 Enter the Administrator ID and password. By default, the Administrator ID is admin and the password is also admin. It is recommended that you change these default values as soon as possible after the appliance is installed.

Note

Should you forget your password, contact Customer Service at Intel

 

Corporation for assistance. For information on how to contact Intel Customer

 

Service, see the Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Product Support booklet

 

that came with your system.

3Click the CONFIGURE tab.

After you click the CONFIGURE tab, the Server Basics page appears.

Each configure page allows you to control certain configuration settings for the selected node in a cluster. To update a setting you must provide relevant data or choices and then click the accompanying Make These Changes button on the configure page.

The following sections describe each configure page in detail.

Using the Server Basics page

The Server Basics page lets you:

Turn cache and proxy services on or off

Identify the appliance name

Restart or reconfigure the caching software

Configure the use of virtual IP addresses

Auto configure browsers to connect to the appliance

Throttle appliance connections

Enable SNMP agents

Reaching the Server Basics page

If you are in monitor mode, click the CONFIGURE tab.

If you are in configure mode, click Server page button.

24 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Setting general options

The following table describes the general configuration settings in the Intel NetStructure Cache section.

Option

Description

 

 

on/off

Enables or disables caching. When you disable

 

caching, you shut down all cache and proxy

 

services on a node-by-node basis. That is, you

 

can turn caching on or off only one node at a time.

 

You must disable cache services before

 

performing certain maintenance tasks.

 

 

Intel NetStructure Cache

Displays the hostname for the appliance. By

Cluster name

default, the name assumes a standalone node

 

and displays the hostname for the appliance as

 

the cluster name. If you are configuring an

 

appliance to be part of an existing management

 

cluster, you must enter the cache cluster name.

Local Domain Expansion on/off

Enables or disables local domain expansion.

If you want the appliance to attempt to resolve unqualified hostnames by expanding to the local domain, enable expansion. For example, if a user makes a request to an unqualified host named host_x, and if the appliance’s local domain is y.com, the appliance will expand the hostname to host_x.y.com.

.com Domain Expansion on/off

Enables or disables .com domain expansion.

If you want the appliance to attempt to resolve unqualified hostnames by redirecting them to the expanded address prepended with www. and appended with .com, enable expansion. For example, if a user makes a request to inktomi, the appliance redirects the request to www.inktomi.com.

If local domain expansion is enabled, the appliance attempts local domain expansion before .com domain expansion; the appliance tries .com domain expansion only if local domain expansion fails.

Chapter 4 Configuring the Appliance

25

Setting Web management options

The Web Management section lets you restart the cluster and specify refresh rates as observed in monitor mode. The following table describes these configuration settings.

Option

Description

 

 

Restart

Restarts the entire cluster.

 

You must restart the cluster to effect changes you have

 

made to port numbers and virtual IP addresses on the

 

selected node. Restarting the cluster takes about 15

 

seconds, during which time cache and proxy services

 

are disabled.

 

 

Refresh rate in

Specifies the refresh rate for the display of the graphs

Monitor mode

and statistics with which you can monitor the appliance’s

 

performance.

 

 

Setting virtual IP addressing options

The Virtual IP Addressing section lets you define and maintain the appliance’s pool of virtual IP addresses.

The appliance keeps a pool of IP addresses as virtual IP addresses from which to draw and assign IP addresses to nodes as necessary. This practice assures that if a node in the cluster fails, other nodes can assume the failed node’s responsibilities.

What are virtual IP addresses?

Virtual IP addresses are really just IP addresses. They are called virtual addresses because they are not tethered to particular machines and can rotate among nodes in a cluster.

It is common for a single machine to represent multiple IP addresses on the same subnet. This machine would have a primary or real IP address bound to its interface card and would also serve many more virtual addresses.

Using virtual IP addressing for node failover

You can set up your user base to use a DNS round-robin pointing at virtual IP addresses, as opposed to using the real IP addresses of the appliance machines in the cluster.

Because virtual IP addresses are not bound to machines, a cluster can steal addresses from inactive nodes and distribute those addresses among the remaining live nodes.

Using a proprietary management protocol, appliance nodes communicate their status with their peers. If a node fails, its peers notice the failure and quickly negotiate which of the remaining nodes will mask the fault by taking over the failed node’s virtual interface.

26 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

The following table describes the Virtual IP Addressing configuration settings.

Option

Description

 

 

Virtual IP on/off

Enables or disables virtual IP addressing.

 

If virtual IP addressing is disabled, appliance nodes cannot

 

cover each other’s failures.

 

 

Edit virtual IP

Allows you to edit your list of virtual IP addresses. Changes

addresses

will not be effective until you click the Restart button on the

 

same page.

 

Incorrect IP addressing can effectively disable your system.

 

Make sure you understand how virtual IP addresses work

 

before you change them. If you do not assign a range of

 

valid virtual IP addresses to the appliance’s manager

 

process, nodes cannot cover each other’s failures.

 

 

Adding entries to the Virtual IP address list

You can add or change entries in the Virtual IP address pool by modifying the appliance’s Virtual IP address list.

Modifying the Virtual IP address list

1 On the Server Basics page, scroll to the Virtual IP Addressing section.

2Click the Edit virtual IP addresses link.

The Virtual IP page appears. You can add, remove, or modify Virtual IP addresses by clicking the Add Entry, Delete, or Modify buttons.

Adding a Virtual IP address

1Click the Add Entry button in the Virtual IP page.

2In the IP Address field, enter the virtual IP address.

3In the Device field, enter the network interface name (for example, iprb0).

4In the Subinterface field, enter the subinterface-ID.

This is the number between 1-255 that the interface uses for the address.

5Click the Add button.

Note

To reset the fields, click the Reset button.

Handling

If you have multiple network interfaces, the appliance monitors the state of the

multiple

interfaces and detects failure. It does this by sending ICMP echo requests, much

interfaces

like the ping command.

Chapter 4 Configuring the Appliance

27

Setting browser auto configuration options

The Autoconfiguration of Browsers section lets you specify an auto configuration file for the selected node. Web browsers use the appliance by specifying a preference to use a proxy server, usually through an auto configuration file.

Note Users must set their browsers to connect to the appliance’s auto configuration file. For information on setting your browser to use a proxy, such as the appliance, see your browser documentation. If you are using the transparency option, you do not need auto configuration files.

The following table describes the section’s options.

Option

Description

 

 

Autoconfiguration

Allows you to create or edit an auto configuration file.

file

 

 

 

Setting throttling of network connections

The Throttling of Network Connections section lets you set a limit on the number of connections the appliance can have. Setting limits on the connections helps to prevent system overload when traffic bottlenecks develop. When network connections reach the limit, new connections are queued until existing connections close.

Note This section is available only if transparency is disabled. If you enable transparency, you do not see this option. See Configuring load-shedding‚ on page 28 for information about the transparency load shedding option.

The following table describes the section’s options.

Option

Description

 

 

Maximum Number

Specifies the maximum number of connections that the

of Connections

appliance can have.

 

 

Configuring load-shedding

The Load Shedding section lets you configure how the appliance handles overloaded conditions.

When transparency is enabled, the appliance handles overload conditions by forwarding a percentage of new requests to origin servers. You can configure the appliance to automatically shed load if the HTTP-hit transaction times become too long. For example, suppose that the lower limit for HTTP hit-transaction time is 500 milliseconds and the upper limit is 1000 milliseconds. Given these limits, the following is true:

If it takes the appliance more than 500 milliseconds to serve a fresh hit, it begins to shed load.

28 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

If it takes the appliance more than 750 milliseconds, it begins to shed 50% of its load.

If the fresh-hit transaction time exceeds 1000 milliseconds, the appliance begins to shed 100% of its load.

Load shedding is temporary; when hit-transaction times return to acceptable levels, the appliance reverts to handling all incoming requests.

The following table describes the options.

Option

Description

 

 

HTTP hit transaction time - low

The lower limit for HTTP transaction

watermark

time in milliseconds.

 

When the average hit transaction time

 

reaches this value, the appliance

 

forwards a percentage of incoming

 

client requests directly to the origin

 

server.

 

 

HTTP hit transaction time - high

The upper limit for HTTP transaction

watermark

time in milliseconds.

 

When the average hit transaction time

 

reaches this value, the appliance

 

forwards all incoming client requests

 

directly to the origin server.

 

 

Enabling SNMP agents

The SNMP section lets you enable an SNMP agent to monitor information about the appliance and send warning messages, called SNMP traps, to SNMP monitoring stations.

The following table describes the options.

Option

Description

 

 

SNMP Agent on/off

Enables or disables an SNMP agent.

 

The appliance SNMP agent supports

 

access to two management

 

information bases (MIBs): MIB-2 (a

 

standard MIB) and the Intel

 

NetStructure Cache Appliance MIB.

 

Enabling the SNMP agent on allows

 

access to both.

 

 

Chapter 4 Configuring the Appliance

29

Using the Protocols page

The Protocols page lets you view and change the selected appliance’s protocol configuration. You can tune HTTP, NNTP, and FTP timeout intervals; and configure the appliance to remove HTTP headers from documents to protect site and user privacy.

Reaching the Protocols page

1 Be sure you are in configure mode. If not, click the CONFIGURE tab.

2 Click the Protocols page button.

The Protocols page is divided into four sections for configuring HTTP, NNTP, HTTPS, and FTP.

Configuring HTTP

The HTTP section lets you configure the appliance’s handling of HTTP. The following table describes the section’s options.

Option

Definition

 

 

Keep-Alive

Specifies how long the appliance should keep connections to

Timeout

users open for a subsequent request after a transaction ends.

Inbound

If the user does not make another request before the timeout

 

 

expires, the appliance closes the connection. If the user does

 

make another request, the timeout period starts over.

 

The user can close the connection at any time.

 

 

Keep-Alive

Specifies how long the appliance should keep open the

Timeout

connections to Web servers (content servers) for a

Outbound

subsequent transfer of data after a transaction ends.

 

If the appliance does not need to make a subsequent request

 

for data before the timeout expires, it closes the connection.

 

Once the connection is closed, the timeout period starts over.

 

The Web server can close the connection at any time.

 

 

Inactivity

Specifies how long the appliance should keep connections to

Timeout

users open if a transaction stalls. If the appliance stops

Inbound

receiving data from a user or the user stops reading the data,

 

the appliance closes the connection when this timeout

 

expires.

 

The user can close the connection at any time.

 

 

Inactivity

Specifies how long the appliance should keep open

Timeout

connections to Web servers if the transaction stalls. If the

Outbound

appliance stops receiving data from a Web server, the

 

appliance will not close the connection until this timeout has

 

expired.

 

The Web server can close the connection at any time.

 

 

30 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

Option

Definition (Continued)

 

 

Activity

Specifies the maximum time the appliance should remain

timeout

connected to a user. If the user does not finish making a

Inbound

request (reading and writing data) before this timeout expires,

 

the appliance closes the connection.

 

The user can close the connection at any time.

 

 

Activity

Specifies the maximum time the appliance should wait for

Timeout

fulfillment of a connection request to a Web server. If the

Outbound

appliance does not establish a connection to a Web server

 

before this timeout expires, the appliance terminates the

 

connection request.

 

The Web server can close the connection at any time.

 

 

Remove the

Specifies headers for removal. Removing headers can protect

following

the privacy of your site:

common

The From header. This header identifies the user’s e-mail

headers

address

 

 

The Referer header. This header identifies the Web link

 

followed by the user.

 

The User-Agent header. This header identifies the

 

agent—usually a browser—making the request.

 

The Cookie header. This header is often used to identify

 

the user making a request.

 

 

Insert Client-ip

Insert Client-ip headers to retain client IP addresses.

 

 

Remove

Remove Client-ip headers for more privacy.

Client-ip

 

 

 

User

Selects the language in which messages to the user from the

Language

appliance are displayed. The default language is English.

 

 

Configuring NNTP

The NNTP section lets you configure basic NNTP options. While this section lets you configure basic options, you must use the command-line interface to configure the appliance to cache articles from particular NNTP servers and news groups as well as to set access restrictions and authentication requirements for news readers. See Configuring NNTP servers‚ on page 65 for more information.

Chapter 4 Configuring the Appliance

31

The following table describes the options.

Option

Definition

 

 

NNTP Server

Enables or disables the appliance to cache and serve news

on/off

articles.

 

After turning NNTP on or off for the selected node, you must

 

restart the cluster to effect the change. Click the Restart

 

button on the Server Basics page.

 

 

NNTP Server

Specifies the port that the appliance uses for serving NNTP

Port

requests. The default port is 119.

 

 

Connect

Defines the message displayed to news readers when they

Message

connect to the appliance with posting allowed.

(posting

 

allowed)

 

 

 

Connect

Defines the message displayed to news readers when they

Message

connect to the appliance with posting not allowed.

(posting not

 

allowed)

 

 

 

NNTP options

Posting: Allows users to post NNTP articles to parent

 

NNTP servers.

 

Access Control: Turns access control on or off. To refine

 

access control, use the command-line interface. See

 

Configuring NNTP access‚ on page 69 for more

 

information.

 

If you are using an authentication server, you must enter its

 

name and port (see page 33).

 

NNTP V2 Authentication Server: Supports NNTP version 2

 

authentication. Use this option only if all of your client

 

authentication supports version 2.

 

Run Local Authentication Server: Runs an authentication

 

program on the selected node. Use the command-line

 

interface to configure which clients must be authenticated.

 

See Configuring NNTP access‚ on page 69 for more

 

information.

 

Allow Feeds: Allows the appliance to accept feeds of news

 

articles from feed or push groups.

 

Use the command-line interface to designate feed and

 

push groups. The appliance does not cache news articles

 

from feed groups; instead, it receives feeds of news articles

 

as the parent NNTP server receives feeds. Push groups

 

are groups for which the appliance can both retrieve

 

articles on demand and receive news feeds.

 

See Configuring NNTP servers‚ on page 65 for information

 

about designating news groups as push or feed.

 

 

32 Intel NetStructure Cache Appliance Administrator’s Guide

+ 132 hidden pages