4RF SRN0400025A User Manual

Loading...

February 2013

Version 1.5.3a

| 1

Copyright

Copyright © 2013 4RF Limited. All rights reserved.

This document is protected by copyright belonging to 4RF Limited and may not be reproduced or republished in whole or part in any form without the prior written permission of 4RF Limited.

Trademarks

Aprisa and the 4RF logo are trademarks of 4RF Limited.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-related trademarks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.

Disclaimer

Although every precaution has been taken preparing this information, 4RF Limited assumes no liability for errors and omissions, or any damages resulting from use of this information. This document or the equipment may change, without notice, in the interests of improving the product.

RoHS and WEEE Compliance

The Aprisa SR is fully compliant with the European Commission’s RoHS (Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) environmental directives.

Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS)

The RoHS Directive prohibits the sale in the European Union of electronic equipment containing these hazardous substances: lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

4RF has worked with its component suppliers to ensure compliance with the RoHS Directive which came into effect on the 1st July 2006.

End-of-life recycling programme (WEEE)

The WEEE Directive concerns the recovery, reuse, and recycling of electronic and electrical equipment. Under the Directive, used equipment must be marked, collected separately, and disposed of properly.

4RF has instigated a programme to manage the reuse, recycling, and recovery of waste in an environmentally safe manner using processes that comply with the WEEE Directive (EU Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2002/96/EC).

4RF invites questions from customers and partners on its environmental programmes and compliance with the European Commission’s Directives (sales@4RF.com).

Aprisa SR User Manual

2 |

Compliance General

The Aprisa SR digital radio predominantly operates within frequency bands that require a site license be issued by the radio regulatory authority with jurisdiction over the territory in which the equipment is being operated.

It is the responsibility of the user, before operating the equipment, to ensure that where required the appropriate license has been granted and all conditions attendant to that license have been met.

Changes or modifications not approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.

Equipment authorizations sought by 4RF are based on the Aprisa SR radio equipment being installed at a fixed location and operated in point-to-multipoint or point-to-point mode within the environmental profile defined by EN 300 019, Class 3.4. Operation outside these criteria may invalidate the authorizations and / or license conditions.

The term ‘Radio’ with reference to the Aprisa SR User Manual, is a generic term for one end station of a point-to-multipoint Aprisa SR network and does not confer any rights to connect to any public network or to operate the equipment within any territory.

Compliance European Telecommunications Standards Institute

The Aprisa SR radio is designed to comply with the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) specifications as follows:

 

 

12.5 kHz Channel

 

25 kHz Channel

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radio performance

 

EN 300 113-2

 

EN 302 561

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

EN 301 489 Parts 1 & 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency band

Channel size

Power input

Notified

 

 

 

 

 

body

 

 

 

 

136-174 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz

12 VDC

 

 

 

 

 

400-470 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz

12 VDC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

| 3

Compliance Federal Communications Commission

The Aprisa SR radio is designed to comply with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) specifications as follows:

Radio performance / EMC

47CFR part 90 Private Land Mobile Radio Services

 

 

47CFR part 15 Radio Frequency Devices

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency band

Channel

Power

Authorization

 

FCC ID

limits

size

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

406.1 to 454.0 MHz

12.5 kHz

12 VDC

Part 90 Certification

 

UIPSRN0400012A

456.0 to 470.0 MHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

Compliance Industry Canada

The Aprisa SR radio is designed to comply with Industry Canada (IC) specifications as follows:

Radio performance

RSS-GEN

 

 

 

 

RSS-119

 

 

EMC

 

This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian

 

 

standard ICES-003.

 

 

 

Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à

 

 

la norme NMB-003 du Canada.

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency band

Channel

Power

 

Authorization

IC ID

limits

size

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

406.1 to 430.0 MHz

12.5 kHz

12 VDC

 

RSS-119

6772A-SRN400

450.0 to 470.0 MHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

4 |

RF Exposure Warning

WARNING:

The installer and / or user of Aprisa SR radios shall ensure that a separation distance as given in the following table is maintained between the main axis of the terminal’s antenna and the body of the user or nearby persons.

Minimum separation distances given are based on the maximum values of the following methodologies:

1.Maximum Permissible Exposure non-occupational limit (B or general public) of 47 CFR 1.1310 and the methodology of FCC’s OST/OET Bulletin number 65.

2.Reference levels as given in Annex III, European Directive on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC). These distances will ensure indirect compliance with the requirements of EN 50385:2002.

Frequency (MHz)

Maximum Power

Maximum Antenna

Minimum Separation

 

(dBm)

Gain (dBi)

Distance

 

 

 

(m)

 

 

 

 

136

+ 37

15

2.5

 

 

 

 

174

+ 37

15

2.5

 

 

 

 

330

+ 37

15

2.5

 

 

 

 

400

+ 37

15

2.5

 

 

 

 

470

+ 37

15

2.3

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

 

 

Contents | 5

Contents

 

1.

Getting Started ..........................................................................

11

2.

Introduction..............................................................................

13

 

About This Manual...............................................................................

13

 

What It Covers ............................................................................

13

 

Who Should Read It ......................................................................

13

 

Contact Us.................................................................................

13

 

What’s in the Box ...............................................................................

13

 

Aprisa SR Accessory Kit ..................................................................

14

 

Aprisa SR CD Contents ...................................................................

14

 

Software ............................................................................

14

 

Documentation ....................................................................

14

3.

About the Radio .........................................................................

15

 

The 4RF Aprisa SR Radio........................................................................

15

 

Product Overview ...............................................................................

16

 

Network Coverage and Capacity .......................................................

16

 

Remote Messaging........................................................................

16

 

Repeater Messaging ......................................................................

17

 

Product Features ................................................................................

18

 

Functions ..................................................................................

18

 

Performance ..............................................................................

18

 

Usability ...................................................................................

18

 

Architecture...............................................................................

19

 

Product Operation.................................................................

19

 

Physical Layer.............................................................................

19

 

Data Link Layer / MAC layer ............................................................

19

 

Channel Access ....................................................................

19

 

Hop by Hop Transmission.........................................................

20

 

Network Layer ............................................................................

21

 

Packet Routing.....................................................................

21

 

Security ...........................................................................................

22

 

Interfaces.........................................................................................

23

 

Antenna Interface ........................................................................

23

 

Ethernet Interface .......................................................................

23

 

RS-232 Interface..........................................................................

23

 

USB Interfaces ............................................................................

23

 

Front Panel Connections .......................................................................

24

 

LED Display Panel ...............................................................................

25

 

Normal Operation ........................................................................

25

 

Single Radio Software Upgrade.........................................................

25

 

Network Software Upgrade .............................................................

26

 

Test Mode .................................................................................

26

Aprisa SR User Manual

6 | Contents

4. Product Options .........................................................................

27

Dual Antenna Port...............................................................................

27

Protected Station ...............................................................................

28

Operation..................................................................................

28

Configuration Management .............................................................

29

Switch Over ...............................................................................

29

Switching Criteria .................................................................

29

Hardware Manual Lock............................................................

30

Remote Control ....................................................................

30

Installation ................................................................................

31

Mounting ............................................................................

31

Cabling ..............................................................................

31

Power ...............................................................................

31

Maintenance ..............................................................................

32

Changing the Protected Station IP Addresses .................................

32

Protected Station Software Upgrade ...........................................

32

Replacing a Protected Station Faulty Radio ...................................

33

Spares ......................................................................................

34

Replacing a Faulty Protection Switch ..........................................

34

Data Driven Protected Station.................................................................

35

Operation..................................................................................

35

Switch Over ........................................................................

36

Configuration Management ......................................................

36

Installation ................................................................................

37

Mounting ............................................................................

37

Cabling ..............................................................................

38

Power ...............................................................................

38

Duplexer Kit......................................................................................

39

USB RS-232 Serial Port..........................................................................

40

USB RS-232 operation .............................................................

40

Cabling Options ....................................................................

40

5. Implementing the Network ...........................................................

41

Network Topologies .............................................................................

41

Point-To-Point Network ..........................................................

41

Point-to-Multipoint Network .....................................................

41

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 1............................................

41

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 2............................................

41

Initial Network Deployment ...................................................................

42

Install the Base Station ..................................................................

42

Installing the Remote Stations .........................................................

42

Install a Repeater Station ...............................................................

42

Network Changes ................................................................................

43

Adding a Repeater Station ..............................................................

43

Adding a Remote Station ................................................................

43

Aprisa SR User Manual

 

 

Contents | 7

6.

Preparation...............................................................................

45

 

Bench Setup......................................................................................

45

 

Path Planning ....................................................................................

46

 

Antenna Selection and Siting ...........................................................

46

 

Base or Repeater Station.........................................................

46

 

Remote station ....................................................................

47

 

Antenna Siting .....................................................................

48

 

Coaxial Feeder Cables ...................................................................

49

 

Linking System Plan ......................................................................

49

 

Site Requirements...............................................................................

50

 

Power Supply..............................................................................

50

 

Equipment Cooling .......................................................................

50

 

Earthing and Lightning Protection .....................................................

51

 

Feeder Earthing....................................................................

51

 

Radio Earthing .....................................................................

51

7.

Installing the Radio .....................................................................

52

 

Mounting..........................................................................................

52

 

Required Tools ............................................................................

52

 

DIN Rail Mounting ........................................................................

53

 

Rack Shelf Mounting .....................................................................

54

 

Wall Mounting.............................................................................

54

 

Installing the Antenna and Feeder Cable ....................................................

55

 

Connecting the Power Supply .................................................................

56

 

External Power Supplies.................................................................

56

 

Spare Fuses................................................................................

57

 

Additional Spare Fuses............................................................

58

Aprisa SR User Manual

8 | Contents

8. Managing the Radio.....................................................................

59

SuperVisor ........................................................................................

59

Connecting to SuperVisor ...............................................................

59

Management PC Connection .....................................................

60

PC Settings for SuperVisor .......................................................

61

Login to SuperVisor................................................................

65

Logout of SuperVisor ..............................................................

66

SuperVisor Page Layout...........................................................

67

SuperVisor Menu ..........................................................................

71

SuperVisor Menu Access ..........................................................

72

SuperVisor Menu Items............................................................

73

Standard Radio............................................................................

74

Terminal ............................................................................

74

Radio ................................................................................

84

Serial ................................................................................

94

Ethernet ..........................................................................

100

Security ...........................................................................

108

Maintenance......................................................................

122

Events .............................................................................

135

Software ..........................................................................

142

Network Status ..................................................................

158

Protected Station.......................................................................

165

Terminal ..........................................................................

166

Maintenance......................................................................

179

Events .............................................................................

183

Software ..........................................................................

186

Command Line Interface .....................................................................

202

Connecting to the Management Port ................................................

202

CLI Commands ..........................................................................

205

Viewing the CLI Terminal Summary...........................................

206

Changing the Radio IP Address with the CLI .................................

206

In-Service Commissioning ....................................................................

207

Before You Start...............................................................................

207

What You Will Need ....................................................................

207

Antenna Alignment............................................................................

208

Aligning the Antennas .................................................................

208

9. Maintenance ............................................................................

209

No User-Serviceable Components ...........................................................

209

Radio Software Upgrade......................................................................

210

Network Software Upgrade ...........................................................

210

Upgrade Process .................................................................

210

Single Radio Software Upgrade.......................................................

211

File Transfer Method............................................................

211

USB Boot Upgrade Method .....................................................

212

Software Downgrade ............................................................

213

Aprisa SR User Manual

 

 

Contents | 9

10.

Interface Connections ................................................................

214

 

RJ45 Connector Pin Assignments............................................................

214

 

Ethernet Interface Connections .............................................................

214

 

RS-232 Serial Interface Connections........................................................

215

 

Protection Switch Remote Control Connections ..........................................

215

11. Alarm Types and Sources ............................................................

216

 

Alarm Types....................................................................................

216

 

Alarm Events ............................................................................

216

 

Informational Events...................................................................

219

12.

Specifications ...........................................................................

220

 

RF Specifications ..............................................................................

220

 

ETSI Compliant..........................................................................

220

 

Frequency Bands ................................................................

220

 

Channel Sizes ....................................................................

220

 

Product Range ...................................................................

220

 

Transmitter.......................................................................

221

 

Receiver ..........................................................................

221

 

Modem ............................................................................

222

 

Data Payload Security ..........................................................

222

 

Interface Specifications ......................................................................

223

 

Ethernet Interface .....................................................................

223

 

RS-232 Asynchronous Interface.......................................................

224

 

Protection Switch Specifications............................................................

224

 

Power Specifications..........................................................................

225

 

Power Supply............................................................................

225

 

Power Consumption ....................................................................

225

 

Power Dissipation ......................................................................

226

 

General Specifications........................................................................

227

 

Environmental ..........................................................................

227

 

Mechanical ..............................................................................

227

 

Compliance..............................................................................

227

13. Product End Of Life ...................................................................

228

 

End-of-Life Recycling Programme (WEEE) .................................................

228

 

The WEEE Symbol Explained ..........................................................

228

 

WEEE Must Be Collected Separately .................................................

228

 

YOUR ROLE in the Recovery of WEEE................................................

228

 

EEE Waste Impacts the Environment and Health ..................................

228

14.

Abbreviations ...........................................................................

229

15.

Index......................................................................................

230

Aprisa SR User Manual

Getting Started | 11

1.Getting Started

This section is an overview of the steps required to commission an Aprisa SR radio network in the field:

Phase 1:

Pre-installation

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Confirm path planning.

Page

46

 

 

 

 

2.

Ensure that the site preparation is complete:

Page

49

 

Power requirements

 

 

 

Tower requirements

 

 

 

Environmental considerations, for example, temperature control

 

 

 

Mounting space

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phase 2:

Installing the radios

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Mount the radio.

Page

52

 

 

 

 

2.

Connect earthing to the radio.

Page

51

 

 

 

 

3.

Confirm that the:

 

 

 

Antenna is mounted and visually aligned

 

 

 

Feeder cable is connected to the antenna

 

 

 

Feeder connections are tightened to recommended level

 

 

 

Tower earthing is complete

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

Install lightning protection.

Page

51

 

 

 

 

5.

Connect the coaxial jumper cable between the lightning protection and the

Page

55

 

radio antenna port.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

Connect the power to the radio.

Page

56

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

12 | Getting Started

Phase 3:

Establishing the link

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

If radio’s IP address is not the default IP address (169.254.50.10 with a subnet

Page

202

 

mask of 255.255.0.0) and you don’t know the radio’s IP address see ‘Command

 

 

 

Line Interface’ on page 202.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Connect the Ethernet cable between the radio’s Ethernet port and the PC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

Confirm that the PC IP settings are correct for the Ethernet connection:

Page

61

 

IP address

 

 

 

Subnet mask

 

 

 

Gateway IP address

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

Open a web browser and login to the radio.

Page

65

 

 

 

 

5.

Set or confirm the RF characteristics:

Page

85

 

TX and RX frequencies

 

 

 

TX output power

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

Compare the actual RSSI to the expected RSSI value (from your path planning).

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.

Align the antennas.

Page

208

 

 

 

 

8.

Confirm that the radio is operating correctly; the OK, DATA, CPU and RF LEDs

 

 

 

are light green (the AUX LED will be off).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

Introduction | 13

2.Introduction

About This Manual

What It Covers

This user manual describes how to install and configure an Aprisa SR point-to-multipoint digital radio network.

It specifically documents an Aprisa SR radio running system software version 1.5.3.

It is recommended that you read the relevant sections of this manual before installing or operating the radios.

Who Should Read It

This manual has been written for professional field technicians and engineers who have an appropriate level of education and experience.

Contact Us

If you experience any difficulty installing or using Aprisa SR after reading this manual, please contact Customer Support or your local 4RF representative.

Our area representative contact details are available from our website:

4RF Limited

26 Glover Street, Ngauranga

PO Box 13-506

Wellington 6032

New Zealand

E-mail

support@4rf.com

Web site

www.4rf.com

Telephone

+64 4 499 6000

Facsimile

+64 4 473 4447

Attention

Customer Services

What’s in the Box

Inside the box you will find:

One Aprisa SR radio fitted with a power connector.

One Aprisa SR Accessory kit containing the following:

Aprisa SR CD

Aprisa SR Quick Start Guide

Management Cable

Aprisa SR User Manual

14 | Introduction

Aprisa SR Accessory Kit

The accessory kit contains the following items:

Aprisa SR Quick Start Guide

Aprisa SR CD

Management Cable

USB Cable USB A to USB micro B, 1m

Aprisa SR CD Contents

The Aprisa SR CD contains the following:

Software

The latest version of the radio software (see ‘Radio Software Upgrade’ on page 210)

USB Serial Driver

Web browsers - Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer are included for your convenience

Adobe™ Acrobat® Reader® which you need to view the PDF files on the Aprisa SR CD

Documentation

User manual - an electronic (PDF) version for you to view online or print

Product collateral - application overviews, product description, quick start guide, case studies, software release notes and white papers

Aprisa SR User Manual

About the Radio | 15

3.About the Radio

The 4RF Aprisa SR Radio

The 4RF Aprisa SR is a point-to-multipoint digital radio providing secure narrowband wireless data connectivity for SCADA, infrastructure and telemetry applications.

The radios carry a combination of serial data and Ethernet data between the base station, repeater stations and remote stations.

A single Aprisa SR is configurable as a point-to-multipoint base station, a remote station or a repeater station.

Aprisa SR User Manual

16 | About the Radio

Product Overview

Network Coverage and Capacity

In a simple point-to-multipoint network, an Aprisa SR, configured as a base station, will communicate with multiple remote units in a given coverage area. With a link range of up to 60 km a typical deployment will have 30 – 50 remote stations attached to the base station. However, geographic features, such as hills, mountains, trees and foliage, or other path obstructions, such as buildings, tend to limit radio coverage. Additionally, geography may reduce network capacity at the edge of the network where errors may occur and require retransmission. However, the Aprisa SR uses Forward Error Correction (FEC) which greatly improves the sensitivity performance of the radio resulting in less retries and minimal reduction in capacity.

Ultimately, the overall performance of any specific network will be defined by a range of factors including the geographic location, the number of remote stations in the base station coverage area and the traffic profile across the network. Effective network design will distribute the total number of remote stations across the available base stations to ensure optimal geographic coverage and network capacity.

Remote Messaging

On start-up, the remote station transmits a registration message to the base stations which responds with a registration response. This allows the base station to record the details of all the remote stations active in the network.

If a remote station cannot register with the base station after multiple attempts (RF LED flashing red) within 10 minutes, it will automatically reboot. If a remote station has registered with the base station but then loses communication, it will automatically reboot within 6 minutes.

There are two message types in the Aprisa SR network, broadcast messages and unicast messages. Broadcast messages are transmitted by the base station to the remote stations and unicast messages are transmitted by the remote station to the base station.

All remotes within the coverage area will receive broadcast messages and pass them on to either the Ethernet or serial interface. The RTU determines if the message is intended for it and will accept it or discard it.

Only the base station can receive the unicast messages transmitted from the remote station. Unicast messages are ignored by other remote stations which may be able to receive them.

Aprisa SR User Manual

About the Radio | 17

Repeater Messaging

The Aprisa SR uses a routed protocol throughout the network whereby messages contain source and destination addresses. Upon registration, the radios populate an internal neighbor table to identify the radios in the network. The remote stations will register with a base station, or a repeater, and the repeater registers with a base station. In networks with a repeater, the repeater must register with the base station before the remotes can register with the repeater.

Additionally, all messages contain a ‘message type’ field in the header and messages are designated as either a ‘broadcast’ message, originating from a base station, or a ‘unicast’ message, originating from a remote station.

In a network with a repeater, or multiple repeaters, the base station broadcasts a message which contains a message type, a source address and a destination address. The repeater receives the message and recognizes it is a broadcast message, from the message type and source address and re-broadcasts the message across the network. All remote stations in the coverage area will receive the message but only the radio with the destination address will act upon the message.

Similarly, the remote station will send a unicast message which contains a message type (unicast) a source address and a destination address (the base station). The repeater will receive this message; recognize the message type and source address and forward it to the destination address.

It is this methodology which prevents repeater-repeater loops. If there is repeater (A) which, in some circumstances, is able to pick up the RF signal from another repeater (B), it will not forward the message as it will only forward broadcast messages from the base station (recognized by the source address). For unicast messages the repeater (A) will recognize that the message (from repeater (B)) is not from a remote with which it has an association and similarly ignore the message.

Aprisa SR User Manual

18 | About the Radio

Product Features

Functions

Point-to-Point (PTP) or Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) operation half duplex Licensed frequency bands:

VHF 136-174 MHz

UHF 400-470 MHz

Channel sizes:

12.5 kHz

25 kHz

Typical deployment of 30 remote stations from one base station with a practical limit of a few hundred remote stations

Dual antenna port option for external duplexers or filters (half duplex operation) Two Ethernet data interfaces plus two RS-232 asynchronous data interfaces Terminal server operation for transporting RS-232 traffic over IP

Data encryption and authentication

Radio and user interface redundancy (provided with Aprisa SR Protected Station)

Complies with international standards, including ETSI RF, EMC, safety and environmental standards

Performance

Long distance operation

High transmit power

Low noise receiver

Forward Error Correction

Electronic tuning over the frequency band

Thermal management for high power over a wide temperature range

Usability

Configuration / diagnostics via front panel Management Port USB interface, Ethernet interface

Built-in webserver with full configuration, diagnostics and monitoring functionality, including remote station configuration / diagnostics over the radio link

LED display for on-site diagnostics

Software upgrade and diagnostic reporting via the Host Port USB flash drive Over-the-air software distribution and upgrades

Simple installation with integrated mounting holes for wall, DIN rail and rack shelf mounting

Aprisa SR User Manual

About the Radio | 19

Architecture

Product Operation

There are three components to the wireless interface: the Physical Layer (PHY), the Data Link Layer (DLL) and the Network Layer. These three layers are required to transport data across the wireless channel in the Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) configuration. The Aprisa SR DLL is largely based on the 802.15.4 MAC layer using a proprietary implementation.

Physical Layer

The Aprisa SR PHY uses a one or two frequency ½ duplex transmission mode which eliminates the need for a duplexer. However, a Dual Antenna port option is available for separate transmit and receive antenna connection to support external duplexers or filters (half duplex operation).

Remote nodes are predominantly in receive mode with only sporadic bursts of transmit data. This reduces power consumption.

The Aprisa SR is a packet based radio. Data is sent over the wireless channel in discrete packets / frames, separated in time. The PHY demodulates data within these packets with coherent detection.

The Aprisa SR PHY provides carrier, symbol and frame synchronisation predominantly through the use of preambles. This preamble prefixes all packets sent over the wireless channel which enables fast synchronisation.

Data Link Layer / MAC layer

The Aprisa SR PHY enables multiple users to be able to share a single wireless channel; however a DLL is required to manage data transport. The two key components to the DLL are channel access and hop by hop transmission.

Channel Access

The Aprisa SR radio has two modes of channel access, Access Request and Listen Before Send.

Access Mode

Function

 

 

Access Request

Channel access scheme where the base stations controls the

 

communication on the channel. Remotes ask for access to the

 

channel, and the base station grants access if the channel is not

 

occupied.

 

 

Listen Before Send

Channel access scheme where network elements listen to ensure

 

the channel is clear, before trying to access the channel.

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

20 | About the Radio

Access Request

This scheme is particularly suited to digital SCADA systems where all data flows through the base station. In this case it is important that the base station has contention-free access as it is involved in every transaction. The channel access scheme assigns the base station as the channel access arbitrator and therefore inherently it has contention-free access to the channel. This means that there is no possibility of contention on data originating from the base station. As all data flows to or from the base station, this significantly improves the robustness of the system.

All data messages are controlled via the AG (access grant) control message and therefore there is no possibility of contention on the actual end user data. If a remote station accesses the channel, the only contention risk is on the AR (access request) control message. These control messages are designed to be as short as possible and therefore the risk of collision of these control messages is significantly reduced. Should collisions occur these are resolved using a random back off and retry mechanism.

As the base station controls all data transactions multiple applications can be effectively handled, including a mixture of polling and report by exception.

Listen Before Send

The Listen Before Send channel access scheme is realized using Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA). In this mode, a pending transmission requires the channel to be clear. This is determined by monitoring the channel for other signals for a set time prior to transmission. This results in reduced collisions and improved channel capacity.

There are still possibilities for collisions with this technique e.g. if two radios simultaneously determine the channel is clear and transmit at the same time. In this case an acknowledged transaction may be used. The transmitter requests an ACK to ensure that the transmission has been successful. If the transmitter does not receive an ACK, then random backoffs are used to reschedule the next transmission.

Hop by Hop Transmission

Hop by Hop Transmission is realized in the Aprisa SR by adding a MAC address header to the packet. For 802.15.4, there are 2 addresses, the source and destination addresses.

Aprisa SR User Manual

About the Radio | 21

Network Layer

Packet Routing

Packet routing is realized in the Aprisa SR by adding a network address header to the packet. This contains source and destination addresses. For the Network Layer, there are 2 addresses, the address of the originating radio and the address of the terminating radio (i.e. end to end network). This is required for routing packets across multiple hops e.g. PMP with repeaters.

The Aprisa SR uses an automated method for performing address assignment and routing information.

There are two types of packets: unicast and broadcast. Only the base station sends broadcasts which are received by all remote stations. User packets are not interpreted as the radio link is transparent.

Traffic

Data originating on the base station is broadcast to all repeater stations and remote stations

Data originating on a remote station is unicast to the base station only

This can be via multiple repeater stations.

Data originating on a repeater station is unicast to the base station only

Data originating on a base station serial port is terminated on remote station serial ports only

Data originating on a base station Ethernet port is terminated on remote station Ethernet ports or serial ports (Terminal Server mode)

User Traffic

User traffic is prioritized depending on the Serial and Ethernet Data Priority options (see ‘Serial > Advanced’ on page 99 and ‘Ethernet > Advanced’ on page 106).

If the Serial and Ethernet Data Priority options are equal, then first come first served is invoked.

Repeater stations repeat traffic also on a first come first served basis.

Management Traffic

Ethernet Management Traffic is also prioritized relative to user traffic (see ‘Ethernet > Advanced’ on page 106).

Aprisa SR User Manual

22 | About the Radio

Security

The Aprisa SR provides security features to implement the key recommendations for industrial control systems. The security provided builds upon the best in class from multiple standards bodies, including:

IEC/TR 62443 (TC65) ‘Industrial Communications Networks – Network and System Security’

IEC/TS 62351 (TC57) ‘Power System Control and Associated Communications – Data and Communication Security’

The security features implemented are:

Data encryption

Counter Mode Encryption (CTR) using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Data authentication

Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Data payload security

CCM

Counter with CBC-MAC integrity (NIST special publication 800-38C)

Secured management interface protects configuration Address filtering enables traffic source authorization

Proprietary physical layer protocol and modified MAC layer protocol based on standardized IEEE 802.15.4

Licensed radio spectrum protects against interference

Aprisa SR User Manual

About the Radio | 23

Interfaces

Antenna Interface

Single Antenna Option

1 x TNC, 50 ohm, female connector

Dual Antenna Port Option

2 x TNC, 50 ohm, female connectors

Ethernet Interface

2 x ports 10/100 base-T Ethernet layer 2 switch using RJ45 Used for Ethernet user traffic and product management.

RS-232 Interface

1x RS-232 asynchronous port using RJ45 connector

1x RS-232 asynchronous port using USB host port with USB to RS-232 converter Used for RS-232 asynchronous user traffic only.

USB Interfaces

1 x Management Port using USB micro type B connector

Used for product configuration with the Command Line Interface (CLI). 1 x Host Port using USB standard type A connector

Used for software upgrade and diagnostic reporting.

Aprisa SR User Manual

24 | About the Radio

Front Panel Connections

All connections to the radio are made on the front panel. The functions of the connectors are (from left to right):

Designator

Description

 

 

A1 / A2

The A1, A2 are alarm connections are used in the Protected

 

Station.

 

 

10 - 30 VDC; 3A

+10 to +30 VDC (negative ground) DC power input using

 

Phoenix Contact 4 pin male screw fitting connector.

 

AC/DC and DC/DC power supplies are available as accessories.

 

See ‘External Power Supplies’ on page 56.

 

 

ETHERNET 1

Integrated 10Base-T/100Base-TX layer-2 Ethernet switch using

 

RJ45 connector.

 

Used for Ethernet user traffic and product management.

 

See ‘Ethernet > Port Setup’ on page 101.

 

 

ETHERNET 2

Integrated 10Base-T/100Base-TX layer-2 Ethernet switch using

 

RJ45 connector.

 

Used for Ethernet user traffic and product management.

 

See ‘Ethernet > Port Setup’ on page 101.

 

 

MGMT

Management Port using USB micro type B connector.

 

Used for product configuration with the Command Line

 

Interface.

 

See ‘Connecting to the Management Port’ on page 202.

 

 

 

Host Port using USB standard type A connector.

 

Used for software upgrade and diagnostic reporting.

 

See ‘Radio Software Upgrade’ on page 210 and ‘Maintenance >

 

General’ on page 125.

 

 

SERIAL

RS-232 traffic interface using a RJ45 connector.

 

Used for RS-232 asynchronous user traffic only.

 

See ‘Serial’ on page 94.

 

 

ANT

TNC, 50 ohm, female connector for connection of antenna

(Antenna connector)

feeder cable.

 

 

See ‘Coaxial Feeder Cables’ on page 49.

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

About the Radio | 25

LED Display Panel

The Aprisa SR has an LED Display panel which provides on-site alarms / diagnostics without the need for PC.

Normal Operation

In normal radio operation, the LEDs indicate the following conditions:

 

OK

DATA

CPU

RF

AUX

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

Alarm present

 

 

RF path fail

 

Red

with severity

 

 

 

 

 

Critical, Major

 

 

 

 

 

and Minor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

 

 

Radio not

 

Red

 

 

 

connected to a

 

 

 

 

 

base station

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

Alarm present

 

Standby radio

 

 

Orange

with Warning

 

in Protected

 

 

 

Severity

 

Station

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

Tx Data or Rx

Device detect

RF path TX is

Diagnostics

Orange

 

Data on the

on the USB

active

Function

 

 

USB

host port

 

Active

 

 

management

 

 

 

 

 

or data port

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

Tx Data or Rx

 

RF path RX is

 

Green

 

Data on the

 

active

 

 

 

serial port

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

Power on and

All interface

Processor Block

RF path is OK

 

Green

functions OK

ports are OK

is OK and

 

 

 

and no alarms

 

Active radio in

 

 

 

 

 

Protected

 

 

 

 

 

Station

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LED Colour

Severity

 

 

Green

No alarm – information only

 

 

Orange

Warning alarm

 

 

Red

Critical, major or minor alarm

 

 

Single Radio Software Upgrade

During a radio software upgrade, the LEDs indicate the following conditions:

Software upgrade started - the OK LED flashes orange

Software upgrade progress indicated by running AUX to DATA LEDs

Software upgrade completed successfully - the OK LED solid orange

Software upgrade failed - any LED flashing red during the upgrade

Aprisa SR User Manual

26 | About the Radio

Network Software Upgrade

During a network software upgrade, the AUX LED flashes orange on the base station and all remote stations.

Test Mode

Remote station and repeater station radios have a Test Mode which presents a real time visual display of the RSSI on the LED Display panel. This can be used to adjust the antenna for optimum signal strength (see ‘Maintenance > Test Mode’ on page 128 for Test Mode options).

To enter Test Mode, press and hold the ENTER button on the radio LED panel until all the LEDs flash green (about 3 - 5 seconds). The response time is variable and can be up to 5 seconds.

To exit Test Mode, press and hold the ENTER button until all the LEDs flash red (about 3 – 5 seconds).

The RF LED will be green if the network is operating correctly.

Note: Test Mode traffic has a low priority but could affect customer traffic depending on the relative priorities setup.

The RSSI result is displayed on the LED Display panel as a combination of LED states:

Aprisa SR User Manual

Product Options | 27

4.Product Options

Dual Antenna Port

The standard Aprisa SR uses a one or two frequency ½ duplex transmission mode which eliminates the need for a duplexer. However, a dual antenna port option is available for separate transmit and receive antenna connection to support external duplexers or filters. The transmission remains half duplex.

Example Part:

Part Number

Part Description

APSR-N400-012-DO-12-ETAA

4RF SR, BR, 400-470 MHz, 12.5 kHz, DO, 12 VDC, ET, AA

Aprisa SR User Manual

28 | Product Options

Protected Station

The Aprisa SR Protected Station provides radio and user interface protection for Aprisa SR radios. The RF ports and interface ports from two standard Aprisa SR Radios are switched to the standby radio if there is a failure in the active radio.

Example Part:

Part Number

Part Description

APSR-R400-012-SO-12-ETAA

4RF SR, PS, 400-470 MHz, 12.5 kHz, SO, 12 VDC, ET, AA

The Aprisa SR Protected Station is comprised of an Aprisa SR Protection Switch and two standard Aprisa SR radios. This configuration provides the ability to ‘hot-swap’ a failed radio without interrupting user traffic on the active radio. Additionally, retains the full temperature range specification of a single radio.

The Aprisa SR radios can be any of the currently available Aprisa SR radio frequency bands, channel sizes or single / dual antenna port options.

By default, the Aprisa SR Protected Station is configured with the left hand radio (A) designated as the primary radio and the right hand radio (B) designated as the secondary radio. Each radio is configured with its own unique IP and MAC address and the address of the partner radio.

On power-up, the primary radio will assume the active role and the secondary radio will assume the standby role. If, for some reason, only one radio is powered on it will automatically assume the active role.

Operation

In normal operation, the active radio carries all RS-232 serial and Ethernet traffic over the radio link and the standby radio is unused with its transmitter turned off. Both radios are continually monitored for correct operation and alarms are raised if an event occurs.

Both the active and standby radios send regular ‘keep alive’ messages to each other to indicate if they are operating correctly. In the event of a failure on the active radio, the RF link and user interface traffic is automatically switched to the standby radio.

The failed radio can then be replaced in the field without interrupting user traffic (see ‘Replacing a Protected Station Faulty Radio’ on page 33).

Aprisa SR User Manual

Product Options | 29

Configuration Management

The Primary and Secondary radios are managed with the embedded web-based management tool, SuperVisor (see ‘Managing the Radio’ on page 59) by using either the Primary or Secondary IP address. Configuration changes in one of the radios will automatically be reflected in the partner radio.

To ensure all remote stations are registered to the correct (active) base station, changes to the Network Table are automatically synchronized from the active radio to the standby radio. The Network Table is only visible on the active radio. This synchronization does not occur if the Hardware Manual Lock is active.

Switch Over

The switch over to the standby radio can be initiated automatically, on fault detection, or manually via the Hardware Manual Lock switch on the Protection Switch or the Software Manual Lock from SuperVisor. Additionally, it is possible to switch over the radios remotely without visiting the station site, via the remote control connector on the front of the Protection Switch.

On detection of an alarm fault the switch over time is less than 0.5 seconds. Some alarms may take up to 5 seconds to be detected.

The Protection Switch has a switch guard mechanism to prevent protection switch oscillation. If a switchover has occurred, subsequent switch-over triggers will be blocked if the guard time has not elapsed.

The guard time starts at 20 seconds and doubles each switch-over to a maximum of 320 seconds and halves after a period of two times the last guard time with no protection switch-overs.

Switching Criteria

The Protected Station will switch over operation from the active to the standby radio if any of the configurable alarm events occur, or if there is a loss of the ‘keep alive’ signal from the active radio.

It is possible to configure the alarm events which will trigger the switch over. It is also possible to prevent an alarm event triggering a switch over through the configuration of blocking criteria.

Any of the following alarm events can be set to trigger or prevent switching from the active radio to the standby radio (see ‘Events > Events Setup’ on page 137).

PA current

Tx AGC

 

Tx reverse power

Thermal shutdown

Temperature threshold

Thermal shutdown

RSSI Threshold

RX Synthesizer Not Locked

Rx CRC errors

RF no receive data

Ethernet port 1 – no receive data

Ethernet port 2

– no receive data

Ethernet port 1 - data receive errors

Ethernet port 2

– data receive errors

Ethernet port 1 – data transmit errors

Ethernet port 2

- data transmit errors

Serial port – no receive data

Serial port – data receive errors

Component failure

Calibration failure

Configuration not supported

Protection Hardware Failure

It will not attempt to switch over to a standby radio which has power failure.

It will also not switch over to a standby radio with an active alarm event which has been configured as a ‘blocking criteria’.

Aprisa SR User Manual

30 | Product Options

Switch over will be initiated once either of these conditions is rectified, i.e. power is restored or the alarm is cleared.

Hardware Manual Lock

The Hardware Manual Lock switch on the Protection Switch provides a manual override of the active / standby radio.

When this lock is activated, the selected radio (A or B) becomes the active radio regardless of the Software Manual Lock and the current switching or block criteria.

When the lock is deactivated (set to the Auto position), the protection will become automatic and switching will be governed by normal switching and blocking criteria.

The state of the switch is indicated by the three LEDs on the Protection Switch:

A LED

B LED

Locked LED

State

 

 

 

 

Green

Off

Off

Auto - Radio A is active

 

 

 

 

Off

Green

Off

Auto - Radio B is active

 

 

 

 

Green

Off

Orange

Manual Lock to radio A

 

 

 

 

Off

Green

Orange

Manual Lock to radio B

 

 

 

 

The Protection Switch also has a Software Manual Lock (see ‘Protected Station: Maintenance > Protection’ on page 179). The Hardware Manual Lock takes precedence over Software Manual Lock if both diagnostic functions are activated i.e. if the Software Manual Lock is set to ‘Primary’ and the Hardware Manual Lock set to ‘Secondary’, the system will set the Secondary radio to Active.

When a Hardware Manual Lock is deactivated (set to the Auto position), the Software Manual Lock is reevaluated and locks set appropriately.

Remote Control

The switch over to the standby radio can be initiated via the Remote Control connector on the front of the Protection Switch. This control will only operate if the Hardware Manual Lock switch is set to the Auto position.

The inputs are logic inputs with 4700 Ω pullup to +3.3 VDC. They require a pull down to ground to activate the control. The ground potential is available on the connector (see ‘Protection Switch Remote Control Connections’ on page 215).

Aprisa SR User Manual

4RF SRN0400025A User Manual

Product Options | 31

Installation

Mounting

The Aprisa SR Protected Station is designed to mount in a standard 19 inch rack.

Cabling

The Aprisa SR Protected Station is delivered pre-cabled with power, interface, management and RF cables.

The set of interconnect cables is available as a spare part (see ‘Spares’ on page 34).

Power

A +10.5 to +30 V DC external power source must be connected to both the A and B Phoenix Contact 2 pin male power connectors. The maximum combined power consumption is 35 Watts.

Aprisa SR User Manual

32 | Product Options

Maintenance

Changing the Protected Station IP Addresses

To change the IP address of a Protected Station radio:

1.Change the IP address of either or both the Primary Radio and Secondary radio (see ‘Protected Station: Ethernet > Controller Setup’ on page 176). Changes in these parameters are automatically changed in the partner radio.

Protected Station Software Upgrade

The Protected Station software upgrade can be achieved without disruption to traffic.

Network Software Upgrade

This process allows customers to upgrade their Aprisa SR network from the central base station location without need for visiting remote sites.

The Software Pack is loaded into the base station with the file transfer process (see ‘Software > File Transfer’ on page 146) and distributed via the radio link to all remote stations.

When all remote stations receive the Software Pack version, the software can be remotely activated on all remote stations.

Single Radio Software Upgrade

USB Boot Upgrade Method

Assuming the Primary radio is active and the Secondary radio is standby

1.Using the Hardware Manual Lock switch, force the primary radio to active.

2.Insert the USB flash drive with the new software release into the secondary radio Host Port .

3.Power cycle the secondary radio. The radio will be upgraded with the new software.

4.When the secondary radio upgrade is completed, remove the USB flash drive, power cycle the secondary radio and wait for it to become standby.

5.Using the Hardware Manual Lock switch, force the secondary radio to active.

6.Insert the USB flash drive with the new software release into the primary radio Host Port .

7.Power cycle the primary radio. The radio will be upgraded with the new software.

8.When the primary radio upgrade is completed, remove the USB flash drive, power cycle the primary radio and wait for it to become standby.

9.Set the Hardware Manual Lock switch to the Auto position. The secondary radio will remain active and the primary radio will remain standby. To set the primary radio to active, use the hardware lock switch to select the primary radio and wait for it to become active, then set the hardware manual lock switch to the Auto position.

Aprisa SR User Manual

Product Options | 33

Replacing a Protected Station Faulty Radio

Replacing a faulty radio in a Protected Station can be achieved without disruption to traffic. Assuming that the primary radio is active and the secondary radio is faulty and needs replacement:

1.Ensure the replacement radio has the same version of software installed as the primary radio. If necessary, upgrade the software in the replacement radio.

2.Set the RF Interface MAC Address (see ‘Maintenance > Advanced’ on page 132). This MAC address is present on chassis label.

3.Using SuperVisor > Maintenance > Advanced ‘Save Configuration to USB’ and ‘Restore Configuration from USB’ operation, clone the primary radio’s configuration to the replacement radio.

4.Configure the replacement radio as the secondary radio and setup the IP address and other protection parameters (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 80).

5.Set the Hardware Manual Lock switch to make the primary radio active.

6.Carefully remove the faulty radio from the protection switch and install the replacement radio.

7.Power on the replacement radio and wait for it to become standby.

8.Set the Hardware Manual Lock switch to the Auto position.

Aprisa SR User Manual

34 | Product Options

Spares

The Aprisa SR Protection Switch is available as a spare part. This spare includes the protection switch and two sets of Protection Switch interconnect cables (one set is 6 cables).

Part Number

Part Description

APSP-SRPSW

4RF Spare, Aprisa SR, Protection Switch

The set of interconnect cables is available as a spare part (set of 6 cables).

Part Number

Part Description

APSP-SRPSC-ST6

4RF Spare, Aprisa SR, Protection Switch Cables, Set Of 6

Replacing a Faulty Protection Switch

Note: Replacing a faulty Protection Switch will disrupt traffic.

Move the radios, the interconnect cables, the interface cables and the power cables to the replacement Protection Switch.

On both Protected Station radios:

1.Power on the radio and wait for it to become ready.

2.Using SuperVisor > Maintenance > Advanced, enter the RF Interface MAC address shown on the Protection Switch label (see ‘RF Interface MAC address’ on page 133).

3.Using SuperVisor > Maintenance > Advanced, Decommission the node (see ‘Decommission Node’ on page 133) and then Discover the Nodes (see ‘Discover Nodes’ on page 133).

Ensure that the Hardware Manual Lock switch is set to the Auto position.

The Aprisa SR Protected Station is now ready to operate.

Aprisa SR User Manual

Product Options | 35

Data Driven Protected Station

The Aprisa SR Data Driven Protected Station provides radio and RS-232 serial port user interface protection for Aprisa SR radios.

Example Part:

Part Number

Part Description

APSR-D400-012-DO-12-ETAA

4RF SR, PD, 400-470 MHz, 12.5 kHz, DO, 12 VDC, ET, AA

The Aprisa SR Data Driven Protected Station shown is comprised of two standard Aprisa SR dual antenna port option radios and two external duplexers mounted on 19" rack mounting shelves.

The Aprisa SR radios can be any of the currently available Aprisa SR radio frequency bands, channel sizes or single / dual antenna port options.

By default, the Aprisa SR Data Driven Protected Station is configured with the left hand radio (A) designated as the primary radio and the right hand radio (B) designated as the secondary radio.

Each radio is configured with its own unique IP and MAC address and the address of the partner radio.

On power-up, the primary radio will assume the active role and the secondary radio will assume the standby role. If, for some reason, only one radio is powered on it will automatically assume the active role.

Operation

The active radio is determined explicitly by which radio receives data on its RS-232 serial port input from the interface.

The active radio carries all RS-232 serial traffic over its radio link and the standby radio is unused with its transmitter turned off.

If data is received on the RS-232 serial port interface input of the standby radio, it will immediately become the active radio and the radio which was active will become the standby radio.

Aprisa SR User Manual

36 | Product Options

Switch Over

The active radio is determined explicitly by which radio receives data on its RS-232 serial port.

The switching and blocking criteria used for the standard Protected Station do not apply. This means that events and alarms on the unit are not used as switching criteria.

Configuration Management

The Primary and Secondary radios are managed with the embedded web-based management tool, SuperVisor (see ‘Managing the Radio’ on page 59) by using either the Primary or Secondary IP address. Configuration changes in one of the radios will automatically be reflected in the partner radio.

Changes to the Network Table are automatically synchronized from the active radio to the standby radio but the Network Table is only visible on the active radio.

Aprisa SR User Manual

Product Options | 37

Installation

Mounting

The Aprisa SR Data Driven Protected Station is designed to mount in a standard 19” rack on two 1U rack mounting shelves.

Aprisa SR User Manual

38 | Product Options

Cabling

The Aprisa SR Data Driven Protected Station is delivered with the radios, duplexers, rack mounting shelves and RF cables.

The picture demonstrates the RF cabling but the product is delivered with the cables separately packaged.

The set of interconnect cables is available as a spare part.

Power

A +10.5 to +30 V DC external power source must be connected to both the A and B Phoenix Contact 4 pin male power connectors. The maximum combined power consumption is 35 Watts.

Aprisa SR User Manual

Product Options | 39

Duplexer Kit

The Aprisa SR product range contains a Duplexer Kit accessory.

This kit provides a 19” rack mounted duplexer for use with the Dual Antenna port Aprisa SR radio.

The Aprisa SR Duplexer Kit contains:

1x 1U 19" rack mount shelf with duplexer mounting brackets and screws

1x Duplexer

2x TNC to SMA right angle 590mm cables

Aprisa SR Duplexer Kit example with a 400 MHz B1 duplexer:

Part Number

Part Number

APSA-KDUP-400-B1

4RF SR Acc, Kit, Duplexer, 400-470 MHz, s 5 MHz, p 0.5 MHz, ext

Aprisa SR User Manual

40 | Product Options

USB RS-232 Serial Port

The Aprisa SR USB host port is predominantly used for software upgrade and diagnostic reporting. However, it can also be used to provide an additional RS-232 DCE serial port for customer traffic.

This is accomplished with a USB to RS-232 serial converter cable. This plugs into the USB host port connector and can be terminated with the required customer connector.

This additional RS-232 serial port is enabled with the SuperVisor mode setting in Serial Port Settings (see ‘Serial > Port Setup’ on page 95).

USB RS-232 operation

The USB serial converter buffers the received data frames into 64 byte blocks separated by a small interframe gap.

For the majority of applications, this fragmentation of egress frames is not an issue. However, there are some applications that may be sensitive to the inter-frame gap, therefore, these applications need consideration.

A 5 ms inter-frame is recommended for the applications that are sensitive to inter-frame gap timings.

On a USB RS-232 port, Modbus RTU can operate up to 9600 baud with all packet sizes and up to 115200 if the packet size is less than 64 bytes. The standard RS-232 port is fully compatible with Modbus RTU at all baud rates.

Cabling Options

The following converter cables are available as Aprisa SR accessories to provide the customer interface:

1. USB Converter to 1.6 metre multi-strand cable 6 wire for termination of customer connector

Part Number

Part Number

APSA-IFCA-USB-MS-16

4RF SR Acc, Cable, Interface, USB Converter, Multi-strand, 1.6m

2.USB converter to RJ45 female kit for USB to RS-232 DCE conversion. The RJ45 is mounted in a strain relief retention bracket.

Part Number

Part Number

APSA-KFCA-USB-45-MF-04

4RF SR Acc, Kit, Interface, USB Converter, RJ45, Female, 0.4m

3.USB converter to DB9 female kit for USB to RS-232 DCE conversion. The DB9 is mounted in a strain relief retention bracket.

Part Number

Part Number

APSA-KFCA-USB-D9-MF-04

4RF SR Acc, Kit, Interface, USB Converter, DB9, Female, 0.4m

Aprisa SR User Manual

Implementing the Network | 41

5.Implementing the Network

Network Topologies

The following are examples of typical network topologies:

Point-To-Point Network

Point-to-Multipoint Network

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 1

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 2

Aprisa SR User Manual

42 | Implementing the Network

Initial Network Deployment

Install the Base Station

To install the base station in your FAN (Field Area Network):

1.Install the base station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 52).

2.Set the radio Network ID (FAN) to a unique ID in your entire network (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

3.Set the radio IP address (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

4.Set the radio frequencies to the frequencies you wish to operate from (see ‘Radio > Basic’ on page 85).

5.Set the radio operating mode to ‘base station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 80).

6.Set the radio security settings (see ‘Security > Setup’ on page 109).

Installing the Remote Stations

To install the remote stations in your FAN:

1.Install the remote station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 52).

2.Set the radio Network ID (FAN) to the same ID as the other stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

3.Set the radio IP address (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

4.Set the radio frequencies to the base station / repeater station frequencies you wish to operate from (see ‘Radio > Basic’ on page 85).

5.Set the radio operating mode to ‘remote station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 80).

6.Set the radio security settings to the same as the base station (see ‘Security > Setup’ on page 109). The base station will automatically allocate a node address to the new remote station.

Install a Repeater Station

To install a repeater station in your FAN:

1.Install the repeater station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 52).

2.Set the radio Network ID (FAN) to the same ID as the other stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

3.Set the radio IP address (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

4.Set the radio frequencies to base station frequencies you wish to operate from (see see ‘Radio > Basic’ on page 85).

5.Set the radio operating mode to ‘repeater station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 80).

6.Set the radio security settings to the same as the base station (see ‘Security > Setup’ on page 109).

7.Increase the radio network radius by one on all stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

The base station will automatically allocate a node address to the new repeater station.

Aprisa SR User Manual

Implementing the Network | 43

Network Changes

Adding a Repeater Station

To add a repeater station to your FAN:

1.Install the repeater station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 52).

2.Set the radio Network ID (FAN) to the same ID as the other stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

3.Set the radio IP address (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

4.Set the radio frequencies to the base station frequencies you wish to operate from (see ‘Radio > Basic’ on page 85).

5.Set the radio operating mode to ‘repeater station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 80).

6.Increase the radio network radius by one on all stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

The base station will automatically allocate a node address to the new repeater station.

To remove a repeater station from your FAN:

1.Turn the power off on the remote station radios operating from the repeater station radio you wish to remove.

2.Turn the power off on the repeater station radio you wish to remove.

3.Decrease the network radius by one on all stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

Adding a Remote Station

To add a remote station to your FAN:

1.Install the remote station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 52).

2.Set the radio Network ID (FAN) to the same ID as the other stations in the FAN (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

3.Set the radio IP address (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 78).

4.Set the radio frequencies to the base station / repeater station frequencies you wish to operate from (see ‘Radio > Basic’ on page 85).

5.Set the radio operating mode to ‘remote station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 80).

The base station will automatically allocate a node address to the new remote station.

To remove a remote station from your FAN:

1.Turn the power off on the remote station radio you wish to remove. This is the only action that is required.

Note: The remote station will continue to show in the Network Table list.

Aprisa SR User Manual

Preparation | 45

6.Preparation

Bench Setup

Before installing the links in the field, it is recommended that you bench-test the links. A suggested setup for basic bench testing is shown below:

When setting up the equipment for bench testing, note the following:

Earthing

Each radio should be earthed at all times. The radio earth point should be connected to a protection earth.

Attenuators

In a bench setup, there should be 60 - 80 dB at up to 1 GHz of 50 ohm coaxial attenuation, capable of handling the transmit power of +37 dBm (5 W) between the radios’ antenna connectors.

Splitter

If more than two radios are required in your bench setup, a multi-way splitter is required. The diagram shows a two way splitter. This splitter should be 50 ohm coaxial up to 1 GHz and capable of handling the transmit power of +37 dBm (5 W).

Cables

Use double-screened coaxial cable that is suitable for use up to 1 GHz at ≈ 1 metre.

CAUTION: Do not apply signals greater than +10 dBm to the antenna connection as they can damage the receiver.

Aprisa SR User Manual

46 | Preparation

Path Planning

The following factors should be considered to achieve optimum path planning:

Antenna Selection and Siting

Coaxial Cable Selection

Linking System Plan

Antenna Selection and Siting

Selecting and siting antennas are important considerations in your system design. The antenna choice for the site is determined primarily by the frequency of operation and the gain required to establish reliable links.

Base or Repeater Station

The predominant antenna for a base station or a repeater station is an omni-directional collinear gain antenna.

Omni Directional Collinear Antennas

 

Factor

Explanation

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Often used in 380-530 MHz bands

 

 

 

 

Gain

Varies with size (5 dBi to 8 dBi typical)

 

 

 

 

Wind loading

Minimal

 

 

 

 

Tower aperture required

Minimal

 

 

 

 

Size

Range from 2 m to 3 m length

 

 

 

 

Polarization

Vertical

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR User Manual

Preparation | 47

Remote station

There are two main types of directional antenna that are commonly used for remote stations, Yagi and corner reflector antennas.

Yagi Antennas

 

Factor

Explanation

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Often used in 350-600 MHz bands

 

 

 

 

Gain

Varies with size (typically 11 dBi to 16

 

 

dBi)

 

 

 

 

Stackable gain increase

2 Yagi antennas (+ 2.8 dB)

 

 

4 Yagi antennas (+ 5.6 dB)

 

 

 

 

Size

Range from 0.6 m to 3 m in length

 

 

 

 

Front to back ratio

Low (typically 18 to 20 dB)

 

 

 

It is possible to increase the gain of a Yagi antenna installation by placing two or more of them in a stack. The relative position of the antennas is critical.

Example of stacked antennas

Aprisa SR User Manual

48 | Preparation

Corner Reflector Antennas

 

Factor

Explanation

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Often used in 330-960 MHz bands

 

 

 

 

Gain

Typically 12 dBi

 

 

 

 

Size

Range from 0.36 m to 0.75 m in length

 

 

 

 

Front to back ratio

High (typically 30 dB)

 

 

 

 

Beamwidth

Broad (up to 60°)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antenna Siting

When siting antennas, consider the following points:

A site with a clear line of sight to the remote radio is recommended. Pay particular attention to trees, buildings, and other obstructions close to the antenna site.

Example of a clear line-of-sight path

Any large flat areas that reflect RF energy along the link path, for instance, water, could cause multipath fading. If the link path crosses a feature that is likely to cause RF reflections, shield the antenna from the reflected signals by positioning it on the far side of the roof of the equipment shelter or other structure.

Example of a mid-path reflection path

The antenna site should be as far as possible from other potential sources of RF interference such as electrical equipment, power lines and roads. The antenna site should be as close as possible to the equipment shelter.

Wide angle and zoom photographs taken at the proposed antenna location (looking down the proposed path), can be useful when considering the best mounting positions.

Aprisa SR User Manual

+ 183 hidden pages