Intel SSDSC2BB600G401, SSDSC1NB240G401 User Manual

640.38 Kb
Loading...

Intel SSD DC S3500 Series Workload

Characterization in RAID Configurations

White Paper

December 2013

329903-001US

Intel SSD DC S3500 Workload Characterization in RAID Configurations

INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL'S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT.

UNLESS OTHERWISE AGREED IN WRITING BY INTEL, THE INTEL PRODUCTS ARE NOT DESIGNED NOR INTENDED FOR ANY APPLICATION IN WHICH THE FAILURE OF THE INTEL PRODUCT COULD CREATE A SITUATION WHERE PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH MAY OCCUR.

Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked "reserved" or "undefined." Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. The information here is subject to change without notice. Do not finalize a design with this information.

The products described in this document may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.

Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order.

Copies of documents which have an order number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature, may be obtained by calling 1- 800-548-4725, or go to: http://www.intel.com/design/literature.htm

Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products.

Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

Copyright © 2013, Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

White Paper

December 2013

2

329903-001US

Intel SSD DC S3500 Workload Characterization in RAID Configurations

Contents

1.0

Revision History ...................................................................................................

5

2.0

Supporting Documentation...................................................................................

5

3.0

About This Guide ..................................................................................................

5

4.0

Overview..............................................................................................................

5

 

4.1

What Impacts SSD IO Performance.................................................................

6

 

4.2

Queue Depth and Latency .............................................................................

7

 

4.3

Why Mixed Workload Is Important..................................................................

7

 

4.4

Drive Endurance...........................................................................................

8

 

4.5

Selection of RAID Controller...........................................................................

8

5.0

RAID 1..................................................................................................................

9

 

5.1

Test System Specifications ............................................................................

9

 

5.2

Intel SSD DC S3500 Series in RAID 1 Performance Characterization Data...........

10

 

5.3

RAID 1 Consistency .....................................................................................

13

 

5.4

RAID 1 Performance Conclusions...................................................................

13

6.0

RAID 5................................................................................................................

14

 

6.1

Test System Specifications ...........................................................................

14

 

6.2

Intel SSD DC S3500 Series in RAID 5 Performance Characterization Data...........

14

 

6.3

RAID 5 Performance Consistency...................................................................

16

 

6.4

RAID 5 Performance Conclusions...................................................................

17

7.0

Summary............................................................................................................

18

8.0

Appendix ............................................................................................................

19

 

8.1

RAID Levels................................................................................................

19

December 2013

White Paper

329903-001US

3

Intel SSD DC S3500 Workload Characterization in RAID Configurations

Tables

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1

Typical Mixed Workloads in Data Center Applications .......................................

7

Figures

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

RAID 1 Random 100%

Write @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency............

11

Figure 2

RAID 1 Random 70%

Read @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency .............

11

Figure 3

RAID 1 Random 90%

Read @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency .............

12

Figure 4

RAID 1 Random 100%

Read @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency ...........

12

Figure 5

RAID 1 Maximum Latency for 2-drive and 8-drive Configurations ......................

13

Figure 6

RAID 5 Random 100%

Write @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency ...........

15

Figure 7

RAID 5

Random 70%

Read @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency .............

15

Figure 8

RAID 5

Random 90%

Read @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency .............

16

Figure 9

RAID 5

Random 100%

Read @ 4KB Transfer Size with Average Latency ...........

16

Figure 10

RAID 5

Maximum Latency for 3-drive and 8-drive Configurations ......................

17

White Paper

December 2013

4

329903-001US

Intel SSD DC S3500 Workload Characterization in RAID Configurations

1.0Revision History

Document

Revision

Description

Revision Date

Number

Number

 

 

 

 

 

 

329903

001

Initial release

December 2013

 

 

 

 

2.0Supporting Documentation

For more information on Intel SSDs, see the corresponding documentation.

Document

Document No./Location

 

 

Intel® Solid-State Drive DC S3500 Series Product Specification

328860

3.0About This Guide

This guide describes Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series performance characteristics in RAID configurations across multiple workloads, and provides analysis to help optimize performance.

The audience is technical IT professionals: Systems, Storage, Database, and Application Engineers.

4.0Overview

The Intel SSD DC S3500 Series provides high random read and write storage Input/Output Operations per Second (IOPS) across mixed read and write workloads. This high random performance and the consistency of IOPS under workload deliver robust and scalable operation when used behind a RAID controller. Data centers can benefit in both performance and TCO by using the Intel SSD DC S3500 Series in the appropriate applications.

Compared to the approximately 200-300 random IOPS that a single 15K SAS hard disk drive (HDD) can provide, an Intel SSD DC S3500 Series operates at much higher IOPS; up to 75,000 IOPS for random 4KB reads and up to 11,500 IOPS for random 4KB writes, over the entire span of the SSD. The Intel SSD performance numbers are based on the Intel product specification sheet, as derived from internal Intel testing. With real-world workloads, the IOPS that any particular device can produce will vary depending on several factors: the application’s ability to produce IOPS, the ratio of random to sequential access, the block transfer size, the queue depth, the read/write mix of the workload, and overall resource utilization in the server running the workload.

This guide presents data for RAID 1 and RAID 5 configurations due to their prominence in the datacenter. Additional RAID levels are currently being tested and will be presented in future revisions, or as separate papers.

December 2013

White Paper

329903-001US

5

Intel SSD DC S3500 Workload Characterization in RAID Configurations

A selection of workloads that represent both best-case performance and real-world performance are presented in this white paper. These scenarios give the IT professional a better understanding of the capabilities of the Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series drive when used in conjunction with a hardware RAID controller. More importantly, it helps the IT professional understand a variety of workloads and circumstances in which Intel SSD technologies will accelerate those workloads and provide business value for their organization.

4.1What Impacts SSD IO Performance

Although Intel SSDs excel in delivering random read and write IOPS, it is important to remember that more IO activity at the application level results in higher CPU utilization in the applications’ host. In addition to the abilities of the SSD, IO performance in any particular situation is dictated by how the particular application scales, and the IO profile of the workload produced by the application.

The following workload-specific characteristics have a direct impact on the ability of the SSD to produce IO:

Read/Write Mix – NAND programming (writes) and read timing (reads) differ significantly at the hardware level. Because of the higher controller overhead required for processing writes, the number of read IOPS are often higher than write IOPS. Real world workloads are most often a mix of read and write.

Random/Sequential Mix – IOPS can vary depending on the ratio of sequential versus random accesses. With higher random write workloads, more data movement and greater data management activity occurs in the drive. As random write activity increases, the IOPS serviceable to the host typically decreases.

Queue Depth - Higher queue depths typically allow the SSD to generate higher IOPS through concurrent processing of commands. However, as the queue size increases, latency will be negatively impacted.

Random Transfer/Block Size - With a smaller transfer size, the SSD controller has to work harder to maintain the logical-to-physical address mappings. In addition, the smaller the transfer size, the larger the logical space needed for its mapping. Once logical space constraint is reached, background re-mapping will take place. These frequent events slow IOPS.

Available Spare Area – A larger spare area directly impacts random write and mixed read/write performance by minimizing the frequency of reclaim activities and freeing up processor cycles to support more host read/write requests. You can increase the spare area by over-provisioning the SSD. See the Intel® High Performance SATA Solid-State Drive Over-Provisioning an Intel® SSD White Paper for more information.

In summary, the following principles of storage are often true concerning queue depth, block size, randomness, and per-IO transactional latency:

As queue depth increases, IOPS increase, and latency increases.

As block size increases, throughput increases, and latency increases.

As randomness increases, IOPS decreases, and latency increases.

White Paper

December 2013

6

329903-001US

+ 13 hidden pages