Intel NetStructure ZT8101, ZT8101 User Manual

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ZT8101 Switch

User’s Manual

December 2001

Information in this document is provided in connection with Intel® products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted by this document. Except as provided in Intel’s Terms and Conditions of Sale for such products, Intel assumes no liability whatsoever, and Intel disclaims any express or implied warranty, relating to sale and/or use of Intel products including liability or warranties relating to fitness for a particular purpose, merchantability, or infringement of any patent, copyright or other intellectual property right. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustaining applications.

Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice.

Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked “reserved” or “undefined.” Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them.

The ZT8101 may contain design defects or errors known as errata that may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.

MPEG is an international standard for video compression/decompression promoted by ISO. Implementations of MPEG CODECs, or MPEG enabled platforms may require licenses from various entities, including Intel Corporation.

This document and the software described in it are furnished under license and may only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of the license. The information in this document is furnished for informational use only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by Intel Corporation. Intel Corporation assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this document or any software that may be provided in association with this document. Except as permitted by such license, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the express written consent of Intel Corporation.

Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order.

Copies of documents which have an ordering number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature may be obtained by calling

1-800-548-4725 or by visiting Intel's website at http://www.intel.com.

*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

Copyright © 2001, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.

Intel Corporation

5200 N.E. Elam Young Parkway

Hillsboro, Oregon 97124-6497

2

ZT8101 User’s Manual

 

 

Contents

Contents

 

1

Introduction....................................................................................................................................

9

 

Highlights ..............................................................................................................................

9

 

Ethernet Features .................................................................................................................

9

 

Layer 2 Switching Functions ....................................................................

9

 

Layer 3 Switching Functions ..................................................................

10

 

Additional Features................................................................................................

10

 

Front Panel Features .............................................................................

10

 

Management Functions .........................................................................

11

 

Warranty ................................................................................................

11

 

Product Information and Sales Support..............................................................................

11

2

Installation and Initial Setup .......................................................................................................

13

 

Installing the Board .............................................................................................................

13

 

Power on................................................................................................................

14

 

Uninstalling the Board.........................................................................................................

14

 

Identifying External Components........................................................................................

15

 

Status LEDs ...........................................................................................................

16

 

Health Status LED .................................................................................

16

 

Hot Swap LED .......................................................................................

16

 

Port LEDs ..............................................................................................................

16

 

Link / Activity LED Mode ........................................................................

16

 

Link / Speed LED Mode .........................................................................

17

 

Getting Started with Management ......................................................................................

17

 

Accessing the Local Console.................................................................................

17

 

To log in to the switch the first time........................................................

18

 

Setting the IP Address ...........................................................................................

18

 

To configure the IP address...................................................................

18

 

Upgrading Firmware through Zmodem ..................................................................

19

 

To upgrade the firmware using Zmodem ...............................................

19

3

Switch Management and Operating Concepts .........................................................................

21

 

Managing the Switch ..........................................................................................................

21

 

Switch IP and MAC Addresses...........................................................................................

22

 

Port Configurations .............................................................................................................

22

 

Flow Control...........................................................................................

22

 

Port Security and MAC Address Learning .............................................

23

 

SNMP .................................................................................................................................

23

 

BOOTP/DHCP Relay..........................................................................................................

23

 

DNS Relay ..........................................................................................................................

24

 

Packet Forwarding..............................................................................................................

24

 

MAC Address Aging Time .....................................................................................

24

 

MAC Address Forwarding......................................................................................

24

 

Storm Control.........................................................................................................

25

 

Traffic Control ........................................................................................................

25

 

IP Forwarding ........................................................................................................

25

 

ARP Table..............................................................................................

25

 

Router Ports...........................................................................................

26

ZT8101 User’s Manual

3

Contents

 

 

Priority.................................................................................................................................

26

 

Filtering ...............................................................................................................................

26

 

MAC Address Filtering ...........................................................................

27

 

IP Address Filtering................................................................................

27

 

Port Mirroring ......................................................................................................................

27

 

Spanning Tree Protocol ......................................................................................................

28

 

STP Levels and Parameters..................................................................................

28

 

STP Parameters for the Switch Level ....................................................

29

 

STP Parameters for the Port Level ........................................................

29

 

Link Aggregation.................................................................................................................

30

 

VLANs.................................................................................................................................

31

 

Static Port-Based VLANs.......................................................................................

31

 

Static IEEE 802.1Q VLANs....................................................................................

32

 

GVRP.....................................................................................................

32

 

Ingress Checking ...................................................................................

33

 

Broadcast Storm Control and VLANs ....................................................................

33

 

Layer 3-Based VLANs ...........................................................................................

34

 

Multi-Netting...........................................................................................................

34

 

IP Interfaces........................................................................................................................

34

 

System IP Interface................................................................................

34

 

Additional IP Interfaces ..........................................................................

35

 

IP Addressing Scheme ..........................................................................

35

 

Multicasting.........................................................................................................................

36

 

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).......................................................

36

 

IGMP Queriers.......................................................................................................

37

 

IGMP Snooping .....................................................................................................

37

 

IGMP Group Settings.............................................................................................

38

 

Routing Protocols ...............................................................................................................

38

 

RIP.........................................................................................................................

38

 

Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) ..........................................

38

 

Protocol-Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM) .....................................

39

4

Using the Telnet Console ...........................................................................................................

41

 

Before You Start .................................................................................................................

41

 

General Deployment Strategy ...............................................................................

41

 

VLAN Layout..........................................................................................................

42

 

IP Addressing Scheme for VLANs.........................................................................

42

 

Static Route Assessment.......................................................................................

42

 

Getting Started....................................................................................................................

43

 

Console Usage Conventions .................................................................................

43

 

Connecting to the Switch .......................................................................................

43

 

To log in to the switch the first time........................................................

44

 

Main Menu .............................................................................................................

45

 

Creating User Accounts.........................................................................................

46

 

To create a new user account................................................................

46

 

Admin, User+ and Normal User Privileges ............................................

47

 

To log in once you have created a registered user................................

47

 

Saving Changes ....................................................................................................

47

 

To save changes to NV-RAM ................................................................

48

 

Reboot ...................................................................................................................

48

 

Basic Settings .....................................................................................................................

48

4

ZT8101 User’s Manual

 

Contents

Switch Information .................................................................................................

49

Basic Switch Setup ................................................................................................

49

Network Management Setup .................................................................................

51

To configure SNMP................................................................................

51

To configure trap recipients ...................................................................

51

To configure the access list ...................................................................

52

Serial Port Settings ................................................................................................

52

Port Configurations ................................................................................................

52

Switch Utilities........................................................................................................

53

To update firmware ................................................................................

54

To download a configuration file ............................................................

54

To upload a configuration file.................................................................

54

To upload a history log file .....................................................................

54

To test connectivity with ping .................................................................

55

BOOTP/DHCP Relay .............................................................................................

55

To enable the BOOTP/DHCP relay agent .............................................

55

DNS Relay .............................................................................................................

56

To configure DNS Relay services ..........................................................

56

Network Monitoring.............................................................................................................

57

Port Statistics .........................................................................................................

57

To view port utilization ...........................................................................

57

To view port error statistics ....................................................................

58

To view an analysis of packet sizes and types ......................................

59

Address Tables ......................................................................................................

59

To view the MAC address table .............................................................

59

To view the IP address table..................................................................

60

To view the routing table........................................................................

60

To view the ARP table ...........................................................................

61

Status.....................................................................................................................

61

To view GVRP status.............................................................................

61

To view the router ports .........................................................................

61

To view the IGMP snooping status ........................................................

62

To view the IP multicast forwarding table ..............................................

62

To view the IGMP group table ...............................................................

62

To view the DVMRP routing table..........................................................

63

To view the switch’s history log..............................................................

63

Advanced Setup .................................................................................................................

64

Spanning Tree .......................................................................................................

64

To configure global STP switch settings ................................................

64

To define the port members of an STP group........................................

65

Forwarding.............................................................................................................

66

To configure MAC address aging ..........................................................

66

To configure unicast MAC address forwarding ......................................

67

To configure multicast MAC address forwarding ...................................

67

To configure storm control .....................................................................

68

To configure advanced traffic control.....................................................

68

To configure static IP routes ..................................................................

69

To configure static ARP .........................................................................

69

IP Address Filtering ...............................................................................................

69

To specify an IP address for filtering......................................................

69

MAC Address Priority ............................................................................................

70

Mirroring Configurations ........................................................................................

71

ZT8101 User’s Manual

5

Contents

 

 

To configure a port for mirroring ............................................................

71

 

VLAN Configuration ...............................................................................................

71

 

To configure GVRP globally...................................................................

71

 

To create or modify a port-based VLAN ................................................

72

 

To create or modify an 802.1Q VLAN....................................................

72

 

To configure the member ports of an 802.1Q VLAN..............................

73

 

Link Aggregation....................................................................................................

74

 

To configure a link aggregation group ...................................................

74

 

Layer 3 IP Networking ........................................................................................................

74

 

Setting Up IP Interfaces.........................................................................................

75

 

To set up IP Interfaces on the switch.....................................................

75

 

RIP Configuration ..................................................................................................

75

 

To configure RIP ....................................................................................

75

 

Multicast Global Configurations .............................................................................

76

 

To configure globally the multicast protocols .........................................

76

 

IGMP Configuration ...............................................................................................

77

 

To configure IGMP snooping .................................................................

77

 

To configure IGMP for an IP interface ...................................................

78

 

DVMRP Interface Configuration ............................................................................

78

 

To configure DVMRP for an IP interface................................................

78

 

PIM-DM Interface Configurations ..........................................................................

79

 

To configure PIM-DM for an IP interface ...............................................

79

 

Static Router Port ..................................................................................................

79

 

To configure a static router port .............................................................

80

5

Using the Web Console .............................................................................................................

81

 

Before You Start .................................................................................................................

81

 

General Deployment Strategy ...............................................................................

81

 

VLAN Layout..........................................................................................................

82

 

IP Addressing Scheme for VLANs.........................................................................

82

 

Static Route Assessment.......................................................................................

82

 

Getting Started....................................................................................................................

83

 

Logging In ..............................................................................................................

83

 

Configuration Options ............................................................................................

84

 

User Accounts .......................................................................................................

85

 

Admin and User Privileges.....................................................................

85

 

Saving Changes ....................................................................................................

86

 

To retain any configuration changes permanently .................................

86

 

Restart ...................................................................................................................

87

 

Factory Reset ........................................................................................................

87

 

To reset the switch to factory default values..........................................

87

 

Basic Settings .....................................................................................................................

87

 

Switch Information .................................................................................................

88

 

Basic Switch Setup ................................................................................................

88

 

Serial Port Settings ................................................................................................

90

 

Port Configurations ................................................................................................

90

 

Network Management............................................................................................

90

 

To configure SNMP community strings..................................................

91

 

To configure trap recipients ...................................................................

91

 

To configure management station IP addresses ...................................

92

 

Switch Utilities........................................................................................................

92

6

ZT8101 User’s Manual

 

Contents

To update firmware ................................................................................

92

To download a configuration file ............................................................

93

To upload a configuration file.................................................................

93

To upload a history log file .....................................................................

93

To test connectivity with ping .................................................................

94

BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent ..................................................................................

94

To configure the BOOTP/DHCP relay agent .........................................

94

To configure the static BOOTP relay setup ...........................................

95

DNS Relay .............................................................................................................

95

To configure DNS Relay ........................................................................

96

To configure the static DNS table ..........................................................

96

Network Monitoring.............................................................................................................

96

Port Statistics .........................................................................................................

97

To view port utilization ...........................................................................

97

To view port error statistics ....................................................................

97

To view an analysis of packet sizes and types ......................................

98

Address Tables ......................................................................................................

99

To view the MAC address table .............................................................

99

To view the IP address table..................................................................

99

To view the routing table......................................................................

100

To view the ARP table .........................................................................

100

Status...................................................................................................................

101

To view GVRP Status ..........................................................................

101

To view router ports .............................................................................

101

To view IGMP snooping status ............................................................

102

To view the IP multicast forwarding table ............................................

102

To view the IGMP group table .............................................................

102

To view the DVMRP routing table........................................................

103

To view the switch’s history log............................................................

103

Advanced Setup ...............................................................................................................

104

Spanning Tree Protocol .......................................................................................

104

To configure STP switch settings.........................................................

104

To define the port members of an STP group......................................

106

Forwarding...........................................................................................................

106

To configure MAC address aging ........................................................

107

To configure unicast MAC address forwarding ....................................

107

To configure multicast MAC address forwarding .................................

107

To configure storm control ...................................................................

108

To configure advanced traffic control...................................................

108

To configure static IP routes ................................................................

109

To configure static ARP .......................................................................

109

IP Address Filtering .............................................................................................

110

To specify an IP address for filtering....................................................

110

MAC Address Priority ..........................................................................................

110

To set up a MAC address priority ........................................................

110

Mirroring Configurations ......................................................................................

111

To configure a port for mirroring ..........................................................

111

VLAN Configurations ...........................................................................................

112

To configure GVRP globally.................................................................

112

To configure a port-based VLAN .........................................................

112

To configure an 802.1Q VLAN.............................................................

112

To configure member ports of an 802.1Q VLAN..................................

113

ZT8101 User’s Manual

7

Contents

 

 

Link Aggregation..................................................................................................

113

 

To configure a link aggregation group .................................................

114

 

Layer 3 - IP Networking ....................................................................................................

114

 

Setting Up IP Interfaces.......................................................................................

114

 

To set up IP interfaces on the switch ...................................................

114

 

RIP Configuration ................................................................................................

115

 

To globally enable or disable RIP ........................................................

115

 

To configure RIP interface settings......................................................

115

 

Multicast Global Configurations ...........................................................................

116

 

To configure globally the multicast protocols .......................................

116

 

IGMP Configurations ...........................................................................................

117

 

To configure IGMP snooping ...............................................................

117

 

To configure IGMP for an IP interface .................................................

118

 

DVMRP Interface Configurations.........................................................................

118

 

To configure DVMRP for an IP interface..............................................

118

 

PIM-DM Setup .....................................................................................................

119

 

To configure PIM-DM for an IP interface .............................................

119

 

Static Router Port Settings ..................................................................................

119

 

To configure a static router port ...........................................................

120

A

Agency Approvals .....................................................................................................................

121

 

CE Certification ....................................................................................

121

 

Safety...................................................................................................

121

 

Emissions Test Regulations.................................................................

121

 

Regulatory Information .....................................................................................................

122

 

FCC— Federal Communications Commission (USA) ..........................

122

 

Industry Canada (Canada)...................................................................

122

 

Product Safety Information ...............................................................................................

123

 

Safety Precautions...............................................................................

123

 

Product Safety Information ...............................................................................................

124

 

AC and/or DC Power Safety Warning (AC and/or DC Powered Units) 124

 

Rack Mount Enclosure Safety..............................................................

124

Revision History

Date

Revision

Description

 

 

 

December 6, 2001

00.2

Made technical corrections.

 

 

 

November 14, 2001

00.1a

Added agency approvals.

 

 

 

November 9, 2001

00.1

First draft.

 

 

 

8

ZT8101 User’s Manual

Introduction

1

The ZT8101 board is a high performance managed switch that supports both Layer 2 and Layer 3 features. For fast connection speeds and flexibility, it has 24 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet ports and 2 gigabit Ethernet ports in a 6U CompactPCI* form factor board. The in-chassis switch minimizes external wiring and needs no extra rack height, thus improving density and reliability.

You can manage the switch from a terminal, with Telnet, from a Web browser, or through IPMI via the Chassis Management Module (ZT7101). The ZT8101 routes and switches at full wire speed with its non-blocking architecture, and it has sophisticated multicast protocols to limit unnecessary traffic. It provides an in-chassis switch fabric that you can configure to operate in a redundant configuration.

Highlights

Full wire speed on all ports

VLAN ID tagging and priority queues

Port aggregation

Port mirroring

Packet filtering

Multicast and broadcast storm control

DHCP/BOOTP packet forwarding

RIP (v1 and v2), DVMRP, PIM-DM

Low port latency

Hot-swappable board with LED indicator

Ethernet Features

Layer 2 Switching Functions

10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T port functions

22 10/100 Fast Ethernet ports to the mid-plane connectors

2 10/100 Fast Ethernet ports (RJ45) on the font panel

2 100/1000 Ethernet ports (RJ45) on the front panel

Auto-negotiation function for speed (10 MB/100 MB/1000 MB), duplex (full/half), and flowcontrol

Back pressure flow control for half-duplex mode

IEEE 802.3x compliant flow control for full-duplex mode

ZT8101 User’s Manual

9

Introduction

Per device packet buffer: 512 KB

8.8 Gbps switching fabric capacity

Store and forward switching forwarding mode

8 KB Layer 2 MAC address

Broadcast and multicast storm control

Port mirroring

Port aggregation

IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol

IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLANs

GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) for automatic VLAN configuration

IEEE 802.1p priority support with 4 priority queues

IGMP Snooping with broadcast control

Layer 3 Switching Functions

Wire speed IP forwarding rate per system

Hardware-based Layer 3 IP switching

2 KB Layer 3 IP address entries

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) v1 and v2

IP v4

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) v2

PIM-DM (Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode)

DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol) v3

IP multi-netting

IP fragmentation

Path MTU discovery

IEEE 802.1D frame support

DHCP/BOOTP relay

Additional Features

Front Panel Features

2 10/100 RJ45 ports

2 100/1000 RJ45 ports

RS 232 serial console port

Status LEDs for port link, speed, and activity

10

ZT8101 User’s Manual

Introduction

Management Functions

RS-232 port for out-of-band management and system diagnostics

Telnet remote control console

Web-based management console

SNMP v1 Agent

Supported MIBs

MIB-II

Bridge MIB

RMON MIB (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)

RIP MIB

CIDR MIB

802.1p MIB

TFTP

IP filtering on management interface

DHCP client

Password enabled

Warranty

2 years

Product Information and Sales Support

Tel. (805) 541-0488

www.Intel.com

ZiatechInfo@Intel.com

ZT8101 User’s Manual

11

Introduction

12

ZT8101 User’s Manual

Installation and Initial Setup

2

This chapter provides installation and initial setup information for the switch.

Installing the Board

These instructions explain the mechanical aspects of installing a ZT8101board. The board should be installed in a PICMG* 2.16 compliant fabric slot.

1.System power does not need to be off to insert a ZT8101 board.

2.Prepare the board by opening the injector/ejector mechanisms.

Injector/Ejector Operations

Open

 

Closed

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.Carefully align the edges of the board with the left and right card guides in the appropriate slot. It may be helpful to look into the enclosure to verify correct alignment of the rails in the guides.

4.Taking care to keep the board aligned in the guides, slide the board in until the injector/ejector mechanisms engage the retention bars.

5.Simultaneously push in the board and rotate the injector/ejector mechanisms to their closed positions (rotate inward) to seat the backplane connectors. When the board is in place, it will boot if the system power is on.

6.Make the desired connections at the faceplate and configure the board.

ZT8101 User’s Manual

13

Installation and Initial Setup

Power on

After the power switch is turned on, the LED indicators should respond as follows:

All LED indicators will momentarily blink, which represents a reset of the system.

The board status LED indicator will blink while the switch loads onboard software and performs a self-test. After approximately 20 seconds, the LED will light again to indicate the switch is in a ready state.

The hot-swap LED indicator will be off.

The port LED indicators will be off if there is no Ethernet connection and on if there is an Ethernet connection.

Uninstalling the Board

These instructions explain the mechanical aspects of removing a ZT8101 board from a system.

1.You do not need to turn off the system power to remove a ZT8101 board.

2.Disconnect connections at the faceplate (Ethernet and serial ports).

3.The board should be in a “safe” state to be removed or data may be lost. Signal the system that a board is about to be removed by partially unlatching the ejectors on the board to be removed. Do not fully open the ejectors, as this levers the board out of the enclosure and prematurely breaks its backplane connection.

4.Wait for the blue hot swap LED on the board's faceplate to light; this indicates that board processes have finished and the board is safe to extract. If the hot swap LED fails to light after 30 seconds, re-latch the ejectors and unlatch them again. In this case, the board is safe to extract (though the hot swap LED may not light).

5.Once the hot swap LED lights, open the injector/ejector mechanisms fully, rotating the handles outward until the board disengages from the backplane (refer to “Injector/Ejector Operations” on page 13).

6.Slide the board evenly out of the enclosure.

7.Install a replacement board or cover the empty slot with a filler panel to maintain the enclosure's shielding and cooling performance.

14

ZT8101 User’s Manual

Installation and Initial Setup

Identifying External Components

This chapter describes the front panel and the LED indicators of the ZT-8101switch. The front panel consists of LED indicators, a management serial port, a toggle button, two 10/100 Ethernet ports, and two 100/1000 Ethernet ports.

Management Serial Port

1

2

 

3

4

 

5

6

 

7

8

 

9

10

 

11

12

Ethernet Channel LEDs

13

14

(Activity/Speed)

15

16

 

17

18

 

19

20

 

21

22/f

 

23

24

Front Panel Ethernet Port LEDs

25

26

(Activity/Speed)

 

LINK

SPEED

Toggle Activity/Speed LEDs Pushbutton

ACT

 

 

23

10/100 Ethernet Ports

24

25

100/1000 Ethernet Ports

26

STATUS

Board Status

Hot Swap

HOT SWAP

ZT8101 User’s Manual

15

Installation and Initial Setup

Status LEDs

The two LEDs at the bottom of the font panel are status LEDs. The top LED indicates the overall status of the board and the bottom LED indicates the hot swap status of the board.

Health Status LED

Status

 

Meaning

 

 

Off

Not powered.

 

 

Green

Powered and functioning normally.

 

 

 

Attention needed due to one of the following conditions:

Amber

Over temperature

Backend supplies exceeding voltage limits

 

 

IPMB time outs

 

 

 

Hot Swap LED

 

 

 

 

 

Status

 

Meaning

 

 

Off

Switch is active or in the process of shutting down; do not remove it.

 

 

Blue

Safe to remove the switch.

 

 

 

Port LEDs

The LED array on the front panel displays information about all the Ethernet links on the board. A green/amber two-color LED is used for each of the 26 Ethernet port connections (24 10/100 + 2 Gigabit). A push-button switch just below the array toggles the LED display from Link /Activity mode to Link / Speed mode. The default LED mode is Link /Activity. When you depress the switch button, the LEDs are in Link/Speed mode.

Link / Activity LED Mode

Status

Meaning

 

 

Off

No Ethernet connection.

 

 

Solid Green

Good connection, link present.

 

 

Blinking Green

Port is transmitting or receiving packets (activity is on going).

 

 

 

Port is not forwarding packets. The port has been disabled by management, an

 

address violation has occurred, or the port is being blocked by STP.

Solid Amber

Note: After a port is reconfigured, the port LED can remain amber for as long as

 

30 seconds while STP checks the switch for loop paths. When the STP checking

 

is completed, the port then resumes displaying its current connection status.

 

 

16

ZT8101 User’s Manual

Installation and Initial Setup

Link / Speed LED Mode

Port Type

Status

Meaning

 

 

 

10/100

Off

10 Mb/s

 

 

 

 

Solid Green

100 Mb/s

 

 

 

100/1000

Solid Green

100 Mb/s

 

 

 

 

Solid Amber

1000 Mb/s

 

 

 

Getting Started with Management

The switch contains the following components:

A CPU

Memory for data storage

Flash memory for configuration data, operational programs, and SNMP agent firmware.

These components allow you to manage and monitor the switch from either the board’s serial port or the network itself. You can configure and manage the switch from these locations:

A terminal or a workstation running terminal emulation software and connected to the switch via the RS-232 port.

A workstation connected to the network and running Telnet.

A workstation connected to the network and running a Web browser.

To access the switch via Telnet or a Web browser, you must assign the switch an appropriate IP address for your network. To do this, you must access the switch using the RS-232 port via the Local Console.

This section explains how to

Set up access to the Local Console

Configure the switch’s IP address

Once you complete these tasks, you can access the switch from any of the three locations. Since the Local Console and the Telnet Console use the same interface, chapter 4 explains how to access the switch using Telnet and then explains all the configuration and management options in this interface. Chapter 5 explains the Web Console. Both the Web and the Telnet/Serial interfaces expose the same functionality. Chapter 3 describes some basic concepts that you should be familiar with before configuring the switch.

Accessing the Local Console

The Local Console is a terminal or a workstation running a terminal emulation program that is connected directly to the switch via the RS-232 console port on the front of the switch. Such a connection is referred to as an “Out-of-Band” connection because the console is connected to the switch using a different circuit than the circuit used for normal network communications. The Local Console can be used to set up and manage the switch even when the network is down.

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Installation and Initial Setup

The serial port on the front panel uses Cisco* cable kit (Order Number: ACS-DSBUASYN). This kit includes a DB25 terminal adapter, a DB-9 terminal adapter, and RJ-45 rollover cable.

A terminal (such as a VT-100) or a computer running a terminal emulation program (such as HyperTerminal, which is automatically installed with Windows*) is connected to this cable.

The serial port is set at the factory for the following configuration:

Baud rate:

9600

Data width:

8 bits

Parity:

None

Stop bits:

1

Flow Control:

None

Make sure the terminal or computer you are using to make this connection is configured to match these settings.

If you are having problems making this connection on a computer, make sure the emulation is set to VT-100. If you still don’t see anything, press CTRL+R to refresh the screen.

To log in to the switch the first time

The usernames and passwords used to access the switch are case sensitive; therefore, “S” is not the same as “s.”

When you first connect to the switch, you will be presented with a login screen.

1.Use the Arrow keys or the Tab key to move to the Username field. Leave the field blank and press Enter. There is no initial username.

2.Move to the Password field. Leave the field blank and press Enter. There is no initial password. The Main Menu appears.

The first created user automatically gets administrator privileges. One of your first configuration tasks should be to create at least one Admin-level user for the switch to protect it from unauthorized users.

Press CTRL+R to refresh the screen. This command can be used at any time to force the console program in the switch to refresh the console screen.

Setting the IP Address

You use the Basic Network Setup menu to set the boot-up operation for obtaining an IP address or to manually assign the IP address for the switch. The switch needs a valid IP address for your network to access the switch via Telnet or the Web.

To configure the IP address

1. From the Main Menu, select Basic Network Setup and press Enter.

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2.To configure the IP address, use the Arrow keys or the Tab key to modify the settings in the New Switch IP Settings column.

Parameter

Default

Description

 

 

 

Get IP From

Manual

Specifies the method for assigning the switch an IP address.

Use the spacebar to toggle to Manual, DHCP, or BOOTP.

 

 

 

 

 

IP Address

10.90.90.90

Specifies the IP address assigned to the switch.

 

 

 

Subnet Mask

255.0.0.0

Specifies the subnet mask assigned to the switch and to the

other devices on this segment of the network.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Specifies the IP address of the device that routes to different

Default Gateway

0.0.0.0

networks. A gateway must be defined if the workstation you

are going to use for switch management is located on a

 

 

 

 

different IP segment than the switch.

 

 

 

 

 

Specifies the name of the VLAN that contains the

VLAN Name

default

workstations that you will use to manage the switch. This

 

 

VLAN must already exist.

 

 

 

3.To configure a name and contact information for the switch, enter information in the following fields.

Parameter

Description

 

 

Name

Specifies the name assigned to the switch. If you are installing multiple

switches, you should give each a unique name.

 

 

 

Location

Specifies the physical location of the switch.

 

 

Contact

Specifies the name of the person responsible for the switch.

 

 

4.Highlight APPLY and press Enter.

5.Press Escape to return to the Main Menu.

6.To save your changes to NV-RAM, highlight Save Changes and press Enter.

To continue configuring the switch, see chapter 4 for information on this interface. See chapter 5 for information about using the Web Console.

Upgrading Firmware through Zmodem

Generally, TFTP is the first choice to use to upgrade firmware. The Telnet Console and the Web Console both have options for upgrading the firmware using a TFTP server (see chapters 4 and 5). However, you can also use Zmodem to upgrade the firmware from the serial port.

Note: If FLASH becomes corrupted because you lose power when upgrading the firmware, you must use Zmodem to fix the problem.

To upgrade the firmware using Zmodem

1.Obtain the runtime firmware.

2.Using Windows HyperTerminal*, log in to the switch through the serial port.

3.From the Main Menu, select Reboot and press Enter.

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4.When the power on self test message appears, press the # key and wait for the following message:

Please change your baud rate to 115200 for the Zmodem upgrade, or press CTRL+C to go to the BOOT Menu.

If you press CTRL+C, you can configure the baud rate to a different value.

5.Change HyperTerminal’s baud rate to match the target’s setting.

6.Use the Send File function of HyperTerminal to upgrade the firmware.

When the download is completed, Zmodem will display a message indicating that it is done and then a message about loading the Runtime image.

7.Change the baud rate of HyperTerminal back to 9600 bps.

8.Disconnect and reconnect.

9.Log in to the switch.

10.From the main menu, select Switch Information and press Enter. Verify the firmware version.

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Switch Management and Operating

3

Concepts

This chapter describes many of the concepts you need to understand to configure and manage the switch. It also describes many of the features available for managing the switch. The instructions for configuring the switch are in chapter 4 (Telnet Console) and chapter 5 (Web Console).

Managing the Switch

The ZT8101 switch has three methods for configuring switch parameters and viewing switch status and statistics:

Serial—The switch’s serial port on the front panel allows a terminal or a PC running terminal emulation software to be connected to the switch and configure the switch. It uses the same application that is used over Telnet. The serial port is usually used only for initial set up, such as configuring the switch’s IP address, or when the network is down. It can also be used to upgrade the switch’s firmware with Zmodem.

Telnet—The switch's embedded Telnet server allows users from remote systems, which are running a Telnet application over TCP/IP, to log in to the switch, configure it, and view the status of and statistics from the ports. The current implementation allow eight 8 Telnet sessions to be active at the same time.

Web—The switch's embedded Web server allows users from remote systems, which are running a Web browser, to log in to the switch, configure it, and view the status of and statistics from the ports. The current implementation allows five HTTP sessions to be active at the same time.

The switch also contains the following utilities:

Ping—The Ping utility invokes the ICMP echo request and echo reply messages. A host or gateway sends an ICMP echo request message to a specified destination. Any computer that receives an echo request formulates an echo reply and transmits it to the original sender. The echo request and associated reply can be used to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. Five ping sessions can be supported simultaneously.

TFTP—This protocol is used to transfer files without any kind of authentication. It runs on top of UDP, using timeout and retransmission to ensure that data arrives. The switch's TFTP client allows users to copy files from and to a remote system that is running the TFTP server protocol. The TFTP client allows only one user to access it and transfer files.

You can use the TFTP client to do the following:

Download firmware.

Download or upload a switch configuration file.

Upload the switch's history log.

Some TFTP servers cannot determine when a transaction is aborted. In these cases, you must reboot the switch, which restarts the TFTP server and re-initializes the TFTP transaction.

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Switch diagnostics—The PROM loader automatically runs memory diagnostics each time the switch is booted.

Reset to factory defaults—The switch includes an option that allows you to reset the configuration to the factory defaults. You can select to reset the IP address or save your configured IP address.

Switch IP and MAC Addresses

Each switch must be assigned its own IP Address. The switch's default IP address is 10.90.90.90. You can change the default switch IP address to meet the specification of your networking address scheme.

The switch is also assigned a unique MAC address by the factory. You cannot change this MAC address.

In addition, you can also set an IP address for a gateway router. This becomes necessary when the network management station is located on a different IP network from the switch, making it necessary for management packets to go through a router to reach the network manager, and vice versa.

For security, you can list the IP addresses of the network management stations that you want to manage the switch. If you list IP addresses, only those workstations have access; all others will be denied.

You can also configure a VLAN for the network that the management stations are on, and then configure the switch for this VLAN.

Port Configurations

By default, the switch is configured to use auto-negotiation to determine each port's speed and duplex setting. The user can modify this and configure a port to use a specified configuration. The Ethernet ports have the following characteristics:

Ethernet Port

Link Speed

Duplex

 

 

 

Fast Ethernet (10/100)

10/100 Mbps

Half, Full

 

 

 

Gigabit Ethernet

100/1000 Mbps

Full

 

 

 

Flow Control

All ports have a traffic limit because they have a limited buffer space to receive incoming frames. Upon reaching the limit, a port either starts dropping packets or triggers flow control. The ZT8101 switch uses the following methods for flow control:

802.3x flow control—The switch sends PAUSE frames, which request remote ports to delay sending packets for a period of time. Sending ports suspend further frame transmission until the specified time period has elapsed.

802.3x compliant flow control—The switch does not send PAUSE frames, but it does respond to them.

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Back pressure—The switch fakes a collision and then transmits a jam sequence to ensure all stations are notified of the “collision.” This causes the sending ports to trigger their back-off routines and reduces the amount of traffic on the port.

The port type and duplex mode determine which type of flow control is used. The following table lists the port types and their flow control methods.

Port Type

Duplex Mode

Flow Control

 

 

 

Fast Ethernet (10/100)

Half

Back pressure

 

 

 

Fast Ethernet (10/100)

Full

802.3x compliant

 

 

 

Gigabit Ethernet

Full

802.3x

 

 

 

Port Security and MAC Address Learning

For security purposes, you can disable MAC address learning on one or more ports. When MAC address learning is disabled, a port cannot discover MAC addresses. The port receives only broadcast traffic and packets with destination MAC addresses that match the port's MAC address.

The default value for each port is learning enabled.

SNMP

The switch has an embedded Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent which is compliant with SNMPv1. This agent monitors the status of the board’s hardware and the traffic passing through its ports. A computer attached to the network, called a management station, can access this information. The switch uses the following features to control access to its information:

Community strings—You can configure up to four community strings so that only authorized management stations can access the agent. You can set each string to grant either read only or read/write access.

IP address—You can restrict access to specified IP addresses. You can enter up to three IP addresses which restricts access to these specified management stations.

You can also specify which management agents receive the trap messages generated by the SNMP agent. These trap messages are status messages that alert you of events such as authentication failure, STP topology changes, and link status changes on the port.

BOOTP/DHCP Relay

BOOTP and DHCP allow stations to obtain boot and TCP/IP information dynamically. The relay agent allows them to obtain this information when the BOOTP/DHCP server is not on the same IP interface as the end station. You can configure the switch so that the messages are forwarded from one interface to the appropriate server on another interface.

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DNS Relay

The Domain Name System (DNS) is used to map names to IP addresses. DNS relay enables the switch to act as a DNS cache or proxy. It forwards DNS requests to DNS servers only if it can’t resolve the name from its cache.

If you enable DNS relay on the switch, you can specify a primary and secondary DNS server to forward requests that the switch cannot resolve. You can also specify that requests destined for specific DNS servers should be first serviced by looking in the switch’s table.

Packet Forwarding

The switch maintains a forwarding table. This table contains the relationship between a destination MAC or IP addresses and the Ethernet port or gateway router the destination resides on. This information is then used to forward packets. This reduces the traffic congestion on the network, because packets, instead of being transmitted to all ports, are transmitted to the destination port only. For example, if Port 1 receives a packet destined for a station on Port 2, the switch transmits that packet through Port 2 only, and transmits nothing through the other ports. This process is referred to as “learning” the network topology.

You can configure forwarding rules for the following:

MAC address aging

MAC address forwarding

IP address to a specified gateway

IP address to a specified MAC address

MAC Address Aging Time

The aging time affects the learning process of the switch. Dynamic forwarding table entries, which are made up of the source and destination MAC addresses and their associated port numbers, are deleted from the table if they are not accessed within the aging time.

The aging time can be 10 — 1,000,000 seconds with a default value of 300 seconds. A very long aging time can result in dynamic forwarding table entries that are out-of-date or no longer exist. This may cause incorrect packet forwarding decisions by the switch.

If the aging time is too short, however, many entries may be aged out too soon. This will result in a high percentage of received packets whose source addresses cannot be found in the forwarding table, in which case the switch will broadcast the packet to all ports, negating many of the benefits of having a switch.

Static forwarding entries are not affected by the aging time.

MAC Address Forwarding

The switch allows you to configure how unicast and multicast packets are forwarded.

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For unicast packets, you specify the MAC address and then either select the port that they will be forwarded to or have them dropped (called “BlackHole”).

For multicast packets, you specify the MAC address and then select the ports they can be forwarded to.

Storm Control

You can also set thresholds to control broadcast and multicast storms. When the threshold is exceeded, the switch drops the multicast or broadcast traffic. When traffic levels drop below the threshold, the switch resumes forwarding the traffic again.

The thresholds are applied to all Ethernet ports and cannot be set for individual ports. The threshold specifies in thousands the number of broadcast or multicast packets per second a port can receive before triggering a storm control response. The possible range is 0 — 255 KB packets per second. This threshold can be configured to apply to broadcast packets, to multicast packets, or to both.

Traffic Control

You can also set thresholds for the amount of traffic a port can handle before triggering flow control. The flow control threshold sets the limit for the maximum amount of memory a port can use to hold packets. When a port reaches this limit, the port sends a signal to slow down the packets coming in:

Ports in half-duplex mode assert a jamming signal.

Ports in full-duplex mode send PAUSE frames.

You can set the flow control thresholds for individual ports and then monitor the status.

IP Forwarding

You can configure how packets are forwarded, based on their IP address, by configuring entries for the ARP table and the routing table.

ARP Table

The ARP table maintains the mappings from Internet addresses (IP) to hardware addresses (MAC). There are two types of ARP entries: dynamic and static.

When a static ARP entry is added to the switch’s ARP table, the switch does not send an ARP query to the configured IP address. This allows the switch to connect to devices that have not implement ARP.

The ARP table has the following characteristics:

Static entries have higher precedence than dynamic entries. Therefore, a static entry will not be overwritten by a dynamic entry.

The aging time for dynamic entries is 20 minutes. This value is not configurable.

The table can be up to 2 KB in size.

Up to 32 static entries are allowed in the table.

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Router Ports

Router ports allow multicast packets to be propagated throughout the network. Router ports can be either static or dynamic. Static router ports are special routes that you manually enter into the switch’s routing table. Usually it is a port that has a router attached to it, and the router has a connection to a WAN or to the Internet. Static router ports should be used sparingly, because when a network failure occurs, they do not change. However, they can reduce network traffic by eliminating the need for a routing protocol on a local network. For example, a local network, which has only one link to the network, is an ideal candidate for a static route. You can also use them to restrict the transmission path a datagram must follow, based on the datagram's destination address. You can add up to 32 static entries into the routing table.

Dynamic router ports are added by the switch. The switch monitors each port for UDP multicast packets and IGMP multicast group membership reports. When these packets are detected on a port, that port is dynamically assigned as a router port.

Priority

MAC address priority is a Layer 2 Class of Service. It allows certain frames, based on their MAC address, to receive special handling.

The frames can be prioritized based on where the MAC address appears:

The source only

The destination only

Both the source and destination

Frames that match the criteria are given a priority tag. The switch supports only four hardware priority levels per egress port, so the eight levels are mapped to four as listed in the table below.

Priority in Frames

Priority Queue of ASIC

 

 

0 - 1

0

 

 

2 - 3

1

 

 

4 - 5

2

 

 

6 - 7

3

 

 

After an Ethernet frame has been prioritized, the switch forwards the Ethernet frame using the strict priority-based scheduling algorithm. With this policy, any packets residing in a higher priority queue are always transmitted first. Only when these queues are empty are packets in lower priority queues transmitted.

Filtering

A filtering database is used to segment the network and control communication between segments. It can also filter packets off the network for intrusion control. Static filtering entries can be made by MAC or IP addresses.

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Each port on the switch is a unique collision domain, and the switch filters (discards) packets whose destination lies on the same port as where it originated. This keeps local packets from disrupting communications on other parts of the network.

The switch does some filtering automatically:

Dynamic filtering—The switch automatic learns and ages MAC addresses and their location on the network. Filtering occurs to keep local traffic confined to its segment.

Filtering done by the Spanning Tree Protocol—STP filters packets based on topology, ensuring that signal loops don't occur.

Filtering done for VLAN integrity—The switch filters packets from a member of a VLAN (VLAN 2, for example) destined for a device on another VLAN (VLAN 3).

You can also manually configure the switch to drop packets from specified MAC and IP addresses. Whenever a switch encounters a packet originating from, or destined to, a MAC address or an IP address entered into the filter table, the switch discards the packet.

MAC Address Filtering

When filtering by MAC address, you have two options:

Static—This option allows you to specify which port handles the packets from the specified MAC address.

BlackHole—This option allows you to have the switch drop the packets from, or to, a specified MAC address.

IP Address Filtering

When filtering by IP address, you have three options. You can have the switch drop the packet based on where the IP address appears:

In the source

In the destination

In both the source and destination

The table can contain 32 entries, and two table entries are needed to configure a bi-direction filter.

Port Mirroring

Port mirroring allows the traffic on a particular port to be monitored by sending copies of the packets to a target port. You can then attach a logic analyzer or a RMON probe to the target port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner. You can configure only one port to be a target port, but you can select multiple ports to be mirrored to this target port. For optimum performance, you should mirror three or fewer ports at any given time.

You can select which traffic is mirrored. For a given mirrored port (or source port), you can select to mirror only incoming traffic, only outgoing traffic, or both.

When mirroring ports, remember the following:

The source port cannot be the target port.

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Switch Management and Operating Concepts

The target port cannot belong to a link aggregation group.

The target port should be operating at the same or higher speed than the source port. If the target port is operating at a lower speed than the source port, packets will be lost.

Spanning Tree Protocol

The IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol allows for the blocking of links between switches that form loops within the network. When multiple links between switches are detected, a primary link is established. Duplicated links are blocked from use and become standby links. The protocol allows for the duplicate links to be used in the event of a failure of the primary link.

It is possible to cause serious degradation of network performance if the Spanning Tree is incorrectly configured. The switch’s default global setting should be used by the majority of installations.

The ZT8101 switch performs the following functions:

Creates a single spanning tree from any combination of switching or bridging elements.

Creates multiple spanning trees from any combination of ports contained within a single switch, in user-specified groups.

Automatically reconfigures the spanning tree to compensate for the failure, addition, or removal of any element in the tree.

Reconfigures the spanning tree without operator intervention.

STP Levels and Parameters

The ZT8101 switch allows for two levels of operation: the switch level and the port level. The switch level forms a spanning tree consisting of links between one or more switches. The port level constructs a spanning tree consisting of groups of one or more ports. The STP operates in much the same way for both levels.

On the switch level, STP calculates the Bridge Identifier for each switch and then sets the Root Bridge and the Designated Bridges.

On the port level, STP sets the Root Port and the Designated Ports.

The factory default settings should cover the majority of installations. Setting up STP using values other than the defaults can be complex. Therefore, we recommend that you keep the default factory settings, and STP will automatically assign root bridges/ports and block loop connections.

Influencing STP to choose a particular switch as the root bridge using the Priority setting, or influencing STP to choose a particular port to block using the Port Priority and Port Cost settings is, however, relatively simple.

For example, if all switches have STP enabled with default settings, the switch with the lowest MAC address in the network becomes the root switch. By increasing the priority (lowering the priority number) of the best switch, STP can be forced to select the best switch as the root switch.

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STP Parameters for the Switch Level

The following are the user-configurable STP parameters for the switch level.

Parameter

Description

Default Value

 

 

 

 

Specifies the combination of the user-set priority and

 

 

the switch’s MAC address. The bridge identifier

 

Bridge Identifier

consists of two parts: a 16-bit priority and a 48-bit

32768 + MAC address

 

Ethernet MAC address. The only portion that a user

 

 

can configure is the priority.

 

 

 

 

 

Specifies the relative priority for each switch. Lower

 

Priority

numbers specify a higher priority and a greater chance

32768

 

of a given switch being elected as the root bridge

 

 

 

 

 

Specifies the length of time between broadcasts of the

 

 

hello message by the switch. It can be set from 1 — 10

 

Hello Time

seconds. This interval is not used until the switch

2 seconds

becomes (if ever) the root bridge.

 

 

 

The Hello Time parameter cannot be longer than the

 

 

Max Age parameter.

 

 

 

 

 

Measures the age of a received BPDU for a port, and

 

Max Age

ensures that the BPDU is discarded when its age

20 seconds

exceeds the value of the Max Age parameter.

 

 

 

It can be set from 6 — 40 seconds.

 

 

 

 

 

Specifies the time a port can remaining in the listening

 

Forward Delay

state while moving from the blocking state to the

15 seconds

forwarding state.

 

 

 

It can be set from 4 — 30 seconds.

 

 

 

 

Use the following formulas when setting these parameters:

Max Age = 2 x (Forward Delay -1second)

Mag Age = 2 x (Hello Time + 1 second)

STP Parameters for the Port Level

The following are the user-configurable STP parameters for the port or port group level.

Variable

Description

Default Value

 

 

 

 

A relative priority for each port. Lower numbers specify

 

Port Priority

a higher priority and a greater chance of a given port

32768

 

being elected as the root port

 

 

 

 

 

 

• 100 for 10 Mbps Fast

 

A value used by STP to evaluate paths. STP calculates

Etherenet ports

 

• 19 for 100 Mbps Fast

Port Cost

path costs and selects the path with the minimum cost

Ethernet ports

 

as the active path.

 

• 4 for 1000 Mbps Gigabit

 

 

 

 

Ethernet ports

 

 

 

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Link Aggregation

Link aggregation allows several ports to be grouped so that they can act as a single port. This is done to either increase the bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. The group has the following assignments:

Master port—This port is the Ethernet port with the lowest port number. All member ports are configured to use its port settings and become members of its VLAN.

Anchor port—This port is in charge of sending control packets, such as spanning tree BPDUs, and also the flooding of multicast frames. When a link change event occurs in the group, the anchor port may be re-elected.

When a link aggregation group is deleted or disabled, the ports retain their reassigned port settings. They do not recover their original port settings. For example, suppose that Port 1 belongs to VLAN1 and Port 2 belongs to VLAN2. When you create a group with a starting point of Port 1 and a width of 2, Port 2 will be added to VLAN1 and removed from VLAN2 automatically. If you delete or disable the group later, the Port 2 will still be assigned to VLAN1.

The switch also assigns the group a anchor port. This port is in charge of sending control packets and also the flooding of multicast frames. When a link change event occurs in the group, the anchor port may be re-elected.

The ZT8101 supports six link aggregation groups, which may include from 2 — 8 switch ports each, except for a gigabit link aggregation group, which consists of the two gigabit Ethernet ports on the front panel.

Remember the following guidelines when creating a link aggregation group:

The ports used in a group must all be of the same media type (10/100 Mbps fiber or 100/1000 Mbps fiber).

The ports used for each group must all be on the same switch.

The ports in a group must be contiguous (they must have sequential port numbers).

Ports can only be assigned to one link aggregation group.

None of the ports in a group can be configured as a mirror source port or a mirror target port.

All of the ports in a group must be treated as a whole when added to or deleted from a VLAN.

STP will use the port parameters of the base port in the calculation of port cost and in determining the state of the link aggregation group. The following formula is used to calculate the path cost:

path cost of master port - the number of ports in the group

STP treats all ports in a link aggregation group as a single port and will block the entire group if it is a redundant link.

Data transmitted to a specific host (destination address) will always be transmitted over the same port in the group. This allows packets in a data stream to arrive in the same order they were sent.

The configuration of the lowest numbered port in the group becomes the configuration for all of the ports in the aggregation group. This port is called the base port of the group, and all configuration options—including the VLAN configuration—that can be applied to the base port are applied to the entire link aggregation group.

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Load balancing is automatically applied to the links in the aggregation group, and a link failure within the group causes the network traffic to be directed to the remaining links in the group.

Switches that use a load-balancing scheme that sends the packets of a host-to-host data stream over multiple ports cannot have a trunk connection with the ZT8101 switch.

Enable the group prior to connecting any cable between the switches to avoid creating a data loop. Disconnect all link aggregation cables or disable the ports before removing a link aggregation group to avoid creating a data loop.

VLANs

VLANs allow you to group some physical ports as if they were on the same LAN. VLAN can be created either statically or dynamically.

Static VLAN—Ports are assigned to a specific VLAN.

Dynamic VLAN—Using GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol), ports are allowed to dynamically join a VLAN group.

VLANs reduce traffic because traffic between VLANs is restricted. Bridges forward unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic only on LAN segments that serve the VLAN to which the traffic belongs.

For static VLAN configuration, the switch supports two kinds of VLANs:

Static port—Uses untagged frames.

Static IEEE 802.1Q VLAN—Uses tagged or untagged frames. Ports that use tagged frames can belong to more than one VLAN.

By default, all ports belong to a special VLAN called “default.” This default VLAN is a static IEEE802.1Q VLAN, which has the following unique characteristics:

The name and the type fields are read-only.

It cannot be deleted.

It can contain no VLAN members.

Its VID is 1, which cannot be changed.

All user-configured VLANs have the following characteristics:

The size of VLAN name field is 32 bytes.

Ingress checking is set to on.

Up to 32 static VLANs can be configured.

The switch supports a maximum of 255 VLANs (64 static, the rest dynamic).

Static Port-Based VLANs

A port-based VLAN is the easiest type to configure on the switch because you only need to specify the following:

VLAN name

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