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NH2025-10

High Density Workgroup Switch

Installation and User Guide

Standards Compliance

UL 1950; CSA 22.2 No 950; VCCI; FCC Part 15 Class A; CE-89/336/EEC, 73/23/EEC

FCC Notice

WARNING: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

The user is cautioned that changes and modifications made to the equipment without approval of the manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate this equipment.

It is suggested that the user use only shielded and grounded cables when appropriate to ensure compliance with FCC Rules.

CE Mark

The CE mark symbolizes compliance with the EMC directive of the European Community. Such marking is indicative that the specified equipment meets or exceeds the following technical standards:

EN 55022 – “Limits and Methods of Measurement of Radio Interference Characteristics of Information Technology Equipment”

EN 50082-1 – “Electromagnetic compatibility – Generic immunity standard Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry”

IEC 1000-4-2 – “Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial-process measurement and control equipment Part 2: Electrostatic discharge requirements” – Severity level 3

IEC 1000-4-3 – “Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial-process measurement and control equipment Part 3: Radiated electromagnetic field requirements” – Severity level 2

IEC 1000-4-4 – “Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial-process measurement and control equipment Part 4: Electrical fast transient/burst requirements” – Severity level 2

CISPR 22 – Radiated and Line-conducted Class A

EN 60950 – ITE Safety

A “Declaration of Conformity”, in accordance with the above standards, has been made and is on file at NBase-Xyplex Communications Ltd.

VCCI

This equipment is in the 2nd Class category (information equipment to be used in a residential area or an adjacent area thereto) and conforms to the standards set by the Voluntary Control Council For Interference by Information Technology Equipment aimed at preventing radio interference in such residential area.

When used near a radio or TV receiver, it may become the cause of radio interference. Read the instructions for correct handling.

Contents

 

Overview

 

Applications ...............................................................................................................................

2

Network Management Systems.................................................................................................

2

Feature Summary......................................................................................................................

3

Performance/Configuration ...............................................................................................

3

Management......................................................................................................................

3

Installing and Setting Up the Unit

 

Installing the Unit .....................................................................................................................

5

Rack Mounting ..................................................................................................................

5

Front Panel ........................................................................................................................

5

Rear Panel .........................................................................................................................

6

Installing Modules in the Unit ..................................................................................................

6

Modules for NH 2025-10....................................................................................................

7

EM2003-1GE .....................................................................................................................

7

EM2003-2FO .....................................................................................................................

7

EM2003-8TP......................................................................................................................

8

Em2003-2GE*....................................................................................................................

8

Connecting Power to the Unit ...................................................................................................

8

Input Supply......................................................................................................................

8

Grounding..........................................................................................................................

9

Connecting Ethernet Devices ....................................................................................................

9

Connecting Your Network .................................................................................................

9

Getting Started

 

Connecting to the Management Port.......................................................................................

11

Logging Into the Command Line Interface .............................................................................

11

Setting the IP Address.............................................................................................................

11

Verifying the Installation ........................................................................................................

12

Accessing the Command Line Interface Remotely ..................................................................

12

Using the Command Line Interface

 

Command Conventions............................................................................................................

13

Command Line Help................................................................................................................

13

Getting Command Parameter Help...................................................................................

13

Getting Command Group Help..........................................................................................

14

Using Command Wildcards...............................................................................................

14

Retrieving Command History............................................................................................

15

Command Line Errors .............................................................................................................

16

Nonexistent Command ......................................................................................................

16

Incorrect Number of Parameters.......................................................................................

16

i

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

 

Console Commands..................................................................................................................

17

System Commands...................................................................................................................

20

IP Commands...........................................................................................................................

23

IP Configuration ................................................................................................................

23

Setting an IP address ........................................................................................................

24

Erasing an IP Configuration .............................................................................................

25

Configuring a Gateway......................................................................................................

25

Bootp Configuration...........................................................................................................

25

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)..........................................................................................

26

Port configuration ....................................................................................................................

27

Displaying the Port Configuration ....................................................................................

27

Setting the port configuration ...........................................................................................

28

Setting the flow control......................................................................................................

29

EtherChannel...........................................................................................................................

30

Getting the EtherChannel Configuration..........................................................................

30

Setting the EtherChannel Configuration ..........................................................................

30

Deleting the EtherChannel Configuration ........................................................................

31

Port Priority .............................................................................................................................

31

Set Port Priority.................................................................................................................

31

Get Port Priority ................................................................................................................

32

VLAN Priority....................................................................................................................

32

Modifying the Switch Policy ..............................................................................................

32

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)..................................................................................................

33

How the STP Topology Stabilizes ......................................................................................

33

Spanning Tree Parameters................................................................................................

34

Root Bridge ........................................................................................................................

34

Manually Designating a Root Bridge ................................................................................

34

Selecting a Designated Switch/Bridge...............................................................................

34

Topology Change Notification BPDU ................................................................................

35

Using STP to Manage Redundant Links ...........................................................................

35

Spanning Tree and VLAN restrictions ..............................................................................

35

Spanning Tree Commands ................................................................................................

35

Enabling/Disabling STP...................................................................................................

35

Viewing Bridge Parameters ...............................................................................................

36

Configuring the Bridge ......................................................................................................

36

Viewing the Port Configuration.........................................................................................

37

Setting Port Configuration ................................................................................................

37

Switching Commands ..............................................................................................................

39

Learning Table...................................................................................................................

39

Aging Configuration ..........................................................................................................

39

Deleting Entries .................................................................................................................

42

Adding Static Entries ........................................................................................................

42

Virtual Broadcast Domain .......................................................................................................

43

Viewing the VBC Mode......................................................................................................

43

Setting the VBC mode .......................................................................................................

43

Creating VBC Domains .....................................................................................................

43

Viewing VBC Matrix..........................................................................................................

44

Deleting a VBC ..................................................................................................................

45

ii

Virtual Networking..................................................................................................................

45

Important Considerations .................................................................................................

46

Viewing the VLAN Mode...................................................................................................

46

Setting the VLAN Mode ....................................................................................................

46

Inter-Switch VLAN or ISVLAN...............................................................................................

47

Tag Field Format...............................................................................................................

47

Principles of ISVLAN ........................................................................................................

47

Viewing the ISVLAN Mode................................................................................................

47

Setting a Tagged Port ........................................................................................................

47

Removing a Tagged Port....................................................................................................

48

Server Port ........................................................................................................................

48

Creating a Server Port .......................................................................................................

48

Removing a Server Port .....................................................................................................

49

VLAN.................................................................................................................................

49

Creating a VLAN ...............................................................................................................

49

Viewing VLAN Configuration............................................................................................

49

Deleting a VLAN................................................................................................................

50

VLAN Management...........................................................................................................

51

Viewing the Management Tag ...........................................................................................

51

Modifying the Management Tag........................................................................................

51

Deleting the Management from a VLAN............................................................................

51

Creating a VLAN with Port Management .........................................................................

52

VLAN, Server-port, Example of Configuration .................................................................

52

Physical configuration schema ..........................................................................................

52

VLAN Server Port Configuration:......................................................................................

52

VLAN Configuration .........................................................................................................

53

Payroll VLAN Configuration: ............................................................................................

53

Finance VLAN Configuration:...........................................................................................

53

Checking the Configuration: ..............................................................................................

53

Utilities Commands .................................................................................................................

54

Ping Commands.................................................................................................................

54

Port mirroring ...................................................................................................................

54

Setting the Monitoring Port ...............................................................................................

55

Monitoring with: monitor ..................................................................................................

55

Saving the Configuration ..................................................................................................

55

Stopping Monitoring..........................................................................................................

55

Viewing the NVRAM Configuration ..................................................................................

56

Erasing the NVRAM configuration ...................................................................................

56

Frame Generator ...............................................................................................................

56

Setting the Frame Generator .............................................................................................

56

Starting the Frame Generation..........................................................................................

56

Stopping the Frame Generation.........................................................................................

57

SNMP.......................................................................................................................................

57

NBase-Xyplex SNMP Support...........................................................................................

57

SNMP basic configuration.................................................................................................

57

SNMP Community String Commands ..............................................................................

58

Viewing the Community String .........................................................................................

58

Setting the Read or Write Community...............................................................................

58

SNMP Traps ......................................................................................................................

59

Setting Authentication Traps ............................................................................................

59

iii

 

Viewing the Authentication Trap Status ...........................................................................

59

Setting the Authentication Trap ........................................................................................

59

Configuring the Trap Stations...........................................................................................

60

Statistics ..................................................................................................................................

61

Clearing the Switch Counters............................................................................................

61

Getting Collisions on a Port ...............................................................................................

61

Rmon Statistics..................................................................................................................

62

Getting Rmon Statistics Group for a Port..........................................................................

62

Getting the Packet Size Distribution..................................................................................

62

Getting the Management Counters.....................................................................................

63

Console Commands..................................................................................................................

67

System Commands...................................................................................................................

67

IP Commands...........................................................................................................................

68

Ping Commands .......................................................................................................................

68

ARP Commands .......................................................................................................................

68

EtherChannel Commands........................................................................................................

68

SNMP Commands....................................................................................................................

68

Switching Database Commands ..............................................................................................

69

Virtual LAN Commands ..........................................................................................................

69

Port Monitoring........................................................................................................................

70

Port Configuration Commands ................................................................................................

70

Switching Statistics Commands ..............................................................................................

70

Spanning Tree Commands.......................................................................................................

71

Download Procedure - "Client Mode".................................................................................

75

Download Procedure - "Server mode" ................................................................................

75

TFTP Recovery - Breaking into the BootROM ..................................................................

76

iv

Overview

The NH2025-10 is a robust switch platform, representing the next generation in switching technology. It boasts a combination of cutting-edge hardware architecture, a rich set of Virtual LAN (VLAN) options and advanced network management features.

Figure 1 - General View

The NH2025-10 contains a built-in SNMP agent running on the SNMP Processor Board. This allows each unit to be managed from a centralized management station through any SNMPcompliant NMS.

The SNMP agent software complies with the following standards:

RFC 1155 The Structure of Management Information (SMI) for TCP/IP Based Internets, May 1990

RFC 1212 The Management Information Base I (MIB I)

RFC 1213 The Management Information Base II (MIB II), March 1991.

RFC 1284 The Ethernet MIB

RFC 1286 The Bridge MIB

RFC 1757 The RMON MIB

The NH2025-10 also supports two NBase-Xyplex private MIBs: switch.mib and gswitch.mib.

The SNMP agent utilizes UDP/IP (RFC 768, RFC950, RFC1071 and RFC791) as OSI layers 3 and 4 protocols, ICMP (RFC792) and ARP (RFC826) to complete the UDP/IP protocol suite.

The UDP/IP stack implementation conforms to:

RFC 1122 Requirements for Internet hosts - communication layers.

RFC 1123 Requirements for Internet hosts - application and support.

The NH2025-10 may be managed by any SNMP Manager that conforms to the above standards. It may be fully managed by MegaVision, NBase-Xyplex’s multi-platform network management system. For more information on MegaVision, view our web site, or contact NBase-Xyplex for a data sheet.

The NH2025-10 implements an NBase-Xyplex Enterprise MIB and an NBase-Xyplex Product MIB that may be provided upon request.

1

Overview

Applications

A switch boosts network performance by segmenting a single large collision domain into smaller, separate collision domains. It also provides dedicated connections for heavily loaded networks using work stations and servers. In addition, the Full Duplex capability of Ethernet switches permits long distance connectivity for backbone applications or high throughput for high-performance dedicated servers. The NH2025-10 combines 10/100Mbps switched ports with a dport for accommodating an optional module.

The NH2025-10 switch can connect up to twenty-four 10/100Mbps ports and with a dport for accommodating an optional module Figure 2 illustrates various connection possibilities: Two NH2025-10 switches ,with Gigabit Ethernet uplink modules, located in different buildings can be connected via MM or SM fiber optic cable to a Gigabit Ethernet backbone. VLAN Tagging allows the creation of one logical VLAN across all switches. Additional connections include dedicated 10/100Mbps workgroup connections and 100Mbps dedicated servers.

Figure 2 - Typical Application Example

NOTE: The NH2025-10 does not count as a repeater. Each of the segments connected to the switch can support a full Ethernet network; there can be up to four 10Base-T repeaters/hubs between any NH2025-10 port and any station.

Network Management Systems

Network management functions greatly assist in monitoring and controlling the network. The NH2025-10 can be monitored and controlled through MegaVision or through a generic SNMPbased NMS. The connection to the NH2025-10 may be achieved through Ethernet.

To enable management of an NH2025-10 device, you must define the device and provide specific parameters to establish communication. The Describe window is used to define a new device or to change the parameters of a previously defined device.

The NH2025-10 can also be configured and managed through the Command Line Interface.

2

Overview

Feature Summary

The following are the Performance/Configuration and Management features supported on the NH2025-10 switch.

Performance/Configuration

24 switched 10/100Mbps ports and a dport to accommodate one of the following uplink modules:

Single Gigabit Ethernet port (MM,SM)

Dual Gigabit Ethernet ports (MM,SM)*

8 10/100 auto-negotiation ports module

2 100Base-FX ports (MM,SM)

The highest common port speed is automatically set when connecting any standard compliant (802.3u Auto-negotiation) network device or station.

Each 10/100Base port operates in half duplex mode, for shared networks, or in a dedicated full duplex link, running at up to 200Mbps.

All ports support auto-polarity detection and correction.

Store-and-Forward switching.

Flow Control (IEEE 802.3x) provides effective packet loss protection under heavy load conditions, minimizing delays and retransmission of data, thus improving network performance.

Supports the creation of up to 64 Virtual LANs.

Supports the Inter-Switch VLAN tagging standard which enables the creation of multiple groups across the network (IEEE 802.1q).

MAC address table (up to 12K unicast entries).

Maximum wire speed throughput on all ports simultaneously.

Supports RMON (groups 1,2,3,9), Telnet for rapid fault detection and isolation.

Port Mirroring.

Spanning Tree Algorithm prevents broadcast loops

Management

Fully managed through the comprehensive NBase-Xyplex MegaVision Network Management System, or any SNMP-based management platform.

Extensive Command Line Interface (CLI) management provides out-of-band administration.

Supports NBase-Xyplex's private MIB, Ethernet MIB and bridge MIB. The status of each port is displayed by an LED on the front panel. This LED indicates active and link status.

3

Installing and Setting Up the Unit

The NH2025-10 can operate as a stand-alone unit or in conjunction with any of NBase-Xyplex’s other Ethernet offerings. Switch management is through NBase-Xyplex MegaVision software, any SNMP-compatible NMS, or through the Command Line Interface (CLI).

Installing the Unit

This section outlines the installation and operation of the NH2025-10.

The NH2025-10 comes as a 19” rack-mountable unit. However, it can be placed either in a rack mount, using the enclosed rack-mount brackets, or on a secure flat surface. Ensure that the unit is within reach of the necessary connections (i.e. power outlet, Ethernet connections, and if the NH2025-10 is monitored through the serial port, a PC, UNIX workstation, or modem). The unit is powered by a wide-range power supply for either 110 or 220 VAC operation.

WARNING

Free airflow must be maintained in order to permit adequate cooling of the unit. All FAN holes MUST be unobstructed.

Rack Mounting

If rack-mounted units are installed in a closed or multi-rack assembly, they may require further evaluation by certification agencies. The following items must be considered when rack mounting a unit:

1.The ambient temperature within the rack may be greater than room ambient temperature, however the amount of airflow required for safe operation should not be compromised. The maximum temperature for this equipment is 50°C (122F). Consideration should be given to the maximum rated ambient temperature.

2.The rack should be stable, verify that stability is not inadvertently compromised during and after installation.

Front Panel

The front panel of the NH2025-10 is illustrated below in Figure 3. The table below describes its various components, LED indications and their functions.

Figure 3 - Front Panel

5

Installing and Setting Up the Unit

1 Global LEDs

PWR Green ON indicates Power ON

MGMT Blinking Green indicates that the firmware is initializing

Solid Green indicates that firmware is installed and in proper operational mode

2 10/100 Port LEDs

LSolid Green indicates a valid connection. During LINK test, there is an intermittent flash on all the ports.

A Solid Green indicates network activity.

3 10/100 Base-T ports One of three groups of switched Ethernet ports for 10/100Mbps connection

4DB-9 Connector RS-232 connection for NMS

5Optional Module LEDs

6

Optional

Module

Port/s

 

 

 

Rear Panel

The rear panel of the NH2025-10, which houses the power connection and ON/OFF switch, is illustrated in Figure 4. Two fan holes, which MUST be kept unobstructed, are located on the left side of the unit.

Figure 4 - Rear Panel

Installing Modules in the Unit

To insure proper installation, complete the following:

1.Power OFF the NH2025-10 switch.

2.Carefully slide an NH2025-10 module into a free dport and press firmly to insert.

3.Tighten the thumbscrews securely.

4.Power ON the NH2025-10 switch. If you have a flash version lower than 1.20 and you are installing F/O modules, you must download a new software version to the switch so that the firmware recognizes the new uplinks and the modules operate correctly.

6

Installing and Setting Up the Unit

Modules for NH 2025-10

Figure 5 - Front Panels of the EM2003-1GE and EM2003-2FO Uplink Modules

EM2003-1GE

EM2003-1GE One 1000BaseLX port (SM 1500nm, .0-60km)

 

LEDs

 

 

 

 

 

 

L

Green

ON = Link, OFF = No Link

 

 

A

Green

ON = Activity, OFF = No Activity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type

Connector

Wavelength

Budget

Estimated

Attenuation

Minimum

 

 

 

 

Range

 

Committed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Power

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SX/M

DSC

850nm

NA

0–350 km

3 dB/km

-9.5 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LX/M

DSC

1310nm

NA

0–500 km

2 dB/km

-13 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LX/S1

DSC

1310nm

NA

0–6 km

0.5 dB/km

-13 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LX/S2

DSC

1550nm

8 dB

0–32 km

0.25 dB/km

-13 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LX/S3

DSC

1550nm

15 dB

30–60 km

0.25 dB/km

-6 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EM2003-2FO

EM2003-2FO Two port 100Base-FX (MM, 1310nm, 0-2, DSC).

 

LEDs

 

 

 

 

 

 

L

Green

ON = Link, OFF = No Link

 

 

A

Green

ON = Activity, OFF = No Activity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type

Connector

Wavelength

Budget

Estimated

Attenuation

Minimum

 

 

 

 

Range

 

Committed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Power

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M

DSC

1310 nm

9 dB

0–2 km

2 dB/km

-16 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MX

DSC

1310 nm

19 dB

2–7 km

2 dB/km

-6 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S1

DSC

1310 nm

17 dB

0–25 km

0.5 dB/km

-13 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S2

DSC

1310 nm

24 dB

25–50 km

0.5 dB/km

-8 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S3

DSC

1550 nm

24 dB

50–100 km

0.25 dB/km

-8 dBm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Installing and Setting Up the Unit

Figure 6 - Front Panels of the EM2003-8TP and EM2025-2GE* Modules

EM2003-8TP

EM2003-8TP

Eight port 10/100Base-TX switch module

L

Green

ON = Link, OFF = No Link

A

Green

ON = Activity, OFF = No Activity

Em2003-2GE*

EM2003-2GE*

Two port Gigabit 1000Base-SX (MM, 850nm, 0-350m)

 

*Future release

L

Green

ON = Link, OFF = No Link

A

Green

ON = Activity, OFF = No Activity

Connecting Power to the Unit

The power cord should be plugged into an easily accessible outlet. A built-in power supply automatically adjusts to any outlet providing between 90 VAC and 264 VAC at 50/60 Hz.

For a 115 volt configuration, the power cord to be used is minimum type SJT (SVT) 18/3, rated 250 Volts AC, 10 Amps with a maximum length of 15 feet. One end is terminated in an IEC 320 attachment plug, the other in a NEMA 5-15P plug.

The power cord to be used with a 230 Volt configuration is minimum type SJT (SVT) 18/3, rated 250 Volts AC, 10 Amps with a maximum length of 15 feet. One end is terminated in an IEC 320 attachment plug. The other end is terminated as required by the country where the unit is installed.

Utilisez uniquement un câble secteur adapté à 230 volts, de type SJT (SVT) 18/3 minimum, 250 volts AC nominal, 10 Amps, et d’une longueur maximale de 4.5m. l’une des extrémités étant raccordée à un connecteur Type IEC320, tandis que l’autre extrémité correspondra aux spécifications du pays concerné.

Das Netzkabel ist das hauptsachliche Diskonnektionsmittel, es sollte in eine leicht erreichbare steckdos gesteckt werden. Das Netzkabel kann mit einer 230 Volts Konfiguration verwonder werden vom typ: Minimum VDE or HAR, 3 X 1.00 mm2, 250 VAC, 10 Amps, maximal 4.5m long. Ein Ende ontspriche dem Stecker IEC 320. Das andere Ende entspricht den Anfoderungen des entsprechenden Landes.

Input Supply

Check voltage ratings to assure there is no possibility of overloading the electrical circuits that could effect current overload protection and electrical wiring.

8

Installing and Setting Up the Unit

Grounding

Reliable grounding of this equipment must be maintained. Particular attention should be given to electrical connections when connecting to a power strip, rather than direct connections to the electrical outlet.

Connecting Ethernet Devices

For optimum performance, the Ethernet segments connected to the NH2025-10 must be configured carefully. Generally, the segments should be configured so that machines on a given port communicate primarily among themselves; that is, most traffic does not need to cross the switch. However, this is not the best configuration for certain situations.

Connecting Your Network

The cable connections to the 10/100BaseTX ports can be UTP or STP Category 3 and above, and cable length is limited to 100 meters on each port. STP cable carries a higher quality of signal and is less sensitive to environmental noise.

The RJ-45 ports of the switch are defined as MDI-X ports.

The 10/100BaseTX ports on the NH2025-10 are designed to be connected directly to a workstation, using a standard straight through patch cable. In order to cascade switches or connect a hub to the switch, a crossover cable must be used.

Figure 7 - Straight Cable Connection Between a NH2025-10 and a Workstation

Figure 8 - Crossover Cable Connection Between an NH2025-10 and a Hub

9

Getting Started

This section describes how to connect to the management port, log into the Command Line Interface, and set the unit’s IP Address.

Connecting to the Management Port

With the product we supply a management cable. You can use it to get access to the management port.

To configure the serial ports do the following items:

1.Connect the cable provided to the management port and communication interface (COM1 or COM2) of your PC.

2.Start Windows HyperTerminal and create a new connection with the property set to 9600 bit per second, 8 bits per character and no flow control.

3.Start HyperTerminal session and then type Enter to get the login prompt.

Logging Into the Command Line Interface

The Command Line Interface is protected with a login name and password.

To access the CLI the Network Administrator has to provide his name and a password.

Example

Please Login

username: don

password: (not echoed)

The factory default password is a null string. To log in just press the Enter key. Once you are logged into the CLI, you may change the password in order to avoid unauthorized access.

Setting the IP Address

To manage the MegaSwitch using an SNMP Network Management Application or to use the ping command to test the switch, it is necessary to assign an IP Address, a netmask and a broadcast address. The Network Administrator should assign the IP address in accordance with the existing IP addressing scheme.

Set the IP configuration using the set-ip-cfg command.

Example

SYS_console> set-ip-cfg 192.1.1.64 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.255

11

Getting Started

NOTE: If the switch has no IP Address, then the provided IP Configuration changes the running parameters as well as the NVRAM-based database. If the switch was already configured, the command only changes the NVRAM database. Therefore, to use the new parameters you should reset the Switch, using the warm-reset command.

You can also use the set-ip command to accomplish this. When you do, the mask and broadcast are automatically set to defaults according to the IP address class.

Example

SYS_console> set-ip 192.1.1.64

Verifying the Installation

After the installation is complete and the IP Address configured, use the Ping utility to test the connectivity.

The ping command sends an echo request to the host specified in the command line. For example, to test connectivity from the Switch to a workstation with an IP Address of 192.1.1.1, use the following command:

SYS_console> ping 192.1.1.1 100

Accessing the Command Line Interface Remotely

When the switch has an IP address, the administrative interface can be accessed remotely through Telnet. All commands work exactly as if the serial interface were being used. Please note that only one console session may be active at any given time. This means that after the first Telnet session is established, all other Telnet connections are refused until the current session is closed.

12

Using the Command Line Interface

This section describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to configure and manage the NH2025-10 switch.

Command Conventions

The following conventions are used within this guide to make understanding and using the CLI easier.

Command Items appearing in this typeface are to be typed as shown.

Italics Italicized items are variables and represent values. For example, <IPaddress> represents an IP address in dotted decimal notation as 123.1.2.3.

{ } | Items in { } and separated by | represent alternatives for the argument. For example:

get-comm {read|write|*}

means you can type one of the following:

get-comm read get-comm write

get-comm *

Command Line Help

The CLI provides command line help to ease in the entering of commands correctly. The following command line help is available:

Command parameter Help

Command group Help

Command wildcard Help

Command history

Getting Command Parameter Help

To get an explanation of a command’s parameters add a question mark (?) after the command name. For example:

SYS_console> ping ?

The unit displays the available parameters for the ping command:

ping IP traffic generator

[arg #0] destination IP address

[arg #1] number of packets to send or 0 for endless ping SYS_console> ping _

Note that the command is reprinted after the prompt. You can add the necessary parameters here. If a question mark is added after the first parameter, then the same explanation is provided, and the previous command, including the provided parameters, is redisplayed.

13

Using the Command Line Interface

Example

SYS_console> ping 129.1.1.7 ?

The unit displays the next level of parameters:

ping IP traffic generator

[arg #0] destination IP address

[arg #1] number of packets to send or 0 for endless ping SYS_console> ping 129.1.1.7

Getting Command Group Help

To find out the command groups that are available within the unit, enter a question mark at the CLI prompt. The CLI displays a list of all of the available command groups and a short explanation of each.

Example

SYS_telnet>?

 

Commands groups are:

 

-----------------------

console

Console related commands

system

System related commands

ip

IP related commands

snmp

SNMP related commands

switch-db

Switching Database related commands

vlan

Virtual LANS related commands

echannel

EtherChannel Commands

port-cfg

Port Configuration related commands

statistics

Switching Statistics related commands

sp-tree

Spanning Tree related commands

-----------------------------------------------------------------

use ! for previous cmd, ^U to clear line, ^W to clear previous word

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Entering a group name from this list displays a list of the commands under that group.

Using Command Wildcards

The CLI allows you to use the question mark <?> as a wildcard when you are unsure of a command. To use the wildcard, place the question mark immediately after the command you are looking for.

NOTE: You can type all or just a portion of the command followed by the question mark and the CLI returns all commands that start with that string.

14

Using the Command Line Interface

Example

SYS_console>get-c? command ‘get-c’ not found

Commands matching <get-c>

get-comm show current read or/and write community

get-con-matrix

retrieves the VLAN

connectivity matrix

get-colls-cnt

gets the collision

distribution counters per port

SYS_console>get-co

Retrieving Command History

The CLI allows you to retrieve a history of the last commands you have issued. Use the following keys to retrieve commands:

<!> or Ctrl/P

Retrieves the last command in the command history.

Ctrl/W

Deletes the previous word.

Ctrl/U

Erases the entire current line.

<Tab>

Completes the command when a partial unique command is provided.

NOTE: If after entering a key sequence, more than one screen-full of text is to be printed, you can continue to scroll through the text by hitting any key or you can stop the process by hitting the Esc key.

SYS_console>system

System related commands

---------------------------------------------------------

sys-stat

show system status

get-stst-level

show the selftest level

set-stst-level

change the selftest level

warm-reset

warm reset of the device

cold-reset

cold reset of the device

get-last-err

displays information about the last fatal error

init-nvram

initialize NVRAM to default values

get-sw-file

retrieves the SNMP Agent Software file name

set-sw-file

sets the SNMP Agent Software file name - for download

get-tftp-srvr

retrieves the TFTP download server IP address

set-tftp-srvr

sets the TFTP download server IP address

set-tftp-mode

sets the TFTP download mode

get-tftp-mode

retrieves the TFTP download mode

sw-dnld

software download BY TFTP

set-fg-param

sets the Ethernet frame generator parameters

start-fg

starts the Ethernet frame generator

stop-fg

stop the Ethernet frame generator

15

Using the Command Line Interface

Command Line Errors

The CLI displays messages when you enter a command incorrectly. The following command line error messages are used:

Nonexistent command

Incorrect number of parameters

Nonexistent Command

If you enter a command incorrectly or if the command does not exist, the CLI returns an error message indicating the type of error that occurred.

Example

SYS_console> pin

command ‘pin’ not found

Incorrect Number of Parameters

If you enter a command correctly but the number of parameters is incorrect, the following message is displayed:

SYS_console> ping

too few arguments

16

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

You can configure, modify, and monitor the unit using the following categories of commands:

Console

System

IP configuration

SNMP Agent

Switching database and database entry management

Virtual LAN

EtherChannel

Port Configuration

Switching Statistics

Spanning Tree

Refer to Appendix A for a quick reference of the available commands.

Console Commands

Console commands allow you to configure the CLI parameters and user interface. To view the console commands, enter console at the CLI prompt. The following are the available console commands.

help-kbd

This command lists the console function keys.

Example

SYS_console>help-kbd

---------------------------------------------------------

Ctrl/U (or Escape)

clears the current line.

Ctrl/W

clears the previous word.

! or Ctrl/P

presents the previous command.

TAB

completes command.

? or help

presents help. Depending on position:

in 1st column, list of the categories.

in command, list of completed commands that start with the presented string.

in parameters, lists of the

parameters.

# - with line number

Repeats command from history,

For example: #26 Presents help for line 26.

Without line number

Shows entire history list.

--------------------------------------------------------

17

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

banner

The banner command displays the Nbase-Xyplex CLI logo.

clear

The clear command clears the screen and displays the CLI prompt.

login

The login command exits the CLI, but does not disconnect a Telnet session. This allows you to test a password (or other activity) without reconnecting.

logout

The logout command ends the actual CLI Session. To use the CLI, you must login again.

set-page

The set-page command sets the console page size (in lines per page). Valid values in lines are 5 to 127. The value of 0 means no paging. The default value is 21.

set-prompt

The set-prompt command allows you to set a new command line prompt for the CLI. This can be a more meaningful prompt, such as the location of a switch, or the name of a workgroup. The default prompt is SYS_console>. To change the prompt, use the following command:

set-prompt <new_prompt>

Example

SYS_console> set-prompt R&D_grp>

R&D_grp> _

set-attr-prompt

The set-attr-prompt command sets the prompt attributes. To set the prompt attributes, use the following command:

set-attr-prompt <number of option>

[arg #0] options: 0-normal, 1-bold, 2-underline, 4-blink, 8-reverse

set-attr-msg

The set-attr-msg command allows you to define how the display message appears. To define how messages appear, use the following command:

set-attr-msg <number of option>

[arg #0] options: 0-normal, 1-bold, 2-underline, 4-blink, 8-reverse

set-attr-text

The set-attr-text command sets the text display attributes. To define how text appears, use the following command:

set-attr-text <number of option>

[arg #0] options: 0-normal,1-bold,2-underline,4-blink,8-reverse

18

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

set-passwd

The console requires you enter a password to log in. The set-passwd command allows you to change the console password. To change the console password:

1.Enter the set-passwd command at the CLI prompt. The system prompts you for the old password.

2.Enter the old password. The system prompts you for a new password.

3.Enter your new password. Note that the password is not echoed back to you. The system prompts you to reenter the new password.

4.Reenter the new password.

The following examples show an unsuccessful and successful password change.

SYS_console>set-passwd

Enter old password:

Enter new password:

Enter new password again:

Error: different new passwords

If the password change succeeds, the system responds as follows:

SYS_console>set-passwd

Enter old password:

Enter new password:

Enter new password again:

CLI running password changed

CLI password change in the NVRAM OK

19

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

System Commands

System Commands allow you to display and set the system-related parameters. To view the system commands, enter system at the CLI prompt. The following are the available system commands.

sys-stat

The sys-stat command displays general status information about the Ethernet Switch, and its SNMP Agent Hardware and Software.

Example

SYS_console>sys-stat

 

 

 

NBase-Xyplex Nh2025-10 Version 1.08

 

Mon Apr 26 16:09:47 1999

 

 

SNMP Object ID is : < 1.3.6.1.4.1.629.16.2.1 >

System MAC Address

:

00-20-1a-00-a7-5a

 

Switching Data Base Size:

12288 entries

 

Number of ports

:

25

 

Total uptime(hundredths of seconds ):

700

Total uptime(days, hh:mm:ss format): 0 days, 0:00:07.00

i/f

1

: description

[Port 1 - 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

2

: description

[Port 2 - 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

3

: description

[Port 3 - 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

4

: description

[Port 4 - 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

5

: description

[Port 5 - 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

6

: description

[Port 6

- 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

7

: description

[Port 7

- 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

8

: description

[Port 8

- 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

9

: description

[Port 9

- 10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

10

: description [Port 10 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

11

: description [Port 11 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

12

: description [Port 12 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

13

: description [Port 13 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

14

: description [Port 14 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

15

: description [Port 15 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

16

: description [Port 16 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

17

: description [Port 17 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

18

: description [Port 18 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

19

: description [Port 19 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

20

: description [Port 20 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

21

: description [Port 21 -

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

22

: description [Port 22

-

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

23

: description [Port 23

-

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

24

: description [Port 24

-

10/100 BaseTx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

i/f

25

: description [Port 25

-

1000 BaseFx ETHERNET Port] : status [UP]

SYS_console>

This screen displays the following information:

Device name and type

SNMP Agent software version and release date

Device SNMP object ID

Device MAC address

Switching database size

Number of ports

System uptime in 1/100 sec as well as in days, hours, minutes, seconds

Interfaces description and status

20

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

get-stst-level

The get-stst-level command displays the self-test level (Disable or Enable) of the device. The default value is Enable.

set-stst-level

The set-stst-level command sets the self-test level of the device. self-test: Disable and Enable. The self-test level is stored in NVRAM. use the following command:

There are two levels of To set the self-test level,

set-stst-level <level>

warm-reset

The warm-reset command resets the SNMP Agent software. The Switch configuration is changed according to the values stored in the NVRAM. This command permits you to refresh the Switch configuration after a change of the NVRAM parameters. The statistics counters are also reset by the warm-reset command.

cold-reset

The cold-reset command causes the switch to cold-reset. Cold reset is equivalent to power cycling the switch.

get-last-err

The get-last-err command retrieves the most recent system failure information.

Example

SYS_console>get-last-err

System information since the last hardware reset

------------------------------------------------

Software resets number : 0

 

Fatal

error

text

:

 

 

Fatal

error

uptime

:

0

days, 0:15:36.00

SYS_console>

NOTE: The “Software resets number” value is the number of executed “warm resets” commands issued after the last “cold reset.”

init-nvram

The init-nvram command resets the non-volatile RAM on the SNMP Agent to default values. The reset takes effect after you reboot (warm or cold reset) the unit.

get-sw-file

The get-sw-file command retrieves the SNMP Agent Software file name.

set-sw-file

The set-sw-file command sets the name of the file downloaded by TFTP. This name must match the name of the agent software file on the TFTP server. To set the software file, use the following command:

set-sw-file <filename>

21

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

get-tftp-srvr

The get-tftp-srvr command retrieves the IP address of the TFTP server that the Agent uses to download software. Refer to the sw-dnld command for further information.

set-tftp-srvr

The set-tftp-srvr command sets the IP address of the TFTP server used for downloading. To set the IP address of the TFTP server, use the following command:

set-tftp-srvr <IP address>

set-tftp-mode

The set-tftp-mode command sets the TFTP download mode. To set the TFTP download mode, use the following command:

set-tftp-mode {client|server}

Upgrading the product’s software can be done in two different ways,

1.Download from computer to the unit initiated from the unit itself with the appropriate command (sw-dnld),

The unit acts as a client consuming from the computer, so a TFTP daemon should be started into the computer, and TFTP mode should be set to client in the unit.

2.Upload from the computer to the unit initiated from the computer itself,

The units acts as a server offering a TFTP service to the computer, so the computer should use a TFTP client to upload the software into the unit that should be set to server mode.

get-tftp-mode

The get-tftp-mode command retrieves the TFTP download mode. This command requires no argument.

sw-dnld

The sw-dnld command starts the software download process from the remote TFTP server specified by the set-tftp-srvr command, retrieving the file specified by the set-sw-file command. The progress of the process appears under the form of a dot displayed at regular interval. Once the download is finished the software is copied into the non-volatile RAM then the equipment reboots.

22

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

IP Commands

This section lists the IP Configuration commands available at the CLI. It is separated into the following command sections:

IP configuration

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Bootp

Ping

To view the IP commands, enter IP at the CLI prompt. The following are the available IP commands.

IP Configuration

get-ip

The get-ip command shows the device’s current IP address, if any. The following are examples with no IP configuration and an IP configuration defined.

No IP Configuration defined:

SYS_console> get-ip

The device has no IP Address defined SYS_console>

IP Configuration defined:

SYS_console> get-ip

The device IP address is: 194.090.136.187 SYS_console>

get-ip-cfg

The get-ip-cfg command shows the complete current IP configuration, that is, the address, network mask and broadcast address. The following are examples with no IP configuration and an IP configuration defined.

No address defined:

SYS_console> get-ip-cfg

The device has no IP Address defined SYS_console>

IP Configuration defined:

SYS_console> get-ip-cfg

The device IP address, netmask and broadcast are:

IP address

: 194.090.136.187

IP

netmask

: 255.255.255.000

IP

broadcast : 255.255.255.255

 

 

 

23

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Setting an IP address

set-ip

The set-ip command sets the IP address of the SNMP Agent. If no IP address was previously set (as is the factory default configuration), the new value is used immediately and saved into NVRAM. Otherwise the new value is only stored in the NVRAM, and the user must execute a warm-reset to effect the change.

set-ip <IP address>

set-ip-cfg

The set-ip-cfg command sets the IP address, network IP mask, and broadcast IP address. If no IP configuration was previously set (as is the default factory configuration), the new values are used immediately and saved into NVRAM. If a previous IP configuration was being used, the new configuration is saved in NVRAM. In order to use the newly defined values immediately, reset the system using the warm-reset command.

set-ip-cfg <IP address> <netmask> <broadcast>

NOTE: If the IP configuration is not specified, the agent does not respond to any in-band requests, including ping messages. The following are examples with no IP configuration and an IP configuration defined.

No IP Configuration defined:

SYS_console>set-ip-cfg 194.90.136.187 255 255.255.0 255.255.255.255 Device IP Address set for this session

Device IP Address change in the NVRAM OK

The device NVRAM IP configuration will be:

IP

address

:

194.090.136.187

IP

netmask

:

255.255.255.000

IP broadcast : 255.255.255.255

SYS_console>

IP Configuration defined:

SYS_console>set-ip-cfg 194.90.136.187 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.255 Device IP address unchanged for this session

Device IP Address change in the NVRAM OK

The device NVRAM IP configuration will be:

IP

address

:

194.090.136.187

IP

netmask

:

255.255.255.000

IP broadcast : 255.255.255.255

SYS_console>

Perform a warm-reset to use the newly defined parameters.

24

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Erasing an IP Configuration

clear-ip-cfg

The clear-ip-cfg command clears the NVRAM IP configuration.

Example

SYS_console>clear-ip-cfg

Device IP Configuration cleared

SYS_console>

Configuring a Gateway

get-gatew

The get-gatew command shows the default gateway address.

Example

SYS_console>get-gatew

The default gateway address is : 194.001.001.001

SYS_console>

set-gatew

The get-gatew command sets the default gateway IP Address. This command lets you specify the address of the router used to access a different IP network. The default value for the default gateway IP address is 0.0.0.0

set-gatew <IP address>

Example

SYS_console>set-gatew 194.90.136.254

Device Default Gateway change in the NVRAM OK

Device Default Gateway changed to : 194.90.136.254

SYS_console>

Bootp Configuration

The bootp feature allows the unit to get its IP address from a bootp server that is properly configured. Bootp options supported include:

Software filename (bf parameter)

Unit IP address (ip parameter)

TFTP server IP address (the IP address of the bootp server itself)

NOTE: Bootp is not part of the boot PROM in version 1.08 of the boot program, therefor NBaseXyplex recommends you disable the bootp feature and manually set an IP address with the related commands before updating the image file.

25

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

To activate/deactivate bootp use the following commands:

set-bootp — Enables or disables the bootp process activation. get-bootp — Retrieves the state of the bootp process.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

To view the ARP commands, enter ARP at the CLI prompt. The following are the available ARP commands.

get-arp-tbl

The get-arp-tbl command displays the ARP table. The ARP table contains information relating IP addresses to MAC addresses and interface numbers. It also shows the TTL (Time- To-Live) value for each entry.

Example

 

SYS_console>get-arp-tbl

 

 

If

Ip

MAC

TTL

 

=============================================

 

01

194.090.136.254

08-00-87-1d-9b-32

1200

 

01

194.090.136.010

00-20-1a-01-3f-18

1200

 

01

194.090.136.028

08-00-09-9d-5e-30

900

 

SYS_console>

 

 

 

 

 

 

del-arp-entry

 

 

The del-arp-entry command deletes entries from the ARP table. If an IP address is specified, the matching arp entry is deleted. If * is specified, the entire ARP table is flushed. This command should be used if the network topology has physically changed, e.g. if a management station has been moved from one segment to another, thus changing its interface number.

del-arp-entry {<IP address>|*}

add-arp-entry

The add-arp-entry command adds an entry to the ARP table.

add-arp-entry <IP address> <mac_address> <Interface>

Example

SYS_console>add-arp-entry 194.90.136.133 00-11-22-33-44-55 1

ARP Table Entry successfully added

SYS_console>

26

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

get-arp-stats

The get-arp-stats command gets ARP statistics.

Example

SYS_console>get-arp-stats

InMsgs:

: 0

InErrors

: 0

InIllegals

: 0

InBadOpcode

: 0

InRequests

: 0

InReplies

: 0

InReqNotForMe : 0

OutMsgs

: 0

OutErrors

: 0

OutRequests

: 0

OutReplies

: 0

ResolveReqs

: 0

SYS_console>

 

 

 

Port configuration

This section contains commands for configuring and displaying the ports’ parameters with the Administrative Interface. To view the port commands, enter port-cfg at the CLI prompt. The following are the available port commands.

Displaying the Port Configuration

To view the current port configuration, enter the following command:

get-port-cfg {<dport> pipe all}

Example

SYS_console>get-port-cfg

PORT_ID LAN_TYPE LINK IF_TYPE SPEED_SEL LAN_SPEED FDPLX FCNTRL ENABLE

==============================================================================

1

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

2

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

3

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

4

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

22

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

23

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

24

ETH10/100

OFF

TP

AUTO

Not Set

N/A

DISABLED

ON

25

ETH1000

OFF

FO

FORC1000

1000Mbps

ON

DISABLED

ON

SYS_console>

27

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

PORT_ID: An interface number specified in the form of 1-25 (dport).

LAN_TYPE:

ETH-10/100

ETH1000 indicates Gigabit Ethernet

LINK: ON/OFF if ON a device is connected to the port and the link is UP

IF TYPE: TP (twisted pair)/FO (fiber optic)

SPEED_SEL: AUTO/FORC10/100/1000

LAN_SPEED: The actual speed that has been negotiated between the entities.

FDPLX: OFF = Standard Ethernet (default), ON = Full Duplex

FCNTRL: DISABLED/ENABLED

ENABLE: ON = port is enabled (default), OFF = port is disabled

Setting the port configuration

set-port-cfg

The set-port-cfg command selects the speed (10/100/auto-neg) and duplex mode (half/full).

set-port-cfg <port-number> <speed> <mode> [arg #0] port index in format <dport> [arg #1] enter either {auto|100|10}

opt.[arg #2] enter either {half|full}; default : half

Example

SYS_console>set-port-cfg 100 half

set-port-state

The set-port-state command is used to enable or disable a port when the Spanning Tree algorithm is not running.

set-port-state<port number > {enable|disable}

opt. [arg #0] port index in format <dport>; default:all opt. [arg #1] enter either {enable|disable}; default:enable

Example

sys_console>set-port-state 2 enable

28

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Setting the flow control

Ports are compliant to flow control specifications 802.3x or back-pressure.

You can set a port to perform flow control only if this port is in full duplex mode otherwise backpressure is applied to control the incoming flow of data.

When the port is configured to do 802.3z flow control the switching engine sends a continuous flow of idle frames to avoid dead locks.

If the port applies back-pressure the mechanism is slightly different in the sense that instead of sending idle frames the switching engine sends a collision signal.

get-fctrl

The get-fctrl command displays the status of the flow control function.

get-fctrl <database> <port-number>

opt.[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all}; default : run opt.[arg #1] port index in format <dport>;default: all

get-fctrl nvram SYS_console>get-fctrl ?

Example

 

get-fctrl

gets the port

flow control request: enable or disable

 

opt.[arg #0]

database type - either {run|nvram|all}; default : run

 

opt.[arg #1]

port number -

1..25; default : all

 

SYS_console>

 

 

 

 

 

 

set-fctrl

 

 

The set-fctrl command sets a port’s flow control mode.

SYS_console>set-fctrl ?

set-fctrl sets the port flow control: enable or disable

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all}

[arg #1] port number - 1..25

opt.[arg #2] enter either {enable|disable}; default : enable

29

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

EtherChannel

The EtherChannel feature is also known under the name of Port Trunking. It allows equipment to pass data through multiple physical links. Providing an extended bandwidth and redundancy.

NOTE: If you want to use this feature in conjunction with VLAN be aware that you must set exactly the same VLAN configuration for each physical link that belongs to the EtherChannel group.

Also, before proceeding to the configuration of trunking ports you should be aware of the following considerations:

1.You cannot mix different media types (for example, optical and copper) in the same group.

2.You cannot declare more than 8 ports in a group.

3.You should declare groups with ports belonging to the same switching engine. You may declare a group using ports 1 to 8, or port 9 to 17 or port 18 to 24 or port 25 and 26.

NOTE: The EM2025-2GE module does not support EtherChannel groups.

Getting the EtherChannel Configuration

get-ec-tbl

The get-ec-tbl command retrieves the EtherChannel configuration.

get-ec-tbl {run|nvram|all}

Example

SYS_telnet>get-ec-tbl run

Ethernet Channel Table from RUN database

===========================================

Ether-Channel-ID Ports

===========================================

1 23 24

Setting the EtherChannel Configuration

new-ec

The new-ec command sets the EtherChannel port configuration. EtherChannel allows the switch to split the traffic between two or more links.

new-ec Create a new EtherChannel

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all} [arg #1] Ports - ports list in format: d1-...-dn

30

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Example

SYS_telnet>new-ec run 23-24

RUN:OK

Ethernet Channel Table from RUN database

===========================================

Ether-Channel-ID Ports

===========================================

1 23 24

Deleting the EtherChannel Configuration del-ec

The del-ec command deletes the trunk port configuration.

del-ec Remove an EtherChannel

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram} [arg #1] EtherChannel index (from get-ec-tbl)

Port Priority

Consider the following when setting the Port Priority:

Internal Use – The priority is used internally, the switch accepts frames coming from the port with the highest priority.

External Use – Port Priority conforms to IEEE 802.1P standard and provides a priority scale from 1 to 8. The higher the value, the higher priority applied to the frame.

This priority is embedded into the tag header, as defined in the IEEE 802.1Q standard. This can be set on a port or to a VLAN. To do this, you need to set the vlan-mode to tagged and then specify the ports connecting the switch to the others to trunk with the command set-tag-outbound-mode. Refer to the VLAN and Port Configuration sections of this guide for further information.

Set Port Priority

The set-port-priority command is used when a specific machine, or group of systems connected to a particular port, need to have their frames sent at a different level of priority than the other.

set-priority-port-cfg

 

sets the

priority of a

port

[arg

#0]

database

type - either {run|nvram|all}

opt.[arg

#1]

port number

- 1..25;

default : all

 

opt.[arg #2] port priority 1..8 (1..4 - low, 5..8 - high); default : 1

Example

SYS_telnet>set-priority-port-cfg run 1 8

The Port Priority was changed for port 1

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Get Port Priority

get-priority-port-cfg

The get-priority-port-cfg command retrieves the port priority configuration.

Example

SYS_telnet>get-priority-port-cfg

 

 

 

 

Ports

Priority Configuration :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1- 8

2- 1

3- 1

4- 1

5- 1

6- 1

7- 1

8- 1

9- 1

10- 1

11- 1

12- 1

13- 1

14- 1

15- 1

16- 1

17-

1

18- 1

19- 1

20- 1

21- 1

22- 1

23- 1

24- 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VLAN Priority

The vlan-prio-modify command applies to the components of that VLAN. This is a means to provide priority to a specific VLAN.

vlan-prio-modify {run|nvram}

[arg #1] VLAN index (from get-vlan-tbl

[arg #2] VLAN priority 1..8 (1..4 - low, 5..8 - high)

Example

SYS_console>vlan-prio-modify run 1 8

Set Runtime VLAN Tag Domain entry Ports 8 -

Modifying the Switch Policy

The switch policy determines the default behavior of the switch when no priority is declared. The set-priority-policy command is useful when there is not a real need to set a particular port or VLAN to a different priority level. The default policy value is 2, which corresponds to a low priority.

If you want this switch to have a higher policy you can define a different level from 1 to 4.

set-priority-policy {run|nvram|all}

opt.[arg #1] priority policy 1..4, default: 2

Example

SYS_console>set-priority-policy run 1

Set Runtime Priority Policy 1 -

OK

SYS_console>get-priority-policy run

Runtime Priority Policy is 1

SYS_console>

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

The switch software supports IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) which ensures the existence of a loop-free topology in networks that contain any arrangement of devices.

STP produces a logical tree topology to ensure that a single path exists between any two end stations on an interconnected network. STP also provides a high degree of fault tolerance. It allows the network to automatically reconfigure the spanning tree topology if there is a bridge or data-path failure.

Multiple paths to a destination can be good, as in the case of using secondary paths to provide redundant links in the event of problems with the primary link. It can also lead to bad network performance when problems arise from having more than one path. STP allows for redundancy without the performance problems.

How the STP Topology Stabilizes

The switch software incorporates the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to prevent the duplication of paths in an interconnected network.

1.When a switch, with STP enabled, starts up, it assumes that it is the

Root Bridge and puts all of its external ports into “listening” mode. The switch then sends a configuration BPDU listing its bridge ID as being the Root Bridge ID (MAC address and priority) on all its external ports.

2.As each switch port receives a configuration BPDU, the switch compares the Root Bridge information in the BPDU to its current Root Bridge information. If the bridge priority or MAC address Root Bridge information in the BPDU supersedes the switch’s current Root Bridge information, the switch sets the new Root Bridge ID and configuration information as current and sets the root interface. The switch then adds it own pathcost to the Root Bridge pathcost and resends this information on its external ports.

If the root information received by the port does not supersede the current bridge information, the port compares the bridge ID in the message to its own bridge ID. If the root information received by the port supersedes the current bridge information, the port makes the received bridge ID as the designated bridge.

3.When the forwarding delay time expires, the switch checks the status of each interface. If the switch interface is either the root interface or a designated bridge for the interface, the port is set to forwarding. Otherwise it is blocked.

4.Periodically, the Root Bridge sends a Hello BPDU out on all of its external ports. If a switch does not receive a Hello BPDU from the Root Bridge, within the period of time specified by the Maximum Age Timer, the switch assumes that the network is reconfiguring and STP starts again.

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Spanning Tree Parameters

Normally, each switch or bridge in a network participates in STP. The units work together as peers to determine which links are to forward packets between LANs, and which links are to be blocked. Links that forward packets are chosen based on which link has the lowest pathcost and priority. Redundant paths are blocked, unless another link which is a forwarding link is deactivated, at which the blocked link will then go into a forwarding state.

NOTE: NBase-Xyplex switches are compatible with STP software that conforms to the IEEE 802.1D specification. They are not compatible with other STP versions that do not conform to this specification (for example, the DEC STP implementation). If you install a NH2025-10 switch in a network where other devices are using non-conforming (i.e., not 802.1D) STP, you must make sure that no loops exist in the network topology.

Root Bridge

Units that participate in STP compete to be the Root Bridge of the switched network. At startup, each unit broadcasts an STP message called a Configuration Bridge Protocol Data Unit (Configuration BPDU) through each of its interfaces, announcing its bridge ID, including its priority value and MAC address. The unit with the lowest priority value is recognized as the Root Bridge. In the event of a tie, the unit with the lowest MAC address becomes the Root. After the STP topology stabilizes, Hello BPDUs are periodically sent by the Root bridge and are propagated down the Spanning Tree by other bridges in the switched network. Each bridge adds its own pathcost before forwarding.

Manually Designating a Root Bridge

By assigning priority values to the switches in your network, you can designate which unit is to be the Root Bridge, which is to be the 1st backup Root Bridge, 2nd backup Root Bridge, etc. There are no rules for selecting a Root Bridge. However, most commonly the Root is located in the middle of the network or at the corporate data center. For instructions on assigning Priority values, refer to the Spanning Tree Commands section.

Selecting a Designated Switch/Bridge

When a LAN has multiple switches connecting it to a remote LAN, the units compete to determine which can provide the best service to the LAN. The units that can provide the best service is recognized as the Designated Switch/Bridge for the LAN. Other units provide standby connections.

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Topology Change Notification BPDU

A non-Root interface sends a Topology Change Notification BPDU (TCN BPDU) over its Root interface any time it believes that the network topology has changed.

The following circumstances can cause this to happen:

A Root interface gives up its Root status and the topology state is changing.

A switch receives a TCN BPDU from another unit via a non-Root interface.

An interface's state changes (it enters the Forwarding state). When a Root interface receives a TCN BPDU, it sets a Topology Changing flag in its Hello BPDU for an interval that is twice the length of the Forward Timer. When a non-Root interface receives a Hello BPDU with this flag set, it quickly ages its dynamic filter s so that it can relearn its filters based on the new topology.

Using STP to Manage Redundant Links

Multiple switches can be connected to form a larger switched network, without using STP the connections between the switches would form a loop. STP should be used to block one of the connections. If the primary connection fails for some reason, STP reconfigures the topology and direct all inter-switches traffic on the redundant link.

Spanning Tree and VLAN restrictions

If you want to use STP and VLAN you should know how the implementation of STP in our products operates. One instance of STP runs in the management VLAN. So the consequence is that STP does not resolve loop in VLAN to which it does not belong. If you want to use the redundancy facility you should use Trunking/EtherChannel feature instead.

Spanning Tree Commands

To view the Spanning Tree commands, enter sp-tree at the CLI prompt. The following are the available port commands.

Enabling/Disabling STP

set-stp enable

Enabling or disabling Spanning Tree does not take effect until the SNMP agent is reset, via warm-reset, cold-reset or a power cycle. The default is disabled.

get-stp

The get-stp command retrieves the current state of Spanning Tree.

Example

SYS_console> get-stp

Running spanning tree engine is disable

Next session of the Spanning Tree engine will be disabled.

SYS_console>

35

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Viewing Bridge Parameters

get-st-bcfg

For determining Root in a spanning tree network, the MAC address is a tie breaker when priority values for devices are equal. In this case, the unit with the lowest MAC address becomes the root. For NH 2025-10 products, the lowest numbered switch has the lowest MAC address.

Example

SYS_console>get-st-bcfg

802.1D SPANNING TREE BRIDGE INFO

==================================

Designated

Root

: 0100-0800-870e-0742

Bridge Priority

: 32768 ( 0x00008000 )

Root Cost

 

:

10

Root Port

 

:

1.02

Max

Age

 

:

20

Hello Time

 

:

2

Hold

Time

 

:

1

Forward Delay

:

15

Bridge Max

Age

:

20

Bridge Hello Time

:

2

Bridge Forward Delay :

15

------ The time units are seconds SYS_console>

Configuring the Bridge

Modifying the designated root: set-br-prio

By modifying the bridge priority you are able to choose which component becomes the Root Bridge in your network. Decrease the priority to a value below the lowest priority you can see in the other switches if you want this bridge to be the Root Bridge.

set-br-prio <priority>

The priority value is an integer in the range 0..65535. The default value is 32768.

Example

SYS_telnet>set-br-prio 32768

The Bridge Priority was changed

SYS_console>

Max Age: set-br-maxage

The set-br-maxage command sets amount of time between Spanning Tree configuration messages.

set-br-maxage <maxage>

The maxage value is displayed in seconds with the range of 6..40. The default value is 20.

36

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Hello Time: set-br-hellot

The set-br-hellot command sets the Spanning Tree bridge’s hello time.

set-br-hellot <hello_time>

The hello_time is an integer in the range 1..10, displayed in seconds. The default value is 2.

Forward delay: set-br-fwdel

The set-br-fwdel command sets the Spanning Tree Bridge Forward Delay, which controls the amount of time between the listening and forwarding states of a port.

set-br-fwdel <forward_delay>

The forward_delay value is an integer displayed in seconds in the range 4..30. The default value is 15.

Viewing the Port Configuration

get-st-pcfg

The set-br-pcfg command retrieves Spanning Tree port parameter table. If Spanning Tree is disabled, no parameters are retrieved.

get-st-pcfg {<port-number>|all}

opt. [arg#0] port index in format <dport>; default:all

Example

SYS_console>get-st-pcfg

 

 

STP PORT TABLE

 

 

================

 

 

ID Prior State PathCost

DesigRoot

DesigCost DesigBridge DesigPort

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

128

FWD

10

8000-0020-1a00-8ca2 20

8000-0020-1a00-a75a 8001 D

2

128

FWD

10

8000-0020-1a00-8ca2 20

8000-0020-1a00-a75a 8002

D

3

128

FWD

10

8000-0020-1a00-8ca2 20

8000-0020-1a00-a75a 8003

D

4

128

FWD

10

8000-0020-1a00-8ca2

20

8000-0020-1a00-a75a

8004

D

5

128

FWD

10

8000-0020-1a00-8ca2

20

8000-0020-1a00-a75a

8005

D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Setting Port Configuration

Port priority: set-prt-prio

The set-prt-prio command sets the Spanning Tree port priority, and gives ports priorities for blocking.

set-prt-prio <dport>

The dport is the decimal port number, port_priority is an integer in the range 1..255. The default value is 128.

37

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Example

set-prt-prio 4 128

Priority was changed for port 4

SYS_console>

Enabling/disabling a port: set-prt-enb

To enable or disable spanning tree on a port. The default value is disabled.

set-prt-enb <port-number> {enable|disable}

Example

SYS_console>set-prt-enb 4 enable

The Port State was changed to <enable> for port 4

SYS_console>

Changing the path cost: set-prt-pcost

set-prt-pcost <dport> <path_cost>

The parameter dport is the integer port number, and the path_cost parameter is an integer path cost in the range 1..65535. Using 0 as path_cost causes the switch to calculate the path cost automatically according to the port speed. The default values are 4, 10, and 100.

Example

set-prt-pcost 4 20

The Port Path Cost was changed for port 4

SYS_console>

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Switching Commands

This section contains instructions for managing the Switching Database with the Command Line Interface. To view the available switch commands, enter switch-db at the CLI prompt.

The Switching Database consists of 12K entries. Each active entry contains the information relevant to a workstation, characterized by its Ethernet MAC Address.

Learning Table

The following section lists commands relevant to the Learning table and Aging mechanism of the switch. The index contained in the following commands is an integer number between one and the maximum size of the Switching Database Table (12K).

Aging Configuration

get-lt-age

The get-lt-age command displays the Switching Database Aging Time in seconds. The default value for the Aging Time is 300 seconds. The Aging Time is the time-out period for dynamically learned forwarding entries. An entry whose MAC address does not appear in the source field of an incoming packet for a period equal to the Aging Time is discarded.

Example

SYS_console> get-lt-age

Running aging period: 300 seconds

CURRENT aging period: 300 seconds

NVRAM aging period: 300 seconds

SYS_console>

set-lt-age

The set-lt-age command allows you to modify the Switching Database Aging Time. The change may be made:

In the running database so that the new value is used immediately.

In the NVRAM, meaning that the change occurs only in the next session.

In both the running and the NVRAM databases. set-lt-age {run|nvram|all} <aging_time>

The aging_time value is in seconds. The default value is 300 seconds. Use a lower value if the number of active workstations at a given moment is larger than the size of the Switching Database. The aging time can be anywhere between 10 and 11,000 seconds. 0 is used for aging OFF.

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Example

SYS_console> set-lt-age run 400

Aging Period update – OK

SYS_console>

get-lt-entry

The get-lt-entry command displays the entry at index in the Switching Database.

get-lt-entry <index>

The index value is the entry number in decimal, between 1 and 12288.

Example

SYS_console>get-lt-entry 1

Entry ---- MAC Address ---- LOCK DPORT

SELF Vid

T

=================================================================

1

00-20-1a-00-8c-3f

+

-NONE-

+

0000 -

SYS_console>

Entry – Signifies the index in the Switching Database Table.

MAC Address – contained in an entry or given as a parameter is printed as a 6-byte hexadecimal sequence separated by the “-” sign. For example:

00-20-1A-00-01-29

LOCK – If on (denoted as a +), the entry is not deleted by the switch aging process (static entry). If off (denoted as a -), this is a dynamic entry that may be automatically deleted by the switch aging process if the MAC address is not active during the aging time period.

DPORT – The destination port to which frames with the stated address are forwarded.

SELF (not user configurable) If on (denoted as a +), the entry is a system address. These addresses are the switch’s individual and group addresses, as well as other addresses added by the management system. If off (denoted as a -), the entry contains the MAC address of a station connected to the switch.

VID – The VLAN Identifier (tag) (appears only when features are enabled).

T – Tag flag (appears only when features are enabled).

get-lt-16

The get-lt-16 command displays 16 learning table entries starting at index, or * to continue from the last displayed index. The format of the display is similar to the previous command format. If the end of the Learning table is reached, the * parameter starts the list over from the beginning.

get-lt-16 {<index>|*}

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Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Example

SYS_console>get-lt-16

*

 

number

of entries:124

 

 

Entry

---- MAC Address ---- LOCK DPORT

SELF

====================================================

1

00-20-1a-00-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

2

00-20-1a-01-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

3

00-20-1a-02-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

4

00-20-1a-03-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

5

00-20-1a-04-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

6

00-20-1a-05-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

7

00-20-1a-06-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

8

00-20-1a-07-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

9

00-20-1a-08-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

10

00-20-1a-09-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

11

00-20-1a-0a-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

12

00-20-1a-0b-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

13

00-20-1a-0c-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

14

00-20-1a-0d-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

15

00-20-1a-0e-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

16

00-20-1a-0f-a7-c7

+

-NONE-

+

SYS_console>

The first displayed entries belong to the system. These entries contain information related to the SNMP Agent and should never be modified or removed. These entries are locked, (a (+) in the LOCK and SELF columns).

MAC addresses, noted with a (-) in the LOCK and SELF columns were learned from the port stated in the DPORT field.

find-lt-addr

The find-lt-addr command searches for a MAC address in the Learning table. If the mac_address is found in the Switching Database, the entry is displayed:

 

find-lt-addr <mac_address> <VID>

 

 

 

 

 

[arg #0]

MAC address in hex format xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx

 

 

[arg #1]

VLAN ID

 

 

 

 

 

Example

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SYS_console>find-lt-addr 00-20-1a-00-8c-4d 1

 

 

 

 

Entry

---- MAC Address ----

LOCK

DPORT

SELF

Vid

T

 

=================================================================

 

15

00-20-1a-00-8c-4d

+

-NONE-

+

0000

-

 

SYS_console>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If the requested MAC address is not in the table, an error message is displayed.

41

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Deleting Entries

del-lt-entry

The del-lt-entry command deletes the Learning table entry at index.

del-lt-entry <index>

Deleting entries with the SELF field set (+) is prohibited since they are system addresses.

CAUTION

Use the del-lt-entry command with caution, as it allows you to change the Switching Database.

del-lt-port

The del-lt-port command deletes the learning table entries for a particular port.

del-lt-port <port>

sys_console> del-lt-port 3

del-lt-addr

The del-lt-addr command deletes the Learning table entry that matches the mac_address.

The command fails if the mac_address is not found in the Learning table. Again, as in the previous command, use caution when deleting system entries with a (+) in LOCK column.

del-lt-addr <mac_address> <Vid>

Example

SYS_console>del-lt-addr 00-11-22-33-44-55

MAC Address - 00-11-22-33-44-55 - not in LT

SYS_console>

Adding Static Entries

add-lt-entry

The add-lt-entry adds a Learning table entry to the Switching Database. The command parameters are described at the beginning of this chapter.

add-lt-entry adds an LT entry

[arg #0] MAC address in hex format xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx [arg #1] port number - 1..25

[arg #2] S- static (lock on) or D- aging out (lock off) [arg #3] VLAN Tag {2..4095}

[arg #4] T- tagged or N- untagged

Example

SYS_console>add-lt-entry 1-2-3-4-9-10-11

Add LT entry – OK

SYS_console>

42

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Virtual Broadcast Domain

Virtual broadcasts domain is a concept that tends to confine broadcasts in a physical domain, it allows to diminish the bandwidth used by broadcasts, giving more room to the unicast traffic, it also prevent the phenomenon called broadcasts storms to affect the entire network. VBC are not made for a security purposes but to improve the efficiency of the communications in a network. VBC disconnect entities belonging to different domain by avoiding the service traffic (broadcasts) to go through. For instance, an ARP broadcast request sent by a machine which belongs to VBC 1 to a machine belonging to VBC 2 will not have an answer, thus the initiating entity cannot resolve the layer 3 address to a MAC address and consequently cannot communicate with the VBC 2 machine.

Viewing the VBC Mode

get-vlan-mode

get-vlan-mode {run|nvram}

Example

SYS_console>get-vlan-mode run

Runtime VLAN mode is disabled

SYS_console>

Setting the VBC mode

set-vlan-mode

There are three modes available: vbc, tag, or one mode can be defined for running session).

none. The modes are mutually exclusive (i.e. only The default value mode is none.

set-vlan-mode <database><VLAN state>

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all} [arg #1] VLAN state: either {vbc|tag|none}

Example

SYS_telnet>set-vlan-mode run vbc

Set run VLAN mode vbcOK

Creating VBC Domains

set-vbc-domain

The set-vbc-domain command is applicable only after enabling the “vbc mode,” using the set-vlan-mode command. It establishes a Virtual broadcast domain. The port_list value is a dash-separated list of ports to group into a broadcast domain.

set-vbc-domain {run|nvram|all} <port_list>

For example, to create a virtual broadcast domain of ports 2, 5, and 6, use the following command:

sys_console>set-vbc-domain all 2-5-6

43

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Viewing VBC Matrix

get-vbc-tbl

get-vbc-tbl {run|nvram}

Example

SYS_console>get-vbc-tbl run

Runtime

VLAN mode is VBC Domain

RUNTIME

VIRTUAL BROADCAST DOMAIN TABLE

===========================================

Ports

00000000 01111111 11122222 2 VBC 12345678 90123456 78901234 5 1: -+--++-- -------- -------- -

SYS_console>

NOTE: VBC are materialized with the sign “+” so the ports 1.1 to 1.4 belongs to VBC 1, port 1.5 to 1.6 belongs to VBC 2. The other ports 1.7 and 1.8 are in the default VBC. Broadcasts from VBC 1 cannot flood VBC 2 or even the default VBC.

get-vbc-matrix

The get-vbc-matrix command retrieves the current broadcast Domain matrix. The first column is the source port list. The other columns are broadcast destination ports to which frames from a given source port may be forwarded.

get-vbc-matrix <dport>

Example

SYS_console>get-vbc-matrix

VBC CONNECTIVITY MATRIX

================================

 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

SRC to :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

2 :

- - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

3 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

4 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

5 :

- + - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

6 :

- + - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

7 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

8 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

.

 

.

 

.

24 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

25 :

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

SYS_console>

NOTE: In this example the sign “+” at the intersection of rows and columns mean that a connection is established. The sign “-“ indicates that there is no connectivity.

44

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Deleting a VBC

del-vbc-domain

del-vbc-domain {run|nvram} <domain_id>

The domain_id parameter is the vbc id number as identified by get-vbc-tbl.

Example

SYS_telnet>del-vbc-domain run 1

Delete Runtime Virtual Broadcast Domain entry - OK Runtime VLAN mode is VBC Domain

RUNTIME VIRTUAL BROADCAST DOMAIN TABLE

===========================================

Ports 11111111 7

VBC 12345678 1 2: ----+++- -

NOTE: When you use the set-vbc-domain command with the all parameter, both the runtime and nvram databases are changed. In case you need to delete the mentioned vbc entries, you should run the del-vbc-domain command twice with run and nvram parameters.

Virtual Networking

Virtual Networking provides the capability to view user communities as a large set of disconnected, yet potentially connectable stations. This allows you to develop and apply your own criteria for grouping users within isolated work groups.

After such groups are created considering these criteria, the groups are actually implemented via hardware and software that, in effect, provide a Virtual Bridging function between all the member stations in a particular group. This collection of stations, referred to as a Virtual LAN, shares a common multicast domain. Members of different Virtual LANs can only communicate via Routers.

In the Figure, most stations are members of a particular Virtual LAN and have a particular Virtual LAN Number (VLN 2, 3, 4, etc.). Those stations not in a particular Virtual LAN are automatically members of the “Default Virtual LAN”. MAC-layer unicast and multicast traffic propagating within this virtual topology can be separated into two groups: traffic passing between stations within the same Virtual LAN, and traffic passing across Virtual LAN boundaries.

Unicast traffic moving within a Virtual LAN is propagated from its source, directly to its destination. Other stations are not exposed to this traffic (in contrast to repeated environments) unless they ultimately share physical segments with either the source or destination specified in a particular dialog. Multicast traffic is passed to all stations in the Virtual LAN, as if all stations were connected to a single multi-port switch. Traffic cannot pass between Virtual LANs without the aid of a Router. These internetworking devices must be physically connected to the network with a separate physical interface for each Virtual LAN.

45

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Important Considerations

Before configuring your VLAN you must strictly follow the scenario:

1.Set the VLAN mode to tagged.

2.Set the server ports (see Server Port chapter in this manual).

3.Set the tagging ports (see ISVLAN chapter in this manual).

4.Configure the new VLAN.

5.Configure the management VLAN.

Virtual LANs can be used to limit the broadcast domain and to establish secure virtual workgroups. The following parameters are used within the VLAN commands.

run – indicates that only the currently running configuration is changed. Changes are not restored after a reset.

nvram – indicates that only the configuration stored in non-volatile memory is changed. Changes do not take effect until a warm or cold reset.

all – indicates that both the currently running configuration and the non-volatile configuration is changed. The changes take effect immediately and are restored after a reset.

Viewing the VLAN Mode

get-vlan-mode

get-vlan-mode {run|nvram}

Example

SYS_console>get-vlan-mode run

Runtime VLAN mode is disabled

SYS_console>

Setting the VLAN Mode

set-vlan-mode

Three modes are available: vbc, tag or none. The modes are mutually exclusive (i.e. only one mode can be defined for running session). The default mode is none.

set-vlan-mode <database> <VLAN state>

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all} [arg #1] VLAN state: either {vbc|tag|none}

Example

SYS_console>set-vlan-mode run tag

Set run VLAN mode tag – OK

SYS_console>

46

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Inter-Switch VLAN or ISVLAN

The inter-switch VLAN conforms to the standard IEEE 802.1q, which describe the method of passing tagged frames through a physical link. To satisfy the need, the frame format should be changed and 4 more bytes are added to the frame header between the end of address field and the frame type.

Tag Field Format

This is a 4 bytes long field divided into two sub-fields of 2 bytes respectively named TPID and TCI.

TPID is the Tag Protocol Identifier which identifies the tag type of the frame.

TCI contains the user priority bits and the VID (VLAN Identifier).

Principles of ISVLAN

To configure a tagged port that could carry specific tagged frames you need the necessary information about how our ISVLAN works.

The port declared as tagged port should belong to all the VLAN’s you are willing to interconnect between multiple switches with the command set-tag-outbound-mode.

Once you have declared the tagged port you can create the specific VLAN’s using the command set provided in this section.

Viewing the ISVLAN Mode

get-tag-outbound-mode

The get-tag-outbound-mode command shows the VLAN Tagging ports’ state. A “T” indicates that the Tagging mode off the port is on, “A” indicates that the Tagging is off.

get-tag-outbound-mode {run|nvram}

Example

SYS_telnet>get-tag-outbound-mode

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

================================================

T A A A A A A A A A A A

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

================================================

A A A A A A A A A A A A

25

====

A

NOTE: The letter T means the port is set to tag mode. The letter A means the port is set to access.

47

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Setting a Tagged Port

set-tag-outbound-mode

The set-tag-outbound-mode command can be used to enable or disable VLAN tagging to port/s on a network on which all nodes support the IEEE 802.1Q standard or a comparably capable network. Do not enable a port connected to a network on which there are any nodes that do not support the IEEE 802.1q standard.

set-tag-outbound-mode {run|nvram|all} <port-list> {enable|disable} [arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all}

[arg #1] ports - ports list in format: <dport> [arg #2] VLAN state: either {disable|enable}

Example

SYS_console>set-tag-outbound-mode run 5 enable

Set run VLAN Tag awareness – OK

SYS_console>

Removing a Tagged Port

To remove a previously declared tagged port you have to use the same command.

set-tag-outbound-mode {run|nvram |all}<port-list>{enable|disable} [arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all}

[arg #1] ports - ports list in format: S1.D1-S2.D2-...-Sn.Dn [arg #2] VLAN state: either {disable|enable}

Example

SYS_console>set-tag-outbound-mode run 5.8 disable

Set run VLAN Tag awareness – OK

SYS_console>

Server Port

A server port is a shared port among VLANs. This port is seen from every VLAN it belongs to, VLANS can see it but they cannot use it as a third party to communicate.

Creating a Server Port

new-srvr-port

The new-srvr-port command defines a “server port” as a VLAN with one port (server) and a dedicated tag. The user then defines the “server port” as a member of all the tag-based VLANs from which access is desired. Access to the “server port” is available only to ports of VLANs in which the “server port” is a member. This is done in order to share a common resource, such as a network server, over the defined tag VLANs.

48

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

NOTE: You must issue the new-srvr-port command before the new-vlan commands for those VLANs to which it will be made available.

new-srvr-port

Set a Vlan Server port(s)

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all}

[arg #1] server ports - ports list in format: d1-...-dn

[arg #2] VLAN Tag { 2..4095 }

opt.[arg #3] VLAN priority 1..8 (1..4 - low, 5..8 - high); default : 1

Removing a Server Port

del-srvr-port

The del-srvr-port command deletes a defined server port.

del-srvr-port <database><port-list> [arg#0] database type – either {run½nvram}

[arg#1] server ports – ports list in format: <dport>

VLAN

Creating a VLAN

new-vlan

The new-vlan command creates a new VLAN (tag based).

new-vlan

Make a new VLAN

 

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram|all}

[arg #1] Name of new vlan

 

[arg #2] VLAN Domain - ports list in format: d1-...-dn

[arg #3] VLAN Tag { 2..4095

}

opt.[arg #4] VLAN priority 1..8

(1..4 - low, 5..8 - high); default : 1

Example

SYS_console>new-vlan all v1 9-10-11-12 10

Set run Port VLAN Domain entry – OK

SYS_console>

NOTE: If you plan to define a server port, then you must configure that before you define the VLANs.

Viewing VLAN Configuration

get-vlan-tbl

Get-vlan-tbl {run½nvram}

49

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Example

SYS_console>get-vlan-tbl run

Runtime VLAN mode is VLAN Tagging

VLAN Table from RUN database (Mgmt tag: 1)

RUNTIME

VLAN TAG DOMAIN TABLE

 

===========================================

VID

NAME

PRIO

Ports

 

===========================================

1 S

SRVR_30

1

1 2 3 4

9 10 11 12 5S

2

RND

1

9 10 11

12 5S

3

FINANCE

1

1 2 3 4

5S

SYS_console>

get-vlan-entry

get-vlan-entry <database> <VID>

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram} default : run

[arg #1] VLAN index (from get-vlan-tbl; default : 1

Example

SYS_telnet>get-vlan-entry run 3

RUNTIME:

===========================================

VID

NAME

TAG Prio Ports

===========================================

3 FINANCE 20 1 1 2 3 4 5 SYS_console>get-vlan-entry run 3

Deleting a VLAN

del-vlan

NOTE: You cannot delete both Server and Management VLANs.

del-vlan <database> <VID>

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram} [arg #1] VLAN id (from get-vlan-tbl

Example

SYS_console>del-vlan run 1

Delete Runtime VLAN Tag Domain entry - OK

Runtime VLAN mode is VLAN Tagging

VLAN Table from RUN database (Mgmt tag: 1)

WARNING

If the Management VLAN is deleted, connections to the CPU are lost (management port).

50

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

VLAN Management

The processor that manages the product (SNMP responses and traps, remote telnet connections) does not belong to a VLAN that you have declared previously, so to get access to the processor through the network it is recommended to make the processor a part of a chosen VLAN with the following set of commands.

Viewing the Management Tag

get-mgmt-vlan-tag

By default the Management processor belongs to (CPU) VLAN tag 1.

get-mgmt-vlan-tag {run|nvram}

Example

SYS_console>get-mgmt-vlan-tag run

Management VLAN tag: 1

SYS_console>

Modifying the Management Tag

add-mgmt-to-vlan

The add-mgmt-to-vlan command adds management (CPU) to an existing VLAN.

add-mgmt-to-vlan <database> <VTAG>

[arg #0] database type - either {run|nvram} [arg #1] VLAN Tag { 2 .. 4095 }

Example

SYS_console>add-mgmt-to-vlan run 10

Set Management VLAN TAG 10 –OK

SYS_console>

Deleting the Management from a VLAN

del-mgmt-from-vlan

The del-mgmt-from-vlan command returns the management VLAN tag to default value (1).

Example

SYS_console>del-mgmt-from-vlan run

Del Management VLAN – OK

SYS_console>

51

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Creating a VLAN with Port Management

set-mgmt-vlan

The set-mgmt-vlan command creates a new VLAN, which automatically includes the CPU

(management port).

 

 

set-mgmt-vlan

Set

Management VLAN

[arg #0] database

type - either {run|nvram|all}

[arg #1] Name of Management vlan

[arg #2] Management VLAN Domain - ports list in format: d1-...-dn [arg #3] VLAN Tag { 2..4095 }

opt.[arg #4] VLAN priority 1..8 (1..4 - low, 5..8 - high); default : 1

Example

SYS_console>set-mgmt-vlan run v2 17-18-19-20

Set run Management VLAN Domain – OK

SYS_console>

VLAN, Server-port, Example of Configuration

In the examples below, a new VLAN server is set to port 5 on VLAN tag number 30. The PAYROLL VLAN (tag 10) is set to ports 1 to 4, and the FINANCE VLAN (tag 20) is set to ports 11 to 15. Both of them are given access to the server on port 5.

Physical configuration schema

PAYROLL

 

 

FINANCE

 

 

 

 

Station

Station 1

Station 2

Station

Station 3

Station

Station 4

Station

VLAN Server Port Configuration:Application

server

new-srvr-port run 5 30

Set VLAN Server Ports – OK

52

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

VLAN Configuration

Payroll VLAN Configuration:

sys-console>new-vlan run PAYROLL 1-2-3-5-9 10 Set run VLAN Domain entry – OK

SYS_console>

Finance VLAN Configuration:

sys-console>new-vlan run FINANCE 5-11-12-13-14-15 20 Set run VLAN Domain entry – OK

SYS_console>

Checking the Configuration:

SYS_console>get-vlan-tbl run

 

 

 

Runtime VLAN mode is VLAN Tagging

 

 

VLAN Table from RUN database (Mgmt tag: 1)

 

RUNTIME

VLAN TAG DOMAIN TABLE

 

 

===========================================

 

VID

NAME

TAG PRIO

Ports

 

 

===========================================

 

1

S

SRVR_30

30

1

1 2 3 4 9

10

11 12 13 14 15 5S

2

 

PAYROLL

10

1

1 2 3 4 9

5S

 

3

 

FINANCE

20

1

11 12 13 14 15 5S

SYS_console>

53

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Utilities Commands

Ping Commands

The ping command is intended for testing the connectivity between the switch and other IP network devices. It is not intended as a traffic generator. Thus, using the endless ping option is not recommended.

ping

The Ping command pings the Ipaddress specified number of times or 0 for endless ping. The ping process starts sending one datagram per second until the number of datagrams are sent. It prints one line of output for each response that it receives. The ping command does not return any output if there is no response. Normal response time is 1 to 10 seconds.

ping <IP address> {<number>|0}

Example

SYS_console>ping 194.90.136.20 4

SYS_console>194.90.136.20 Alive. echo reply: id 4643, seq 1, echo-data-len 0 194.90.136.20 Alive. echo reply: id 4643, seq 2, echo-data-len 0 194.90.136.20 Alive. echo reply: id 4643, seq 3, echo-data-len 0 194.90.136.20 Alive. echo reply: id 4643, seq 4, echo-data-len 0

PING process stopped - statistics :

ICMP

echo

requests

:

4

ICMP

echo

responses

:

4

PING process - press <CR> for prompt

SYS_console>

If a host does not respond, only statistics are printed. Failure to get an echo response from a host may be due to:

A bad physical connection

A non-existent or inactive host

Network Unreachable: no corresponding entry in the routing table

Destination Unreachable: the default gateway failed to route the datagram

Outdated ARP table information - flush the ARP table with the del-arp-entry command.

ping-stop

If you started a long ping, use this command, or CTRL-C to stop the active ping process.

Port mirroring

The port mirroring feature allows you to copy selected frames to a probe port for diagnostic and troubleshooting purposes.

Port mirroring allows you to attach a network protocol analyzer to a probe port to view the types of traffic passing through a particular switch port or ports.

This analysis can help troubleshoot network problems on a port-by-port basis.

54

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Setting the Monitoring Port

set-mon-port

set-mon-port <port>

Example

SYS_telnet>set-mon-port 1

Set of the Monitor Port - OK

Monitoring with: monitor

To set the port to be monitored and start the monitoring process decimal port. All traffic from this port is duplicated on the monitoring port specified by the set-mon-port command.

monitor <dport>

Example

SYS_telnet>monitor 1

Start monitoring port 1 - OK

The monitoring device must be connected to the monitoring port before monitoring is activated.

Saving the Configuration

save-mon

The save-mon command saves the current port-monitoring configuration to the NVRAM.

Example

SYS_telnet>save-mon

Save monitoring configuration to NVRAM - OK

Stopping Monitoring

stop-mon

Example

SYS_telnet>stop-mon

Stop monitoring - OK

55

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Viewing the NVRAM Configuration

get-nv-mon

The get-nv-mon command retrieves the port monitoring information stored with the save-mon command in the NVRAM.

Example

SYS_telnet>get-nv-mon

The NVRAM based monitoring configuration is :

Monitored port: 4

Monitor port: 2

Monitor ACTIVE

Erasing the NVRAM configuration

clear-nv-mon

Example

SYS_telnet>clear-nv-mon

Clear NVRAM monitoring configuration - OK

Frame Generator

Setting the Frame Generator

set-fg-param

The set-fg-parm command sets the frame generator parameters. The dest and source parameters are dash-separated hardware addresses in hex. The fill_byte parameter is a single byte used to fill the entire packet except for the first 12 bytes. The length is the total length of the packet excluding CRC.

set-fg-param <dest> <source> <fill_byte> <length>

Example

SYS_console>set-fg-param 00-0E-DE-02-80-01 00-0D-01-32-11-22 aa 100

SYS_console>

Starting the Frame Generation

start-fg

The start-fg command starts frame generation. The dport parameter is a dash-separated list of ports on which to generate traffic. For example, a dport send frames to another dport. The count parameter specifies the number of frames to send on each interface. A count of 0 specifies an infinite number of packets. The rate parameter specifies the number of packets per second to generate.

start-fg <dport> <count> <rate>

56

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Example

SYS_console>start-fg 1 9 0 10

SYS_console>

Stopping the Frame Generation

stop-fg

This command stops the Ethernet frame generator.

SNMP

This section explains how to use the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to manage LAN Switch Processors. It assumes that you are using an SNMP-based network management software application such as NBase-Xyplex MegaVision ™ to manage the switches. Hereafter, this section refers to your network management application as a Network Operations Center (NOC). Additionally, this section describes the RMON (Remote Monitoring) application and the type of network management applications that enable you to use RMON.

NBase-Xyplex SNMP Support

SNMP is an Internet standard protocol, defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comment (RFC) 1157, which specifies how network management information is carried through a network. NBase-Xyplex switches support SNMP by implementing an SNMP agent. The agent stores Management Information Base (MIB) data and makes it available when requested through SNMP Set, Get, and Get_Next requests.

In addition, NBase-Xyplex switches generate SNMP Trap messages. Traps are notices that the switch sends to an SNMP manager indicating that a specific event has occurred, or that the condition of a unit has changed significantly.

SNMP basic configuration

To enable your NOC to communicate with a NBase-Xyplex switch, you must assign it an IP address. Use the following command to do this:

set-ip-cfg ip-address ip-mask ip-broadcast

The address you assign must be valid for the network connected to the switch. In a routed network, depending on the switch location, you also need to assign a subnet mask and gateway, as follows:

set-gatew ip-gateway-address

To make sure that your NOC can exchange information with the switch, Ping the switch from the NOC.

57

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

SNMP Community String Commands

-----------------------------------------------------------------

get-comm

show current read or/and

write community

set-comm

change the read or write

community

SNMP Community strings authenticate access to the MIB (Management Information Base). Community strings function as “passwords” embedded in every SNMP packet. The community string must match one of the two community strings configured in the switch for the message to be processed. There are two community strings, one for each of the following types of accesses:

read – mode gives read access to all the objects in the MIB, but does not allow write access.

write – mode gives write access to all objects in the MIB.

Viewing the Community String

get-comm

The get-comm command displays the SNMP community string for a given access mode (read or write). If the access mode is specified as *, both the read and the write community strings are displayed.

get-comm {read|write|*}

Example

SYS_console> get-comm *

Current read community is: < public >

Current write community is: < private >

SYS_console>

Setting the Read or Write Community

set-comm

The set-comm command lets you specify the SNMP community string for each of the two access modes: read and write.

set-comm {read|write} <community-string>

Example

SYS_console>set-comm write password

New write community is: < password >

SYS_console>

58

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

SNMP Traps

Traps are notices that the switch sends to an SNMP manager indicating that a specific event has occurred, or that the condition of a unit has changed significantly. SNMP Traps are disabled by default.

NOTE: Trap messages do not provide an entirely reliable event notification mechanism; they can get dropped, and are not acknowledged or retransmitted once dropped.

When the Switch detects an extraordinary event, it generates a trap. A trap is a notification message that may be sent to predefine Network Management Stations. A trap event may be a reset (cold or warm), detection of an interface link status change, an SNMP authentication failure due to an incorrect community string, and so.

The SNMP trap commands let you manage whether or not the device issues an authentication trap to the list of selected SNMP Management Stations. The list has a maximum of five entries.

get-auth

shows the traps authentication mode

set-auth

modifies

the traps authentication

mode

get-traps

show destination stations

in the

trap list

add-trap

add a destination station

to

the

trap list

del-trap

delete a

destination station

from

the trap list

Setting Authentication Traps

Authentication Failures – This trap is generated whenever a login attempt fails during the authentication process on a management port.

Viewing the Authentication Trap Status

get-auth

Example

SYS_console>get-auth

The authentication trap messages are enabled

SYS_console>

Setting the Authentication Trap

set-auth {enable|disable}

Example

SYS_telnet>set-auth disable

The authentication trap message mode change OK

The authentication trap messages are DISABLED

59

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Configuring the Trap Stations

Viewing the stations list: get-traps

Example

 

SYS_console>get-traps

 

 

SNMP TRAP TABLE

 

 

===============

 

 

IPADDR

COMMUNITY

 

---------------------------------------------------

 

194.090.136.126 -----------

public

 

SYS_console>

 

 

 

 

Adding a station to the list:

 

add-trap

 

The add-trap command enters the IP Address of the SNMP Management Station and the trap community string that appears in the trap message.

add-trap <IP address> <trap-community>

Example

SYS_console>add-trap 194.90.136.20 rnd

Entry 194.90.136.20 - rnd added

 

SNMP TRAP TABLE

 

===============

 

IPADDR

COMMUNITY

---------------------------------------------------

194.090.136.126 -----------

public

194.090.136.020 -----------

rnd

---------------------------------------------------

SYS_console>

Deleting a station from the list:

del-trap <IP address>

The station’s IP address must be given as shown in the list provided with get-trap command.

Example

SYS_console>del-trap 194.90.136.20

Entry 194.90.136.20 – deleted

SYS_console>

60

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Statistics

This section contains instructions for displaying the switching statistics. Type statistics at the CLI to view all the related commands.

Clearing the Switch Counters

clr-cnt

The clr-cnt command clears the Ethernet and bridging counters.

Getting Statistics on a Particular Port

get-eth-cnt

get-eth-cnt <dport>

Example

get-eth-cnt <dport> SYS_console>get-eth-cnt 7 Ethernet Statistics for port 7

===================================================

Good Bytes Received

 

:

2840

Good Bytes Sent

 

:

964

Good Frames

Receive

 

:

22

Good Multicast Frames Receive

:

7

Good BroadCast Frames Receive

:

9

Frames Sent

 

 

:

6

Multicast Frames Sent

:

1

BroadCastFrames Sent

 

:

0

Receive and

Transmit

Collisions

:

0

Receive and

Transmit

Late Collisions

:

0

Receive CRC

or Alignment Error

:

0

Receive Frame > 1518

bytes with Bad CRC

:

0

Receive Fragments

 

:

0

Receive Frame > 1518

bytes with Good CRC :

0

===================================================

SYS_console>

Getting Collisions on a Port

get-colls-cnt <dport>

Example

SYS_console>get-colls-cnt 7

Ethernet Collision Counters for port 7

==========================================

Collision Count

:

128

Single Collision Count

:

0

Multiple Collision Count

:

0

Excessive Collision Count :

0

Late Collision Count

:

0

==========================================

SYS_console>

61

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Rmon Statistics

Getting Rmon Statistics Group for a Port

get-rmon-cnt <dport>

Example

SYS_console>get-rmon-cnt 3

Ethernet RMON Counters for port 3

===================================

etherStatsOctets

:

11971

etherStatsPkts

:

116

etherStatsBcastPkts

:

52

etherStatsMcastPkts

:

56

etherStatsCRCAllignPkts:

0

etherStatsUndersizePkts:

0

etherStatsOversizePkts :

0

etherStatsRuntPkts

:

0

etherStatsJabberPkts

:

0

etherStatsCollisions

:

0

SYS_console>

 

 

 

 

 

Getting the Packet Size Distribution

get-sdist-cnt <dport>

The get-sdist-cnt command is available for Fast Ethernet ports only.

Example

SYS_console>get-sdist-cnt 3

RMON Packet Size Distribution Counters for port 3

============================================================

etherStatsPkts64Octets

:

16

etherStatsPkts65to127Octets

:

109

etherStatsPkts128to255Octets

:

23

etherStatsPkts256to511Octets

:

7

etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets

:

0

etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets :

0

SYS_console>

 

 

 

 

 

62

Configuring, Modifying, and Monitoring the Unit

Getting the Management Counters

get-mgm-brcnt

The get-mgm-brcnt command retrieves the counters for the management interface.

Example

SYS_console>get-mgm-brcnt

Management Port Counters

=============================================

Frm

Received

:

23756

Bytes Received

:

2319627

Frm Received Ucast:

0

Frm Received Bcast:

12683

Frm Received Mcast:

11073

Frm Transmited

:

0

Bytes Transmited

:

0

Frm Transmit Ucast:

0

Frm Transmit Bcast:

0

Frm Transmit Mcast:

0

-------------------------------------------------------

port : Received frames : Transmited frames : number: UCAST : BCAST : MCAST : UCAST : BCAST : MCAST :

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

454

38

0

0

0

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

11

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

12229

11037

0

0

0

13

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

0

0

0

0

0

0

16

0

0

0

0

0

0

17

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

0

0

0

0

0

19

0

0

0

0

0

0

20

0

0

0

0

0

0

21

0

0

0

0

0

0

22

0

0

0

0

0

0

23

0

0

0

0

0

0

24

0

0

0

0

0

0

25

0

0

0

0

0

0

SYS_console>

63

Trouble Shooting

The NH2025-10 is a highly reliable unit. If you encounter an operating problem, follow the troubleshooting steps below. If the problem persists, contact your local NBase-Xyplex representative.

1.Ensure that the unit is plugged into a grounded, functioning AC outlet providing between 90 VAC and 264 VAC at 50/60 Hz. Check the power fuse and replace if blown.

CAUTION

For continued protection against fire, replace with same type and rating fuse.

2.Review all link LEDs to ensure that those ports you believe should be functioning are properly attached to a cable.

3.Verify that your cables are wired correctly.

Problem:

LINK LED is ON but data is not being forwarded through switch.

Cause:

Cables are too long.

Solution:

Make sure that cables are as defined in the installation section of

 

this guide. Check that cables meet the 10Base-T/100Base-TX

 

standards and that they do not exceed 100m.

4.Review all link LEDs to ensure that those ports you believe should be functioning are properly configured, and not disabled or partitioned.

Problem:

Port disabled due to a defective device on segment.

Cause:

When a defective NIC card causes a permanent jam on

 

the network, the port will be disabled by the NH2025-10.

Solution:

a) Locate the defective device and disconnect it from the

 

network.

 

b) The disabled port can be enabled through management

 

or by shutting off the unit and powering up again.

5. Ensure that the equipment attached to the switch is properly configured.

If you encounter any situations or problems you cannot solve, obtain, if possible, the following information:

The serial number of your switch and its hardware address

If the NMS option is installed, the firmware revision number displayed in the terminal console banner message.

The configuration of the equipment being interfaced with the switch.

The sequence of events leading up to your problem.

Troubleshooting procedures you have already followed.

65

Trouble Shooting

After compiling the above information, contact your local MRV communications representative or a Customer Service Representative. In addition, if you have specific questions about your network configuration, or have a particularly difficult network, please call our technical support.

Tel (US): 1-800-435-7997

Tel (Int.): +1+978-952-4888

Fax: (978) 952-4880

E-mail: service@mrv.com

66

Commands Quick Reference

Console Commands

help-kbd

Lists the console functional keys.

banner

Displays banner.

clear

Clears the screen (no argument is required with this command).

login

Exits Admin Interface; but does not disconnect a Telnet session.

logout

Exits Admin Interface; Telnet session will be disconnected.

set-page

Sets console page.

set-prompt

Changes console prompt.

set-attr-

Sets the prompt attributes.

prompt

 

set-attr-msg

Sets the message attributes.

set-attr-text

Sets the text attributes.

set-passwd

Changes the console password.

System Commands

sys-stat get-stst-level set-stst-level warm-reset cold-reset get-last-err

init-nvram get-sw-file set-sw-file get-tftp-mode set-tftp-mode get-tftp-srvr set-tftp-srvr sw-dnld set-fg-param start-fg stop-fg

Shows system status.

Shows the hardware selftest level.

Changes the hardware selftest level.

Restarts the device without resetting the log.

Restarts the device the same way as a power cycle.

Retrieves the number of warm resets since the last hardware reset. It also displays the last Fatal error message and the time since that error happened.

Resets the non-volatile RAM on the SNMP Agent to default values. Retrieves SNMP agent software file name.

Sets the SNMP Agent Software file name - for download.

Retrieves the TFTP download mode.

Sets the TFTP download mode.

Retrieves the TFTP server address.

Sets the TFTP server IP address.

Begins software download from TFTP server.

Sets the Ethernet frame generator parameters.

Starts the Ethernet frame generator

Stops the frame generator.

67

Commands Quick Reference

IP Commands

get-ip

Shows current IP address.

set-ip

Sets IP address.

get-ip-cfg

Shows current IP configuration.

set-ip-cfg

Sets IP address, netmask and broadcast.

clear-ip-cfg

Clears IP configuration in NVRAM.

get-gatew

Shows default gateway.

set-gatew

Defines default gateway.

get-bootp

retrieves the state of the BOOTP process

set-bootp

enables or disables the BOOTP process activation

Ping Commands

ping

ICMP utility.

ping-stop

Stops the ping process.

ARP Commands

get-arp-tbl

Displays the ARP Table.

del-arp-entry

Deletes an entry/all entries (*) of the ARP table.

add-arp-entry

Adds an entry to the ARP table.

get-arp-stats

Gets ARP statistics.

EtherChannel Commands

new-ec get-ec-tbl get-ec-entry del-ec

Creates a new EtherChannel. Shows EtherChannel Table. Show EtherChannel entry. Removes an EtherChannel.

SNMP Commands

get-comm

Shows current read and /or write community.

set-comm

Changes the read or write community.

get-auth

Shows the traps authentication mode.

set-auth

Sets the trap authentication mode.

get-traps

Shows destination stations in the trap list.

add-trap

Adds destination station to trap list.

del-trap

Deletes a destination station from trap list.

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Commands Quick Reference

Switching Database Commands

get-lt-entry

Gets a Learning Table entry at index.

get-lt-16

Gets 16 Learning Table entries starting at a given index.

find-lt-addr

Searches for an address in the Learning Table.

del-lt-entry

Removes a Learning Table entry at index.

del-lt-port

Deletes the Learning Table entries for a port.

del-lt-addr

Removes a Learning Table with a given address.

add-lt-entry

Adds a Learning Table entry.

get-lt-age

Displays the Learning Table aging period.

set-lt-age

Modifies the Learning Table aging period.

Virtual LAN Commands

set-vbc-domain del-vbc-domain get-vbc-tbl get-vbc-matrix get-vlan-mode set-vlan-mode new-vlan new-srvr-port del-srvr-port get-vlan-entry get-vlan-tbl add-mgmt-to-vlan del-mgmt-from-vlan set-mgmt-vlan get-mgmt-vlan-tag del-vlan set-priority-policy get-priority-policy vlan-prio-modify

Defines a Virtual Broadcast domain.

Deletes a Virtual Broadcast domain.

Displays the Virtual Broadcast domain table.

Retrieves the VBC connectivity matrix monitor. Displays the current VLAN operational mode. Selects the desired VLAN definition mode. Creates a new VLAN.

Sets a VLAN Server's port(s).

Deletes a defined “server port”.

Displays a specific VLAN’s table, by entering its VLAN id. Displays the VLAN Table.

Adds management (CPU) to an existing VLAN.

Returns the management (CPU) VLAN tag to default value (1). Sets management (CPU) for VLAN (Default =1).

Retrieves the Management (CPU) VLAN tag.

Deletes a VLAN.

Sets a policy for switch priority.

Gets a policy for switch priority.

Modifies the VLAN priority.

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Commands Quick Reference

Port Monitoring

set-mon-port

Sets the monitoring port on which the sniffer is connected.

monitor

Sets the port to be monitored and also starts the monitoring process.

stop-mon

Ends port monitoring.

get-nv-mon

Retrieves port monitoring information stored in NVRAM.

save-mon

Saves current port monitoring information into NVRAM.

clear-nv-mon

Clears port monitoring information in NVRAM.

Port Configuration Commands

get-port-cfg set-port-cfg set-port-state

getfctrl setfctrl

set-priority-port-cfg get-priority-port-cfg get-tag-outbound-mode set-tag-outbound-mode

Displays the configuration of all ports.

Sets the port speed, port duplex, or auto.d: auto, 100, 10, or 1000

Enables or disables a port when Spanning Tree algorithm is not running.

Displays the status of the port flow control function..

Sets the mode of operation of the port flow control function..

sets the priority of a port

displays the port priority configuration

Shows the VLAN Tagging ports’ state.

Enables or disables VLAN tagging to a port and should be set to ports on a network on which all nodes support the IEEE 802.1q. Disable any port connected to a network on which there are any nodes that do not support the IEEE 802.1q.

Switching Statistics Commands

clr-cnt

Clears switch Ethernet and bridging counters

get-eth-cnt

Gets Ethernet counters per port

get-colls-cnt

Gets collision distribution counters per port

get-rmon-cnt

Gets Ethernet RMON counters per port

get-sdist-cnt

Gets packet size distribution counters per port

get-mgm-brcnt

Gets switching counters of the mgmt port

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Commands Quick Reference

Spanning Tree Commands

get-stp

Displays Spanning Tree session state

set-stp

Enables/Disables Spanning Tree - for the next session

get-st-bcfg

Retrieves Spanning Tree Bridge parameters

get-st-pcfg

Retrieves Spanning Tree port parameter table

set-br-prio

Sets Spanning Tree bridge priority

set-br-maxage

Sets Spanning Tree bridge MaxAge

set-br-hello

Sets Spanning Tree bridge HelloTime

set-br-fwdel

Sets Spanning Tree bridge Forward Delay

set-prt-prio

Sets Spanning Tree port priority

set-prt-enb

Sets Spanning Tree port to enable or disable mode

set-br-pcost

Sets Spanning Tree port path cost

71

 

 

Appendix A

 

 

System Default Values

console

 

 

Password

NONE

 

Prompt

SYS_console>

 

system

 

 

SW file name

changes according to revision (flash.hex)

tftp mode

Server

 

snmp

 

 

Read Community:

public

 

Write Community:

private

 

Authentication Mode:

Enable

 

Traps Managers:

NONE

 

switch-db

 

 

Aging Time

300

 

port configuration

 

 

port duplex

HALFAUTO

 

port select

AUTO

 

spanning tree

 

 

Spanning Tree

disable

 

Bridge Priority

32768

0-65535

Bridge Max Age

20

6.0 - 40.0 sec

Bridge Hello Time

2

1.0 - 10.0 sec

Bridge Forward Delay

15

4.0 - 30.0

Port Priority

128

0-255

Port Cost

4/10/100 (depending on

0-65535

 

switch/port module

 

 

speed/LAN speed (Mbps). )

 

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Appendix B

Firmware Download Using TFTP

The switch can be updated with new firmware using TFTP applications. The update can be done with the switch defined as either a TFTP client or a TFTP server.

NOTE: Bootp should be set to disable with the command set-bootp disable before proceeding to the software update.

Download Procedure - "Client Mode"

A remote TFTP server station is required.

1.Configure the following switch parameters:

set-tftp-mode client

set-tftp-srvr IP address of the TFTP server station

set-sw-file file name of the firmware to be loaded ("name".hex)

2.Operate the remote TFTP server, with the path defined for the location of the “name” hex file.

3.Start the download procedure using the sw-dnld command in the switch.

NOTE: After successful completion of the download, the switch reboots and operates the new firmware.

Once the switch is rebooted it is possible to set bootp to enable with the command setbootp enable.

NBase-Xyplex strongly recommends erasing the NVRAM with the command init-nvram, and then proceeding to an entire reconfiguration of the switch. This will allow the new firmware to operate normally.

Download Procedure - "Server mode"

A remote TFTP station operated in client mode is required.

1.Configure the switch with the following parameters:

set-tftp-mode server

set-sw-file - file name of firmware to be loaded ("name".hex)

2.Operate the remote TFTP program in client mode and configure:

Path of the file to be loaded ("name".hex)

IP address of the remote server (the switch)

3.Start the download procedure with the "sw-dnld" command in the switch and "send" in the TFTP client.

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Firmware Download Using TFTP

TFTP Recovery - Breaking into the BootROM

Unsuccessful downloading as a result of a corrupted file, premature time-out, etc., may cause the switch to enter a reboot "loop". If this happens, do the following:

1.Stop the loop situation and break into the BootROM menu by pressing the Enter key during the boot process. This stops the loop.

2.login and use the set of commands provided by the BootROM.

3.Use the set of commands provided by the BootROM to set or check the TFTP setting. You can check with the following commands:

get-sw-file gives you the software name,

get-tftp-srvr displays the tftp server IP address

get-tftp-mode provides you with the mode (client or server)

To set the configuration use the commands below:

set-sw-file Filename (the name of the software located into the tftp server)

set-tftp-srvr (the tftp server's IP address)

set-tftp-mode client

4.At this point, you can use the previously entered TFTP parameters, and a new download session started with the sw-dnld command.

NOTE: After successful completion of the download, the switch reboots and operates the new firmware, but keeps the old parameters.

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Appendix C

Technical Specifications

Compatibility

The 2025-10 is compatible with the following: IEEE 802.3; IEEE 802.3u (Fast Ethernet); 802.1q; IEEE 802.1d (Bridge/Spanning Tree), Ethernet MIB, BRIDGE MIB, RMON (Groups 1,2,3,9), IEEE 802.3x (Flow Control)

Electrical

 

 

 

Voltage

100 - 240 VAC

 

 

Frequency

50 - 60 Hz

 

 

Power Consumption 40W

 

 

Connectors

 

 

 

STP

RJ-45 shielded

 

 

RS-232

DB-9

 

 

Optical

 

 

 

1000Base-FX (SX, LX)

 

 

SX/M

850nm;

0-300 m

MM, DSC

LX/M

1310nm;

0-500 m

MM, DSC

LX/S1

1310nm;

0-6 km

SM, DSC

LX/S2

(DFB)1550nm;

0-20 km

SM, DSC

LX/S3

(DFB)1550nm;

0-50 km

SM, DSC

Learning Table

12K MAC addresses

Boot and Configuration

NVRAM configuration loaded on power up.

Physical

 

 

H x W x D

6.55 x 44.06 x 33.0 cm

2.6” (1.5U) x 17.3” x 13”

Weight

3.6 kg

8 lb.

77

Technical Specifications

Environment

 

 

Operating Temperature

0°C to 50°C

32°F to 122°F

Storage Temperature

-10°C to 50°C

14°F to 122°F

Humidity

85% maximum, non-condensing

Standards Compliance

UL-1950; CSA 22.2 No 950; VCCI; FCC Part 15 Class A; CE - 89/336/EEC, 73/23/EEC

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