Great Dane 42101401 User Manual

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MAINTENANCE

MANUAL

Part No. 42101401

®

Please route to the individual responsible for trailer maintenance

MAINTENANCE MANUAL

VANS

CONTENTS

Reporting Safety Defects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Reporting Other Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Maintenance Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Appearance Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Freezing Weather Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Suggested Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Brake Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Brake Care and Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Brake Adjusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Parking Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Brake Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Oil Seals and Hub Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Wheel Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Suspensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Running Gear Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Servicing Rims and Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Single-Piece Rim Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Rim and Wheel Inspection and Maintenance . . . . 15

Rim and Wheel Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Tire Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Axle Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Upper Coupler and Kingpin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Pintle Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Support Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Rear Impact Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Side and Roof Panels - Vans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Rear Frame, Doors and Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Entry and Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Floor System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Insulated Trailer Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Maintaining Insulation Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Safety Measures - Urethane Foam . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Converter Dolly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Alterations to the Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

PLATFORMS

CONTENTS

Reporting Safety Defects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Reporting Other Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Maintenance Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Appearance Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Freezing Weather Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Suggested Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brake Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Brake Care and Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Brake Adjusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Parking Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Brake Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Oil Seals and Hub Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Wheel Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Suspensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Running Gear Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Servicing Rims and Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Single-Piece Rim Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Rim and Wheel Inspection and Maintenance . . . . 15 Rim and Wheel Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Tire Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Axle Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Upper Coupler and Kingpin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Pintle Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Support Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Rear Impact Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Floor System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Main Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Crossmembers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Extendable Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Converter Dolly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Running Gear Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Alterations to the Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

This safety alert symbol is used throughout this manual to indicate potential personal safety hazards. Failure to heed the warnings associated with the safety alert symbol can result in property damage, serious injury or death.

REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS AND OTHER CLAIMS

Customer Service Phone Number: 877-369-3493

This vehicle was designed and quality inspected to conform with all applicable National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) safety standards. Great Dane Limited Partnership warrants this vehicle to be free from defects in materials and workmanship in accordance with its standard printed warranty (see Appendix). If you detect a defect that could cause an accident, injury or death; or if you wish to report any such accident, injury or death, or any property damage claim or other complaint not addressed to the Customer Service Department, then you should in writing advise:

Director, Quality Assurance

Great Dane Limited Partnership

P.O. Box 67

Savannah, GA 31402-0067

If you believe that your vehicle has a defect which could cause a crash or could cause injury or death, you should immediately inform NHTSA in addition to notifying Great Dane Limited Partnership.

If NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may open an investigation, and if it finds that a safety defect exists in a group of vehicles, it may order a recall and remedy campaign. However, NHTSA cannot become involved in individual problems between you, your dealer, or Great Dane Limited Partnership.

To contact NHTSA, you may call the Vehicle Safety Hotline toll-free at 1-888-327-4236 (TTY: 1-800-424- 9153); go to http://www.safercar.gov; or write to Administrator, NHTSA, 400 Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20590. You can also obtain other information about motor vehicle safety from http://www.safercar.gov.

2

INTRODUCTION

This manual has been prepared to assist you in retaining the safety, dependability, and performance that are built into Great Dane trailers. It is essential that this trailer receives periodic inspections, maintenance, and service parts replacement.

Maintenance should be performed by Great Dane branches and dealers, or other qualified service outlets that regularly provide such service. The Great Dane Operator’s Manual covers pre-trip inspections, safety and maintenance checks, and other helpful information regarding Great Dane trailers. If you have questions about this manual or its instructions, contact Great Dane Trailers Customer Service Department for answers.

It is important that every trailer owner and/or operator have an organized Trailer Preventive Maintenance (TPM) program. The United States Department of Transportation requires that the maintenance records be kept on every commercial highway vehicle.

It is to your advantage to be able to show that regularly scheduled TPM inspection checks have been made on every piece of equipment operated. A regular TPM program will assure that you get the most from your Great Dane trailer.

You can get help in setting up your trailer preventive maintenance program by sending for a “Trailer Maintenance Manual.” Contact the Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association, 1020 Princess Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 549-3010.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:

Before performing any maintenance or repair work which requires raising the vehicle, ensure vehicle is properly supported with lift stands of sufficient rating capacity. Do not rely on jacks alone for support of the vehicle.

Safety glasses and hard hats should be worn when repairing and maintaining this vehicle.

A serious or fatal injury can occur...

A.If you lack proper training.

B.If you fail to follow proper safe procedures.

C.If you do not use proper tools and safety equipment.

D.If you fail to use compatible replacement components.

NOTICE:

It is recommended that all necessary replacement components be from the original equipment manufacturers to insure proper fit and to maintain the structural capability built into your vehicle.

The Great Dane Operator’s Manual, included with every new trailer, will give specific information about the following subjects:

Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR)

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)

Cargo Capacity

Proper Loading & Weight Distribution

Information shown in this Maintenance Manual is general information for maintenance and preventive maintenance of your Great Dane trailer. It is strongly recommended that you obtain specific maintenance manuals provided by the manufacturers of the components specified on this trailer. Refer to the bibliography in the back of this manual.

3

MAINTENANCE TIPS

BREAKING-IN A NEW TRAILER

The most critical time in a new trailer’s life is its initial in-service check and first month’s “shakedown.” Preventive maintenance mechanics should be alert for under-inflated tires and threaded fasteners that may have loosened from factory-torque settings. Fastener torque should be all-inclusive and include refrigeration units, tanks, steps, carriers etc.

Following are several areas that deserve particularly close attention during the first 30 days of a van or platform trailer’s service life. Of course, your operation’s maintenance records should reflect all areas which need to be closely checked.

TIRES

While a new trailer’s tires were correctly inflated when they were mounted at the factory, tire pressure is related to ambient temperature at inflation time. If a new trailer had tires mounted in a 70˚ F. ambient environment, but was put in service in 20˚ F. weather, the tires may have lost as much as 10 psi for every drop of 20˚ F. in ambient temperatures below 50˚ F. Therefore, all tire pressures should be verified with an air gauge, and rechecked each time the tractor refuels.

WHEELS

Smaller fleets commonly overlook the need to retighten new-trailer-wheel lug nuts after the first 50 to 100 mi. of service on the initial “in-service.” Retightening compensates for “normal” clamp force lost due to “seating in” of new materials. Tests have shown new-trailer-wheel lug nuts lose 250 lb-ft, or about half of their original torque value, during a short period of initial service. Unless those nuts are retightened to spec, additional clamping force will be lost, and damage to components will occur. Re-tightening during the initial in-service prevents wheel and stud damage. Thereafter, lug nuts should be checked every 25,000 mi.

LEAF-SPRING SUSPENSIONS

All tandem axles are aligned when new trailers leave the factory. However, suspension fasteners may sometimes loosen, causing alignment settings to change, and that can translate into possible erratic ride, or accelerated tire wear. Therefore, at the first TPM interval, all suspension-system fasteners should be rechecked for correct torque value.

When tightening suspension-system fasteners, mechanics must tighten the “nut side” of torque-arm bolts. Tightening bolt heads does not produce the correct clamping force on the fastener.

It is also important to keep U-bolts, as well as torque-arm bolts, tight. Loose U-bolts allow trailer axles to shift, and even minor shifting during braking can cause control problems, excessive tire wear, or even broken spring leaves.

When U-bolts are torqued to proper specs, leaf-spring main leaves remain in proper contact with wear pads, with no “twists.” Spring wear-pad contact will then be even, too.

Also, at the first TPM, a trailer mechanic should take the time to verify that there are no obstructions to movement of the suspension equalizers.

When the mechanic has made sure all fasteners are tight, he should use the 50-ft.-tape method, with axle extenders, to verify that the trailer tandem is, indeed, properly aligned. Remember: the longer the trailer, the more critical tandem alignment is to long tire life.

AIR-SPRING SUSPENSIONS

Loose U-bolts in an air-spring suspension can cause a new trailer to roll and sway. Usually, a driver is quick to report this condition. The mechanic should make doubly sure that trailer-suspension fasteners, including U-bolts, are properly tightened.

Excessive play in an air-spring suspension’s front-pivot connection is another cause of premature tire wear and erratic handing. Again, connection bolts, which may have loosened during the first weeks of service, may produce such handling problems. If not retightened, these loose bolts cause rubber bushing wear.

SLIDING-TANDEM OPERATION

A driver learning to handle a new trailer equipped with a sliding tandem should be sure he knows exactly how to use the stop-selector bar. He should also make sure that all four slider lock pins are set in place before operating the trailer, otherwise the tandem may not be “locked,” and a sudden brake application could force the slider rearward, causing damage to the tandem and trailer.

AIR SYSTEM AND BRAKE OPERATION

During the first month’s operation, a certain amount of “burnishing in” of brake lining occurs. This is normal and may result in some adjustment loss. Because out-of-adjustment trailer brakes mean increased stopping distance, plus an increased potential for jackknifing under certain conditions, trailer brake adjustment should be checked at the first TPM inspection.

During routine maintenance the dust cover cap on air chambers must be inspected to assure that is in place and sealing properly.

ANNUAL FHWA INSPECTION

It is the carriers’ responsibility to make sure that the vehicles operated by them are inspected and maintained under this Federal requirement. During this inspection, make sure the upper slide rail to crossmember welds, pintle hook assemblies, safety equipment, etc. are inspected and corrected as required.

DOORS

Almost invariably, a new trailer’s hinged-type doors are difficult to latch. Drivers should expect to use extra muscle to secure doors until seals seat, but drivers should not use bars or some other device to force doors shut. It is equally important not to make adjustments to a new trailer’s door latches or hinges to “correct” door closing. This will result in a poor sealing later on.

4

APPEARANCE MAINTENANCE

Appearance maintenance includes cleaning, polishing, corrosion prevention and removal, and protective coating. You must have a working knowledge of each for the complete and proper appearance maintenance of a Great Dane trailer.

WASHING AND CHEMICALS

Improper use of chemical cleaners has caused many a newly delivered trailer finish to streak and fade, particularly yellow, red and black models. Ironically, fade is often caused by a desire to keep the units clean – and using too strong a chemical solution. When instructions call for a 150:1 water/chemical ratio, do not use a 50:1 ratio. Sometimes fading caused by an overly concentrated caustic agent may be remedied with warm water rinsing and application of a glazing wax.

APPEARANCE MAINTENANCE MATERIALS

Many chemical companies compound materials for appearance maintenance, and some will even provide instruction. Protective films, such as paints and clear coats, are necessary for the prevention of corrosion and the preservation of metal and wood surfaces. They add color, beauty, and distinction.

NOTICE: Aluminum brighteners should not be used.

Trailer undercoat materials can lose effectiveness if steam cleaned or if they come in contact with most solvents.

The underside, including beams, has been undercoated with a special, soft, rust preventive coating. To prolong the life of this coating, avoid the use of high-pressure washers, strong cleaning solutions and brighteners.

Due to the normal weathering and abrasion caused by road conditions this coating must be inspected and recoated as necessary (approximately every 24 months).

Dry-freight laminated wood floors should be cleaned by sweeping and should not be washed out.

BENEFITS OF APPEARANCE MAINTENANCE

Complete and proper appearance maintenance of Great Dane trailers not only adds to their physical condition and ultimate trade-in value but also favorably affects the operator’s feelings about himself and his company. It also favorably affects the public image

of the company.

FREEZING WEATHER MAINTENANCE

Winter cold weather and its slush, sleet, and snow present special problems to the truck trailer operator and to maintenance men. Low temperatures can mean frozen and sluggish or inoperative brakes, sagging light and brake lines, broken connections, increased corrosion, and can require the installation of winter equipment.

Enclosed air systems for brakes and air-operated equipment should be drained regularly of accumulated moisture. The air tanks should be drained daily. The trailer air system should be treated through tractor equipment only. Use of additives can cause damage to the brake system. This could result in metal corrosion or swelling of brake valve seals. Make sure electrical and brake lines are adequately supported.

Ice and mud accumulations on brake lines and actuators should be removed regularly. Any air leaks that may exist are difficult to find when they are encased in ice and mud.

WARNING Do not use heat on any part of the air system. The use of heat can cause a rupture and can be very dangerous.

WINTER CORROSION MAINTENANCE

Magnesium and calcium chlorides used to control snow and ice over our national highways, if not property cleaned from your tractor and trailer equipment after each trip, will result in rust and corrosion damage in as little as one winter of operation.

Information concerning corrosion maintenance can be found in the publication’s bibliography and on Great Dane’s website, www.greatdanetrailers.com.

These references outline:

1.What states use these chemicals

2.How these chemicals affect equipment operated over road surfaces treated with it.

3.What you should do to protect and maintain your equipment when it’s exposed to these highly corrosive chemicals.

SUGGESTED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

EVERY 1,000 MILES:

Check oil level in wheel hub and inspect wheel hub for leaks

15,000 MILES OR MINIMUM OF TWICE A YEAR:

Check brake adjustment

Check and repack wheel bearings as required once per year or every 100,000 miles as recommended by the T.M.C.

25,000 to 30,000 MILES:

Check lining wear and estimate reline time

Inspect camshaft, camshaft spider bushing and camshaft support bracket bushing for any signs of wear

Lubricate brake actuating components

100,000 MILES, ONCE A YEAR, OR AT BRAKE RELINE:

Replace wheel bearing lubricating oil (if applicable)

Check brake air actuators and adjusters

Inspect brake rollers, roller shafts, anchor pins and bushings and replace if necessary

5

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

CAUTION

CONNECTOR WIRING CHANGE

NOTICE TO ALL

TRACTOR-TRAILER OWNERS AND USERS

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 121, Air Brake Systems, was amended by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of DOT to require that truck tractors manufactured on or after March 1, 1997, provide constant power for a trailer’s antilock brake system (ABS). Some manufacturers provided this feature before the effective date. These tractors using a single 7-way electrical connector will have constant power for ABS on the center pin when the key switch is on. Tractor-trailer owners and users who presently use the center pin for auxiliary power to equipment other than trailer ABS (for example, dome lights, backing lights, bottom dumps, sliding undercarriages, air ride dump valves, etc.) will be affected by this change. In certain uses of this constantly powered center pin connector, unexpected or unintended activation of this equipment may be hazardous or result in personal injury. Before connecting your tailer to a tractor, MAKE SURE that the constantly powered center pin WILL NOT UNINTENTIONALLY TURN ON TRAILER EQUIPMENT. If you have any questions about your present wiring, or how to rewire your vehicles, you should contact the tractor manufacturer, auxiliary equipment manufacturer, and/or Great Dane Trailers Customer Service Department.

The electrical system on every Great Dane trailer meets or exceeds all federal and state requirements in effect at the time of manufacture. Wherever required by law, lamps and reflectors are marked by the manufacturer to indicate the appropriate specification with which each complies.

For optimum performance and long life from the trailer’s lamps and wiring, follow this inspection procedure.

Clean all reflective tape or devices and lamps. See that all lamps burn properly. Replace all burned-out lamps and broken or missing reflective devices. Factoryapproved replacement parts should be used, and replacement bulbs of equal candlepower should be used for safety.

WARNING

TRAILER IS EQUIPPED WITH ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS). NO. 7 (BLUE) CIRCUIT IS RESERVED FOR CONTINUOUS POWER SUPPLY TO ABS. FOR MOST EFFECTIVE ABS OPERATION,TOWING VEHICLE MUST SUPPLY MINIMUM OF 10 AMPS AT 12.5 VOLTS TO NO. 4 (RED) & NO. 7 (BLUE) CIRCUITS.

 

PIN

COLOR

CIRCUIT

 

1

WHITE

GROUND RETURN TO TOWING VEHICLE

 

2

BLACK

CLEARANCE, SIDE MARKER & ID LAMPS

 

3

YELLOW

LEFT TURN SIGNAL & HAZARD LAMPS

 

4

RED

STOP LAMPS & ABS POWER

 

5

GREEN

RIGHT TURN SIGNAL & HAZARD LAMPS

J560

6

BROWN

TAIL, LICENSE, CLEARANCE &

 

 

SIDE MARKER LAMPS

SOCKET

 

 

 

7

BLUE

ABS CONTINUOUS SHARED POWER

FAILURE TO HEED THIS WARNING CAN RESULT IN PROPERTY DAMAGE, SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH.

NOTE: Electrical circuits may be protected by circuit breakers located inside the front nose box.

WIRING DIAGRAM

FRONT

— TOP VIEW OF TRAILER —

REAR

 

GREEN

 

BROWN

 

BROWN

 

 

 

WHITE

 

 

 

 

 

GREEN

 

 

 

BROWN

 

 

 

WHITE

 

 

 

RED

 

4 COND ABS HARNESS

BROWN

 

WHITE

 

7 COND MAIN HARNESS

 

 

BLUE

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHITE

 

 

 

WHITE-GREEN

 

 

 

RED

 

 

 

 

BROWN

 

 

 

RED

 

 

 

BROWN

 

 

 

WHITE

 

 

 

YELLOW

 

 

 

BROWN

 

YELLOW

 

WHITE

 

WHITE

 

 

BROWN

 

 

WHITE-GREEN

 

 

WHITE

BROWN

 

 

6

A warning decal, as shown on the previous page, is located on the front of each trailer. You may trace individual electrical circuits by the wire colors indicated. Refer to the schematic drawing and the decal for conductor numbers and wire colors.

WARNING Do not exceed 21 candlepower for dome lamps. Stronger bulbs may generate excessive heat and start a cargo fire. Cargo must be kept away from dome lamps. Dome lamps must be turned off for over-the-road operation.

Use only a 12-volt DC battery for checking lamps or antilock brake systems. Never use battery chargers or transformers.

Inspect all wiring to see that it is not damaged, and that it is properly supported and protected, with all connections tight. Frayed or damaged wiring should be replaced with stranded cable of equal size or larger, and should never be replaced with a smaller cable, or with a solid conductor. All holes where wiring passes through must contain rubber grommets.

NOTICE: Most trailers are equipped with a sealed wiring harness. Check the circuits at the plugs only – do not cut or probe test for shorts. Every time the harness is unplugged, repack connector with Grafo 112X grease or equivalent.

Never replace fuses or breakers with metal foil or other devices.

BRAKE MAINTENANCE

SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE

Establish a preventive maintenance schedule for the periodic adjustment, cleaning, inspection, and lubrication of brake equipment on the basis of past

experience and expected severity of operations. Take into account that linings and drums are particularly subject to wear and should not be allowed to wear to the point where rivets or bolts may contact brake drums. To compensate for this, schedule brake inspections as frequently as required to maintain satisfactory operation and maximum safety (not to

exceed 25,000 miles). Accepted maintenance practices require that bearings should be adjusted properly before making brake adjustments; that adjustments provide uniform lining clearance, correct travel of levers, and proper equalization; and that brakes should be cleaned, inspected, lubricated, and adjusted each time the hubs are removed.

MAINTENANCE DURING MAJOR OVERHAUL OF BRAKES

During a major overhaul, check the following parts and replace them with original equipment parts or equal, as required:

1.Spiders – for looseness or sheared fasteners.

2.Anchor pins – for wear or misalignment.

3.Brake shoes – for wear at anchor pin holes.

4.Cam shafts and cam shaft bearings or bushings – for wear.

5.Shoe-return springs – replace during overhaul and when you replace lining. Do not reuse springs.

6.Brake linings – for oil or grease saturation, wear, loose rivets or bolts.

7.Drums – for cracks, scoring, other damage.

Install all new lock rings where they are used.

During a major overhaul, before reassembling parts that have been inspected, lightly coat cam shaft bushings and cam roller follower shafts and journals with brake lubricant.

WARNING Brake liners contaminated with lubricant cannot be salvaged or cleaned. They must be replaced.

For all fittings on cam shafts, meter-type fittings that have a maximum of 40 psi pressure relief or shutoff are recommended.

BRAKE LUBRICANTS

A high-temperature waterproof grease in a number 1 NLGI grade to lubricate the brake actuating system is recommended. It should be smooth textured, corrosion resistant, and free of fillers and abrasives. It should maintain a satisfactory softness under normal parking and storage temperatures so the brakes can be applied and released.

The following greases meet these recommendations:

Texaco Thermotex EP #1

Shell Darina #1

Marathon 528 HD

Sunaplex #1 EP

Amdex #1 EP

Philube B #1

Trailers operating in extremely cold weather (below -40˚ F) may require a grease conforming to MIL-G-25013C.

7

BRAKE CARE AND ADJUSTMENT

The trailer brake system will perform safely and efficiently only as long as it is properly maintained and not abused. Trailer brakes should be inspected frequently in connection with a Trailer Preventive Maintenance (TPM) Program. Out-of-adjustment brakes can cause increased stopping distance, shorter brake component life, and a greater tendency for the trailer to jackknife.

WARNING Prior to performing maintenance on any air brake system component, chock the wheels. The system air pressure should be exhausted by opening the reservoir drain cocks.

AIR SYSTEM AND BRAKE OPERATION

Proper operation of the brake systems requires a firm seal between the air brake couplers. Inspect the

couplers for seal damage and cracked housings. Some couplers are equipped with filters. These filters must be cleaned at regular intervals to prevent malfunction of the brake systems. Inspect the air hoses for cracking and for frayed connections. Be sure air hoses are not rubbing on any metal surface or each other. Replace or repair damaged components.

Keep the air system clean. All air tanks should be drained daily to remove moisture and other contaminants. See Freezing Weather Maintenance.

Some air valve manufacturers discourage the use of air line antifreeze. Use may result in deterioration of seals in these valves.

If you use Teflon tape or other thread sealers to seal threaded connections in your air lines, be careful not to allow pieces of the sealer to enter the air system. It can clog passages into the valves and cause them to malfunction.

Keep the air system tight. The air system cannot be charged properly if there are leaks in reservoirs, lines, hoses, or valves. Always check the tractor pressure gauge for unusual drops or extended buildup times.

Run the tractor engine until the air brake system pressure gauge shows at least 105 psi. Listen for air leaks. With the engine off, check the gauge reading with no brakes applied. The gauge reading loss should not exceed three psi in one minute.

With the engine still off, apply the brakes fully for two minutes. The gauge reading drop should not exceed four psi in one minute.

With engine still off, slowly open drain cocks in the trailer’s air tanks and allow the pressure to drop gradually.

In a system employing spring brake control valves, the spring brakes should function and apply the brakes. In a system that does not employ spring brake control

valves, the relay emergency valve should function and apply the brakes.

WARNING Serious air leaks in the trailer’s braking system are hazardous conditions that require the trailer to be placed out of service until they are properly corrected

A schedule for periodic cleaning, inspection, adjustment and lubrication of brake equipment should be established by the operator, based on past experience and severity of operation.

BRAKE SHOES

Brake shoe designs vary, depending on the type of brake and brake manufacturer. Some brakes require special tools. If you have problems removing brake shoes, refer to the brake manufacturer’s manual.

BRAKE SHOE SPRINGS

Replace weak or unmated brake shoe springs whenever they cause pulling or dragging brakes. The springs are constantly expanding and contracting in the confined hot area of the brake drums. Excessive heat during expansion will cause them to weaken.

BRAKE LINERS

The certified Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) in many cases is determined by the friction level of the brake liners. The friction level is determined by the axle and vehicle manufacturer to provide the required brake torque as prescribed by governmental regulations.

NOTICE: When replacing liners, be sure to use liners with the same friction level as those removed from the trailer so that the GAWR is not reduced.

REFACING DRUMS

It is not a good practice to reface brake drums. Refacing can weaken the drums, making them unable to dissipate all the heat generated by brake applications, and making them susceptible to distortion and heat cracks.

If brake drums must be refaced on cam-type brakes, when oversized linings are used, precautions regarding cam travel should be checked to prevent sticking cams or cam rollover. This problem often exists when the linings become worn. It may be necessary to install oversized rollers to prevent this problem.

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