Gateway AppleShare IP Gateway Service Manual

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KApple IP Gateway Administrator’s Guide

K Apple Computer, Inc.

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© Apple Computer, Inc., 1994 1 Infinite Loop

Cupertino, CA 95014-6299 (408) 996-1010

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Contents

Preface: About This Guide / v

1About the Apple IP Gateway / 1

About IP networks / 2 How the gateway works / 3

How the gateway can be used / 5

Using the gateway as a stand-alone product / 5 Using the gateway with the Apple Internet Router /5

The Apple IP Gateway and the Apple Internet Router AppleTalk/IP Wide Area Extension / 7

Using the gateway with an Apple Remote Access server / 9

The Apple IP Gateway and the AppleSearch WAIS Gateway / 11 Network management / 11

Hardware and software requirements / 12

2 Installation and Setup / 13

International users / 14

Installing networking software using Easy Install / 14

Installing networking software using the Customize option / 16

Installing the gateway software / 19

Using Easy Install / 19

Using Custom Install / 22

Designating software locations / 26

Designating a location for the Gateway Manager / 26

Designating a System Folder for the gateway software / 28

Setting up the gateway / 29

Configuring MacTCP / 29

Configuring the gateway / 33

Getting users ready / 36

Hardware and software requirements / 37

MacTCP configuration requirements / 37

Configuring MacTCP for automatic addressing / 38

Configuring MacTCP for manual addressing / 42

3Operating and Monitoring the Apple IP Gateway / 47

Starting and stopping the gateway / 48

Monitoring the gateway / 49

Viewing gateway statistics / 49 Using MacSNMP / 50

Establishing gateway security / 51

Setting a password / 51

Changing or removing a password / 52 Limiting network access / 53

Changing network access restrictions / 55 Preventing unauthorized access by IP computers / 57

4Troubleshooting / 59

Diagnosing and solving problems / 60 Solutions to common problems / 61

Appendix The Apple IP Gateway MIB / 63

Index / 75

iv Contents

Preface

About This Guide

The Apple IP Gateway is software that allows communication between an AppleTalk network or internet and an Internet Protocol (IP) network or internet. This guide explains how to install, configure, and operate the Apple IP Gateway, both on its own and in conjunction with the Apple Internet Router or with an Apple Remote Access Personal or MultiPort Server. The guide also tells you how to prepare users to access the gateway, details several methods for making the gateway more secure, and provides solutions to problems that may come up.

What this guide contains

The chapters of this guide provide the following information:

mChapter 1, “About the Apple IP Gateway,” gives a basic introduction to how the gateway works and how it can be used.

mChapter 2, “Installation and Setup,” covers software installation and configuration information for both MacTCP and the gateway itself. In addition, the chapter includes a section that covers the various options you have in preparing users to access the gateway.

mChapter 3, “Operating and Monitoring the Apple IP Gateway,” provides detailed information for operating the gateway and establishing gateway security. The chapter also covers viewing gateway statistics and monitoring the gateway with SNMP.

mChapter 4, “Troubleshooting,” offers solutions to problems that may come up.

mThe Appendix, “The Apple IP Gateway MIB,” lists the variables that can be monitored with SNMP.

On-screen help

The Apple IP Gateway includes Balloon Help, featuring balloons that provide descriptions of items on the Macintosh screen. To access Balloon Help, choose Show Balloons from the Help (?) menu. When you point to items on the screen, balloons appear explaining each item. To turn off Balloon Help, choose Hide Balloons from the Help menu.

What you need to know

This guide assumes that you are familiar with basic Macintosh operations. If you need more information, refer to the documentation that came with your computer. In addition, the Apple IP Gateway works in coordination with MacTCP, and, optionally, with the Apple Internet Router and the Apple Remote Access Personal or MultiPort Servers. Although much of the information that you’ll need is repeated here, you’ll find it helpful to have a thorough understanding of these products. To get that understanding, refer to the documentation supplied with each application program. Finally, a Macintosh SNMP agent is installed with the Apple IP software; to utilize this agent, you will need to install MacSNMP software, which is supplied with either the AppleTalk Administration for Macintosh or the TCP/IP Administration for Macintosh products. The MacSNMP Administrator’s Guide, included with both Administration products, provides a basic introduction to network management with SNMP as well as detailed instructions for configuring the agent software.

For more information

The Apple IP Gateway provides access to services on IP networks, including the Internet. An introduction to Internet services is beyond the scope of this guide. There are, however, numerous books available if you want to learn more. Any of the following would provide a good introduction. There are literally hundreds of others, with more coming out each week.

vi Preface

Falk, Bennet, The Internet Roadmap, Sybex, San Francisco, 1994. A general introduction to Internet basics, covering how to use USENET, how to send E- mail, how to access the World-Wide Web, and how to master the most common Internet tools, such as FTP and Gopher.

Gaffin, Adam, Big Dummy’s Guide to the Internet, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1994. A printed version of a widely used online guide.

Kehoe, Brendan P., Zen and the Art of the Internet, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993. Subtitled “A Beginner’s Guide,” this is a short treatment of Internet services and how to access them.

Krol, Ed, The Whole Internet User’s Guide and Catalog, O’Reilly and Associates, Sebastapol, California, 1992. An all-in-one introduction, covering history and technical basics, plus detailed coverage of services available.

Lambert, Steve and Howe, Walt, Internet Basics, Random House, New York, 1993. A general introduction to history, use, and available services.

LaQuey, Tracey and Ryer, Jeanne C., The Internet Companion, AddisonWesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993. A short and nontechnical introduction featuring a foreword by Vice-President Al Gore.

Preface vii

1

About the Apple IP Gateway

The Apple IP Gateway provides Macintosh computers on an AppleTalk network access to services on an Internet Protocol (IP) network—even if the computers themselves are on an AppleTalk system that does not directly support IP. Thus the gateway is particularly useful for Macintosh computers connected by LocalTalk cabling or through Apple Remote Access.

The Apple IP Gateway can be installed on a wide range of Macintosh computers. It can be used on its own or in conjunction with an Apple Remote Access MultiPort or Personal Server or with the Apple Internet Router. This chapter gives an overview of how the gateway works and explains the various options for its use.

About IP networks

The Internet Protocol (IP) and its companion, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), were first developed as part of a United States defense research effort some twenty years ago. Since then, TCP/IP has become the international standard for heterogeneous networking, in which many different computer types can interoperate and share information and services.

TCP/IP can be used for local area networking, in which, for example, clients access data from a UNIX® host. It can also be used for giant internetworks, composed of hundreds of local networks linked by a wide variety of communications methods. The best known of these giants is the Internet, which is often regarded as the prototype of the Information Superhighway. Like TCP/IP itself, the Internet began as a U.S. defense project. It has since grown into an international web linking universities, research centers, corporations, and, increasingly, private citizens, who are gaining access by the thousands every month. Note that this Internet is always spelled with a capital I. A lowercase internet can be any interconnected set of networks, whether based on TCP/IP, AppleTalk, or some other protocol. The Apple IP Gateway provides access to any TCP/IP network or internet, including the Internet itself.

2 Chapter 1 / About the Apple IP Gateway

How the gateway works

On both AppleTalk and IP networks, data is broken down into packets for transmission. The two network types use different sets of rules—protocols— for packet construction and for addressing packets to their correct destinations. Data can’t ordinarily cross from one network type to the other. The Apple IP Gateway solves this problem. Installed on a Macintosh computer that is connected to both an IP network and an AppleTalk network, the Apple IP Gateway makes addressing transparent on both sides, so communications can pass freely.

IMPORTANT The gateway computer must be connected to IP by Ethernet cabling. Client computers may be networked by LocalTalk, Ethernet, or other AppleTalkcompatible cabling types. Both the client computers and the gateway computer must have MacTCP software installed. This allows them to “talk” IP, even though they are using AppleTalk as the underlying network protocol.

Users who want to access an IP service construct their requests in the appropriate IP format. The packets have all the information necessary for transport and reassembly on the IP side. Speaking metaphorically, the packets are enclosed in IP “envelopes.” To get this message to the gateway, the IP packets are encapsulated in Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) packets; DDP is the AppleTalk standard for data transport. The IP envelope, in other words, is put inside a DDP envelope for shipment to the gateway. On arrival, the gateway strips off the DDP envelope and sends the IP packet on its way.

When the IP host sends back a reply, the process is reversed. The gateway encapsulates the IP data in a DDP envelope and transmits it to the client over AppleTalk.

Figure 1 shows how the gateway makes it possible to move data from an

AppleTalk network to an IP network.

How the gateway works

3

Client Macintosh running MacTCP

1.Client sends IP packets enclosed in Datagram Delivery Protocol “envelope.”

AppleTalk

network

 

Macintosh running the Apple IP Gateway and MacTCP

2.Gateway strips off DDP envelope.

3.IP packets continue on to the IP network.

Ethernet

cable

IP

network

 

Local IP host

IP router

IP internet

Figure 1 How the Apple IP Gateway works

4 Chapter 1 / About the Apple IP Gateway

How the gateway can be used

Depending on the type of AppleTalk network you are working with and the needs of your network users, you can run the gateway as a stand-alone product, or you can use the software in conjunction with either the Apple Internet Router or an Apple Remote Access Personal or MultiPort Server. Using these options is covered in detail in Chapter 3, “Operating and Monitoring the Apple IP Gateway.” The descriptions that follow give you an idea of overall functionality.

Using the gateway as a stand-alone product

When the Apple IP Gateway is installed on a Macintosh computer that is properly connected to both an IP and an AppleTalk network, any Macintosh computer on the AppleTalk network can access the IP internet through the gateway. All that is necessary is that the client computer have both MacTCP and any appropriate IP software installed.

Using the gateway with the Apple Internet Router

If the gateway is installed on a Macintosh computer that is also running the Apple Internet Router software, the gateway’s power is greatly expanded. Now any Macintosh computer on any AppleTalk network that is part of the router’s internet can use the Apple IP Gateway to access the IP network. Figure 2 shows how the router works with the gateway.

How the gateway can be used

5

Local IP host

IP internet

IP router

Ethernet

cable

 

Any Macintosh that is part of the router’s internet can access the IP network.

Macintosh running Apple Internet Router and Apple IP Gateway

Figure 2 Combining an Apple Internet Router with the Apple IP Gateway lets you offer gateway services to all Macintosh computers served by the router.

The Apple Internet Router and the Apple IP Gateway software can run on the same computer, although they do not have to. Putting the two programs on the same computer is usually the convenient and cost-effective choice. One machine provides both services; the software is physically located where the cabling comes together; and there is only one place for something to go wrong, so errors are easier to find and correct.

6 Chapter 1 / About the Apple IP Gateway

The Apple IP Gateway and the Apple Internet Router AppleTalk/IP Wide Area Extension

Although it is easy to confuse the Apple IP Gateway and Apple Internet Router AppleTalk/IP Wide Area Extension, the two software programs actually provide two completely different services.

The Apple IP Gateway allows Macintosh computers on an AppleTalk network to communicate with computers of many different types on an IP network. The AppleTalk/IP Wide Area Extension allows Macintosh computers on an AppleTalk network to communicate with other Macintosh computers on another AppleTalk network located, figuratively speaking, on the other side of an IP internet.

The extension is based on a software file called IPTunnel, so named because it builds a tunnel between the two AppleTalk networks through the IP internet. Because IP internets span the globe, the AppleTalk/IP Wide Area Extension provides a fast, powerful, and cost-effective way for widely separated localarea AppleTalk networks to link up. The extension does not, however, provide access to IP services. That is the job of the Apple IP Gateway. The two programs can run on a single computer, offering users the full potential of both. Figure 3 shows their capabilities in graphic form.

How the gateway can be used

7

Macintosh running

AppleTalk/ IP Extension

IP internet

IP router

Macintosh running AppleTalk/IP Extension and Apple IP Gateway

Figure 3 The Apple IP Gateway provides communication with IP computers; the Apple Internet Router AppleTalk/IP Wide Area Extension creates a tunnel through the IP internet, through which Macintosh computers can communicate.

8 Chapter 1 / About the Apple IP Gateway

Using the gateway with an Apple Remote Access server

Apple Remote Access software creates a remote extension of an AppleTalk network, with packets transmitted over telephone lines rather than over dedicated cables. Users who dial into an AppleTalk network through an Apple Remote Access Personal or MultiPort Server can access all network services as though they were locally connected. If the Apple Remote Access server computer has access to the Apple IP Gateway, server users can also access IP services, again as though they were locally connected.

Note: Remote users must be authorized to use the gateway by the Apple Remote Access server administrator. See your Apple Remote Access documentation for details on controlling network access.

Adding the remote-access option greatly extends the reach of the gateway, but setup and operation are essentially the same as for the stand-alone environment. Note that, as with the Apple Internet Router, it is often simplest and most costeffective to install both software programs on a single computer, but this is not strictly necessary if it is more convenient for you to use two machines.

Figure 4 shows how Apple Remote Access clients use the gateway to access IP services.

How the gateway can be used

9

Local IP host

IP internet

IP router

Ethernet

cable

 

Macintosh with Apple IP Gateway running MacTCP and ARA

Remote Macintosh running ARA and MacTCP

Figure 4 Apple Remote Access (ARA) client access to IP services

10 Chapter 1 / About the Apple IP Gateway

The Apple IP Gateway and the AppleSearch WAIS Gateway

AppleSearch 1.5 includes a WAIS Gateway that allows AppleSearch clients to search WAIS (wide area information server) computers on the Internet. Like the Apple IP Gateway, the WAIS Gateway requires a Macintosh with both AppleTalk and IP connections. The two gateways can run on the same machine, thus giving users the benefits of both approaches. However the benefits are different and should not be confused. The Apple IP Gateway is a general-purpose IP access tool that does not require the AppleSearch software. The WAIS Gateway is a specialized access tool that does.

Network management

The Apple IP Gateway is supplied with an SNMP IP Gateway Agent and related SNMP software that allow a set of variables (called a Management Information Base, or MIB) to be viewed. These variables are listed in the Appendix, “The Apple IP Gateway MIB.”

SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol, and it is the standard mechanism for managing nodes, such as routers, hubs, and host computers, on a TCP/IP network. An SNMP agent may be thought of as a reporting device that supplies information about a particular MIB.

You can view the Apple IP Gateway MIB locally by installing either the MacSNMP Client or the MacSNMP Administration software. These programs are provided with the AppleTalk Administration for Macintosh and the TCP/IP Administration for Macintosh products.

If you want to view the MIB remotely, you’ll need a network-management console. Such consoles are available from a number of vendors.

Exploring these network-management options is beyond the scope of this book. The MacSNMP Administrator’s Guide, supplied with the MacSNMP software, provides information on using MacSNMP itself and also points you in the right direction if you wish to implement full network management. See your Apple-authorized reseller for more information.

How the gateway can be used 11

Hardware and software requirements

The Apple IP Gateway may be installed on any Macintosh II or later

Macintosh computer that is equipped with

mEthernet on the IP side

If the gateway computer does not support NuBus™, it must have built-in Ethernet, a processor-direct slot (PDS) card, or a SCSI adapter. See the documentation supplied with the card or adapter for full information on installation, setup, and operation.

many AppleTalk link, such as LocalTalk, EtherTalk, or Apple Remote Access, on the AppleTalk side

See the documentation supplied with the cabling or with the Remote Access software for full information on installation, setup, and operation.

mat least 4 megabytes of random-access memory (RAM)

mSystem 7.1 or later

MacTCP version 2.0.4, AppleTalk version 58.1.3, the MacSNMP agents, and other required networking software are all installed with the gateway. This software is discussed in “Installing the Gateway Software” in Chapter 2.

If the gateway computer is also supporting either the Apple Internet Router or an Apple Remote Access server, it must meet all hardware and software requirements for those products. You may need to increase RAM to provide adequate memory to run all services simultaneously. See the Apple Internet Router Administrator’s Guide, the Apple Remote Access MultiPort Server Administrator’s Guide, or the Apple Remote Access Personal Server User’s Guide for full information.

12 Chapter 1 / About the Apple IP Gateway

2

Installation and Setup

This chapter covers all available options for installation of the Apple IP Gateway and describes the procedures for each. Proper setup varies according to network administrator preference and the kind of access you want to offer network users. Setup procedures require coordination between the Apple IP Gateway software itself and the MacTCP software on the gateway computer. This chapter shows you how to make them work together to achieve the desired result. Finally, the chapter tells you how to get users ready to access the gateway.

International users

If you are installing the Apple IP Gateway on a non–United States Macintosh computer, you should run the Network Software Installer (NSI) before proceeding with the rest of the installation process. The NSI installs the latest international versions of all networking software. The Network Software Installer disk is supplied in your Apple IP Gateway package.

Before running the NSI, you should make a backup copy of its disk. Put the original aside for safekeeping, and use the backup for installation.

Installing networking software using Easy Install

To run the NSI using Easy Install:

1Insert the backup copy of the Network Software Installer disk into your computer’s floppy disk drive and double-click the disk icon to open it.

The Installer icon is in the window that appears.

2Double-click the Installer icon to open the Installer program.

An informational dialog box appears:

14 Chapter 2 / Installation and Setup

3Click OK.

The Easy Install dialog box appears:

4If necessary, click Switch Disk until the name of the disk you want to install on appears.

The Easy Install process is preset to install all the networking software contained on the Network Software Installer disk onto your current startup disk. By switching disks, you can install the networking software on any hard disk that has a System Folder.

IMPORTANT You must install the networking software on the same disk as the Apple IP Gateway.

5Click Install to place the networking software on your hard disk.

If other programs are currently running on your computer, the following dialog box appears:

International users 15

Clicking Continue automatically quits all open programs and begins the installation. Clicking Cancel quits the Installer and leaves your hard disk unchanged.

The Installer begins the installation process, with on-screen messages reporting its progress. You can cancel the installation at any time, leaving the hard disk unchanged.

6 When you see a message reporting that installation was successful, click Restart.

After you restart your computer, you can proceed to the section “Installing the Gateway Software,” later in this chapter.

Installing networking software using the Customize option

The Customize option lets you pick and choose from the networking software contained on the NSI disk. It is particularly useful if disk space is at a premium and if you know there are software files you won’t need.

To use the Customize option:

1Follow steps 1 through 3 in the preceding section, “Installing Networking Software Using Easy Install.”

The Easy Install dialog box appears.

16 Chapter 2 / Installation and Setup

2Click Customize.

The Customize dialog box appears:

3If necessary, click Switch Disk until the name of the disk you want to install on appears.

The Customize option is preset to install the designated networking software onto your current startup disk. By switching disks, you can install the networking software on any hard disk that has a System Folder.

IMPORTANT You must install the networking software on the same disk as the Apple IP Gateway.

4Select the software you want to install.

Select an item by clicking its name; select multiple items by Shift-clicking. n You must select AppleTalk for System 7.

n You don’t need AppleTalk for System 6.

You may or may not need the rest of the networking software. To be sure, it may be necessary to review your system or to ask for help from your network administrator.

International users 17

5Click Install to place the networking software on your hard disk.

If other programs are currently running on your computer, the following dialog box appears:

Clicking Continue automatically quits all open programs and begins the installation. Clicking Cancel quits the Installer and leaves your hard disk unchanged.

The Installer begins the installation process, with on-screen messages reporting its progress. You can cancel the installation at any time, leaving the hard disk unchanged.

6 When you see a message reporting that installation was successful, click Restart.

After you restart your computer, you can proceed to the next section, “Installing the Gateway Software.”

18 Chapter 2 / Installation and Setup

Installing the gateway software

Before installing your gateway software, you should make a backup copy of the installation disks, the Apple IP Gateway Installer 1 and Apple IP Gateway Installer 2, which you will find in the Apple IP Gateway package. Put the originals aside for safekeeping, and use the backups for installation.

This section describes the Easy Install procedure that Apple recommends as well as the Custom Install procedure that you may want to use instead. The section also shows you how to specify locations for software installation if you don’t want to use the default locations for which the Installer is set.

Using Easy Install

Easy Install places all the software Apple recommends in the appropriate locations on your startup disk. This includes

mthe Gateway Manager

mthe MacTCP control panel

mall necessary system extensions

mSNMP network-management software

mAppleTalk version 58.1.3 (for United States users)

Note: International users can use Easy Install. All software installed with the Network Software Installer will be retained.

To install this software:

1Insert the backup copy of the Apple IP Gateway Installer 1 disk into your computer’s floppy disk drive and double-click the Apple IP Gateway icon to open it.

The Installer icon is in the window that appears.

Installing the gateway software

19

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