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Express XL and Express XLT

ISDN Router/Bridge

USER MANUAL

Express XL, Data Only

1200070L1

Express XLT with POTS Option

1200070L2

61200070L1-1B October 1998

Trademark:

DMS-100 is a trademark of Northern Telecom, Inc.

Ethernet is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation.

ExpertISDN (patent number 5,715,241) is a trademark of ADTRAN, Inc. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

Novell, NetWare, and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 5ESS is a registered trademark of AT&T.

The Express XL and Express XLT incorporate Synchronous Data Compression based on either IBM or hi/fn proprietary intellectual property depending on the time of manufacture. The following trademarks and copyrights are applicable:

Stacker LZS Compression

Copyright © 1989 Carnegie Mellon University

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation, advertising materials, and other materials related to such distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The name of the University may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. This software is provided “as is” and without any express or implied warranties, including, without limitation, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

hi/fn

5993 Avenida Encinas Carlsbad, CA

901 Explorer Boulevard

P.O. Box 140000

Huntsville, AL 35814-4000

Phone: (256) 963-8000

© 1998 ADTRAN, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Printed in USA.

FCC regulations require that the following information be provided in this manual:

1.If this equipment causes harm to the telephone network, the telephone company may temporarily discontinue service. If possible, advance notification is given; otherwise, notification is given as soon as possible. The telephone company will advise the customer of the right to file a complaint with the FCC.

2.The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment, operations, or procedures that could affect the proper operation of this equipment; advance notification and the opportunity to maintain uninterrupted service are given.

3.If experiencing difficulty with this equipment, please contact ADTRAN (see inside back cover) for repair and warranty information. The telephone company may require this equipment to be disconnected from the network until the problem is corrected, or it is certain the equipment is not malfunctioning.

4.This unit contains no user serviceable parts.

To ADTRAN service personnel: For continued protection against risk of fire, replace F1 with the same type and rating of fuse only: .2A, 250 V.

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION

RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE STATEMENT

This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio or TV reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on. The user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:

Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.

Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.

Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.

Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.

Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by ADTRAN will void the user's authority to operate the equipment.

CANADIAN EMISSIONS REQUIREMENTS

This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the interference-causing equipment standard entitled "Digital Apparatus," ICES-003 of the Department of Communications.

Cet appareil nuerique respecte les limites de bruits radioelectriques applicables aux appareils numeriques de Class B prescrites dans la norme sur le materiel brouilleur: "Appareils Numeriques," NMB-003 edictee par le ministre des Communications.

CANADIAN EQUIPMENT LIMITATIONS

Notice: The Canadian Industry and Science Canada label identifies certified equipment. This certification means that the equipment meets certain telecommunications network protective, operational, and safety requirements. The Department does not guarantee the equipment will operate to the user’s satisfaction.

Before installing this equipment, ensure that it is permissible to be connected to the facilities of the local telecommunications company. The equipment must also be installed using an acceptable method of connection. In some cases, the company’s inside wiring associated with a single-line individual service may be extended by means of a certified connector assembly (telephone extension cord). Compliance with the above conditions may not prevent degradation of service in some situations.

Repairs to certified equipment should be made by an authorized Canadian maintenance facility designated by the supplier. Any repairs or alterations made by the user to this equipment, or equipment malfunctions, may give the telecommunications company cause to request the user to disconnect the equipment.

Users should ensure for their own protection that the electrical ground connections of the power utility, telephone lines, and internal metallic water pipe system, if present, are connected together. This precaution may be particularly important in rural areas.

Users should not attempt to make such connections themselves, but should contact the appropriate electric inspection authority, or an electrician, as appropriate.

The Load Number (LN) assigned to each terminal device denotes the percentage of the total load to be connected to a telephone loop which is used by the device, to prevent overloading. The termination on a loop may consist of any combination of devices subject only to the requirement that the total of the Load Numbers of all devices does not exceed 100.

 

Table of Contents

Quick Startup Guide ........................................................................................................

 

1

Setting up the ISDN Line ..................................................................................................

 

1

Connecting to an Internet Service Provider ...................................................................

2

Multiprotocol Routing Between Two LANs ..................................................................

3

Chapter 1. Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT .......................................

7

ISDN Overview ..................................................................................................................

 

7

THE EXPRESS XL/XLT.....................................................................................................

 

7

Applications .................................................................................................................

 

8

Single User to Corporate LAN...........................................................................

 

8

Single User IP to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using

 

Network Address Translation (NAT)...............................................................

9

Multiple Users to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using NAT ......................

10

Small Office - Home Office (SOHO) to Corporate LAN ................................

11

Demand Routing and Bridging with the Express XL/XLT...................................

12

Factory Default.....................................................................................................

 

12

Bridging.................................................................................................................

 

13

IP Routing .............................................................................................................

 

14

IPX Routing...........................................................................................................

 

15

Connection List - Simplifying and Enhancing the Dial Function.................

15

Concurrent Routing And Bridging ...........................................................................

 

15

Routing over PPP Bridging ........................................................................................

 

15

Network Address Translation Mode........................................................................

16

Front Panel....................................................................................................................

 

16

LAN Indicators.....................................................................................................

 

16

WAN Indicators ...................................................................................................

 

17

Test Indicators ......................................................................................................

 

17

Pushbutton Tests..................................................................................................

 

17

ISDN Connection.........................................................................................................

 

18

Ordering ISDN.............................................................................................................

 

19

Interoperability ............................................................................................................

 

19

Connecting to the Internet..........................................................................................

 

19

Configuration ...............................................................................................................

 

20

Security.......................................................................................................................

...

20

Chapter 2. Installation ......................................................................................................

 

21

ISDN Network Connection...............................................................................................

 

21

Local Area Network Connection .....................................................................................

 

21

Telephone Connection (XLT Only)..................................................................................

 

22

Basic Telephone Service..............................................................................................

 

22

Supplementary Services .............................................................................................

 

22

DTMF Keypad..............................................................................................................

 

22

Customer Premises Wiring ........................................................................................

 

23

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Express XL/XLT User Manual

i

Table of Contents

 

Chapter 3. Terminal Menu Operation and Structure .................................................

27

Terminal Menu Structure..................................................................................................

27

 

Configuration ...............................................................................................................

27

 

Dial...........................................................................................................................

...... 27

 

Status .........................................................................................................................

.... 29

 

Test...........................................................................................................................

...... 29

 

Logs...........................................................................................................................

..... 29

 

Utilities ......................................................................................................................

.... 29

Navigating the Terminal Menus ......................................................................................

30

 

General Layout.............................................................................................................

30

 

Menu Path.....................................................................................................................

30

 

Moving Around ...........................................................................................................

30

 

Submenus [+] or [DATA] .............................................................................

30

 

Activation Field <+> .....................................................................................

30

 

Editable Data Field ........................................................................................

30

 

Read-Only Field.............................................................................................

30

 

Navigation with the Keyboard....................................................................

31

 

Security Levels .............................................................................................................

33

Configuration Menu ..........................................................................................................

34

 

Configuration/System Info........................................................................................

34

 

System Name........................................................................................................

34

 

System Location ...................................................................................................

34

 

System Contact .....................................................................................................

35

 

Firmware Revision...............................................................................................

35

 

System Uptime .....................................................................................................

35

 

Date/Time.............................................................................................................

35

 

Configuration/WAN ..................................................................................................

36

 

WAN/ISDN..........................................................................................................

36

 

ISDN/Dial Line .............................................................................................

36

 

Dial Line/ExpertISDN ..........................................................................

36

 

Dial Line/Switch Protocol .....................................................................

37

 

Dial Line/Area Code .............................................................................

37

 

Dial Line/SPID 1.....................................................................................

37

 

Dial Line/LDN 1 or 2 .............................................................................

38

 

ISDN/Leased Line ........................................................................................

38

 

Leased Line/Clock Mode .....................................................................

38

 

Leased Line/Channel Rate ....................................................................

38

 

ISDN/NEBEs .................................................................................................

38

 

ISDN/FEBEs ..................................................................................................

39

 

WAN/POTS..........................................................................................................

39

 

POTS/POTS Assignment .............................................................................

39

 

POTS/NI-1 Conference FI............................................................................

39

 

POTS/NI-1 Transfer FI.................................................................................

39

 

POTS/Speech Calltype Routing..................................................................

39

 

Configuration/IP .........................................................................................................

40

 

IP/IP Address.......................................................................................................

40

 

IP/Subnet Mask ...................................................................................................

40

 

IP/Default Gateway ............................................................................................

41

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Table of Contents

 

IP/Static Routes ...................................................................................................

41

 

Static Routes/Active.....................................................................................

41

 

Static Routes/IP Address.............................................................................

41

 

Static Routes/Subnet Mask..........................................................................

41

 

Static Routes/Gateway.................................................................................

41

 

Static Routes/Hops.......................................................................................

41

 

Static Routes/Private....................................................................................

42

 

IP/IP Router .........................................................................................................

42

 

IP Router/Mode ............................................................................................

42

 

IP/RIP .............................................................................................................

42

 

RIP/Mode ...............................................................................................

42

 

RIP/Protocol ...........................................................................................

42

 

RIP/Method.............................................................................................

43

 

RIP/Direction ..........................................................................................

43

 

RIP/V2 Secret .........................................................................................

43

 

IP/NAT .................................................................................................................

43

 

NAT/DHCP Mode .......................................................................................

43

 

NAT/DHCP Renewal Time ........................................................................

44

 

NAT/Web Server..........................................................................................

44

 

IP/DNS..................................................................................................................

44

 

DNS/Domain Name.....................................................................................

44

 

DNS/Server 1 ................................................................................................

44

 

DNS/Server 2 ................................................................................................

44

 

IP/UDP Relay.......................................................................................................

45

 

UDP Relay/Mode .........................................................................................

45

 

UDP Relay/UDP Relay List.........................................................................

45

 

UDP Relay List/Relay Address............................................................

45

 

UDP Relay List/UDP Port Type ..........................................................

45

 

UDP Relay List/UDP Port 1, UDP Port 2, UDP Port 3 ....................

45

 

IP/Proxy ARP ......................................................................................................

46

Configuration/IPX ......................................................................................................

47

 

IPX/Mode .............................................................................................................

47

 

IPX/Network........................................................................................................

47

 

IPX/Frame Type ..................................................................................................

48

 

IPX/Seed Status ...................................................................................................

48

 

IPX/RIP Timer .....................................................................................................

48

 

IPX/SAP Timer ....................................................................................................

49

Configuration/Bridge.................................................................................................

50

 

Bridge/Mode........................................................................................................

50

 

Bridge/WAN IP Bridge ......................................................................................

50

 

WAN IP Bridge/Network ...........................................................................

51

 

WAN IP Bridge/Netmask ...........................................................................

51

 

WAN IP Bridge/Triggered..........................................................................

51

 

WAN IP Bridge/Proxy ARP........................................................................

51

 

Bridge/WAN IPX Bridge ...................................................................................

51

 

WAN IPX Bridge/Network.........................................................................

52

 

WAN IPX Bridge/Frame Type ...................................................................

52

 

WAN IPX Bridge/Seed Status ....................................................................

52

 

WAN IPX Bridge/Triggered .......................................................................

52

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Table of Contents

 

 

Bridge/Spanning Tree.........................................................................................

52

 

Spanning Tree/Mode ...................................................................................

52

 

Spanning Tree/Priority ................................................................................

53

 

Spanning Tree/Maximum Age ...................................................................

53

 

Spanning Tree/Hello Time..........................................................................

53

 

Spanning Tree/Forward Delay ...................................................................

53

 

Spanning Tree/LAN Port ............................................................................

53

 

LAN Port/Active ...................................................................................

53

 

LAN Port/Path Cost...............................................................................

54

 

LAN Port/Priority .................................................................................

54

 

Spanning Tree/WAN Port 0........................................................................

54

 

WAN Port 0/Active................................................................................

54

 

WAN Port 0/Path Cost .........................................................................

54

 

WAN Port 0/Priority .............................................................................

54

 

Spanning Tree/WAN Port 1........................................................................

54

 

WAN Port 1/Active................................................................................

55

 

WAN Port 1/Path Cost ..........................................................................

55

 

WAN Port 1/Priority..............................................................................

55

 

Bridge/Address Table.........................................................................................

55

 

Address Table/Aging...................................................................................

55

 

Address Table/Forward Policy...................................................................

55

 

Configuration/Security ..............................................................................................

56

 

Security/Authentication .....................................................................................

56

 

Security/When .....................................................................................................

57

 

Security/Radius Server.......................................................................................

57

 

Radius Server/Primary Server....................................................................

57

 

Radius Server/Secondary Server................................................................

57

 

Radius Server/UDP Port..............................................................................

57

 

Radius Server/Secret ....................................................................................

57

 

Radius Server/Retry Count .........................................................................

58

 

Security/PPP ........................................................................................................

58

 

Security/Filter Defines........................................................................................

59

 

Filter Defines /MAC Filter Defines ............................................................

59

 

Filter Defines /Pattern Filter Defines .........................................................

60

 

Filter Defines /IP Filter Defines ..................................................................

60

 

Filter Defines /IPX Filter Defines................................................................

61

 

Configuration/Connection List.................................................................................

63

 

Connection List/Description..............................................................................

64

 

Connection List/Active.......................................................................................

64

 

Connection List/Authentication........................................................................

64

 

Authentication/Tx Method .........................................................................

65

 

Authentication/Tx Username .....................................................................

66

 

Authentication/Tx Password ......................................................................

66

 

Authentication/Rx Username .....................................................................

66

 

Authentication/Rx Password......................................................................

66

 

Authentication/Caller ID.............................................................................

66

 

Authentication/Call ID 1 .............................................................................

67

 

Authentication/Call ID 2 .............................................................................

67

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Table of Contents

 

Connection List/IP ..............................................................................................

67

 

IP/Mode .........................................................................................................

67

 

IP/NAT...........................................................................................................

67

 

IP/Route .........................................................................................................

67

 

Route/IP/Net .........................................................................................

68

 

Route/Netmask ......................................................................................

68

 

Route/Static Route .................................................................................

68

 

Route/Private .........................................................................................

68

 

Route/Hops ............................................................................................

68

 

Route/Force IP ........................................................................................

68

 

IP/RIP .............................................................................................................

69

 

RIP/Mode ................................................................................................

69

 

RIP/Protocol ...........................................................................................

69

 

RIP/Method.............................................................................................

69

 

RIP/Direction ..........................................................................................

69

 

RIP/Triggered ........................................................................................

69

 

RIP/Retain ...............................................................................................

70

 

Connection List/IPX ...........................................................................................

70

 

IPX/Mode.......................................................................................................

70

 

IPX/Remote Network ..................................................................................

70

 

IPX/Triggered ...............................................................................................

70

 

IPX/Retain .....................................................................................................

71

 

IPX/Type 20 Packets.....................................................................................

71

 

Connection List/Bridge ......................................................................................

72

 

Bridge/Mode .................................................................................................

72

 

Connection List/Probe........................................................................................

72

 

Probe/Active .................................................................................................

72

 

Probe/Interval ...............................................................................................

72

 

Probe/Update Window ...............................................................................

73

 

Connection List/PPP...........................................................................................

73

 

PPP/Multilink ...............................................................................................

73

 

Multilink/Mode .....................................................................................

73

 

Multilink/Fragment ...............................................................................

73

 

Multilink/BACP .....................................................................................

73

 

PPP/Compression.........................................................................................

74

 

PPP/VJ Compression ...................................................................................

74

 

PPP/Max Config ...........................................................................................

74

 

PPP/Max Timer.............................................................................................

74

 

PPP/Max Failure...........................................................................................

75

 

Connection List/Dial Out...................................................................................

75

 

Dial Out/Number 1 ......................................................................................

75

 

Dial Out/Number 2 ......................................................................................

75

 

Dial Out/Call Type.......................................................................................

75

 

Dial Out/Redial at 56K ................................................................................

76

 

Dial Out/Delay..............................................................................................

76

 

Dial Out/Connection Timeout....................................................................

76

 

Dial Out/Attempts .......................................................................................

76

 

Dial Out/Initial Channels............................................................................

77

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Table of Contents

 

 

Connection List/Bandwidth ..............................................................................

77

 

Bandwidth/On Demand..............................................................................

77

 

Bandwidth/Mode ...................................................................................

77

 

Bandwidth/Idle Timeout.......................................................................

77

 

Bandwidth/Preempt Time ...................................................................

77

 

Bandwidth/Upper Threshold...............................................................

78

 

Bandwidth/Lower Threshold...............................................................

78

 

Bandwidth/Min Channels ....................................................................

78

 

Bandwidth/Max Channels....................................................................

78

 

Bandwidth/Samples.....................................................................................

78

 

Samples/Sample Rate ............................................................................

78

 

Samples/Samples....................................................................................

78

 

Samples/Time Between Changes.........................................................

79

 

Connection List/Filters .......................................................................................

79

 

Filters/WAN-to-LAN (In)............................................................................

79

 

Filters/In Exceptions.....................................................................................

80

 

Filters/LAN-to-WAN (Out) ........................................................................

80

 

Filters/Out Exceptions .................................................................................

81

 

Filters/Demand Dial.....................................................................................

81

 

Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions .......................................................................

82

 

Configuration/Management .....................................................................................

83

 

Management/Telnet............................................................................................

83

 

Telnet/Server Access ....................................................................................

83

 

Telnet/User List.............................................................................................

84

 

User List/Name.......................................................................................

84

 

User List/Authen Method.....................................................................

84

 

User List/Password................................................................................

84

 

User List/Idle Time ................................................................................

84

 

User List/Level........................................................................................

84

 

Management/SNMP ...........................................................................................

85

 

SNMP Access .................................................................................................

85

 

SNMP/Communities....................................................................................

85

 

Communities/Name .............................................................................

85

 

Communities/Privilege .........................................................................

85

 

Communities/Manager IP.....................................................................

85

 

SNMP/Traps..................................................................................................

85

 

Traps/Manager Name ...........................................................................

86

 

Traps/Manager IP ..................................................................................

86

 

Management/Maint Port....................................................................................

86

 

Maint Port/Password Protect......................................................................

86

 

Maint Port/Password ...................................................................................

86

 

Maint Port/Baud Rate ..................................................................................

86

 

Maint Port/Data Bits ....................................................................................

86

 

Maint Port/Parity..........................................................................................

87

 

Maint Port/Stop Bits.....................................................................................

87

 

Configuration/Terminal Mode .................................................................................

87

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Table of Contents

Dial Menu......................................................................................................................

 

...... 88

Dial/Description..........................................................................................................

 

88

Dial/Dial......................................................................................................................

 

. 88

Dial/Hang Up..............................................................................................................

 

89

Dial/Status ...................................................................................................................

 

89

Dial/Channels..............................................................................................................

 

89

Dial/Number 1 ............................................................................................................

 

89

Dial/Number 2 ............................................................................................................

 

89

Status Menu ....................................................................................................................

 

.... 90

Status/Call Sessions....................................................................................................

 

90

Call Sessions/Session1 and Call Sessions/Session2

....................................... 91

Call Sessions/Spanning Tree .............................................................................

92

Status/ARP Cache.......................................................................................................

 

92

Status/Bridge Table ....................................................................................................

 

93

Status/IP Routes..........................................................................................................

 

93

Status/IPX Routes .......................................................................................................

 

94

Status/IPX Servers ......................................................................................................

 

95

Status/WAN Stats.......................................................................................................

 

95

Status/LAN Stats ........................................................................................................

 

96

Status/IP Stats..............................................................................................................

 

96

Test Menu......................................................................................................................

......

98

Test Menu/Echo Request...........................................................................................

 

98

Test Menu/Dial Self....................................................................................................

 

98

Logs Menu......................................................................................................................

.....

99

Logs/Sys log Host.......................................................................................................

 

99

Logs/PPP Log..............................................................................................................

 

99

PPP Log/Active ...................................................................................................

 

100

PPP Log/Wrap.....................................................................................................

 

100

PPP Log/Level .....................................................................................................

 

100

PPP Log/View .....................................................................................................

 

100

PPP Log/Clear .....................................................................................................

 

100

Logs/Call Log ..............................................................................................................

 

100

Call Log/Active ...................................................................................................

 

100

Call Log/Wrap.....................................................................................................

 

101

Call Log/Level .....................................................................................................

 

101

Call Log/View......................................................................................................

 

101

Call Log/Clear .....................................................................................................

 

101

Logs/Network Log .....................................................................................................

 

101

Network Log/Active...........................................................................................

 

101

Network Log/Wrap ............................................................................................

 

101

Network Log/Level ............................................................................................

 

102

Network Log/View.............................................................................................

 

102

Network Log/Clear.............................................................................................

 

102

Utilities Menu .................................................................................................................

....

103

Utilities/Ping ...............................................................................................................

 

103

Utilities/Telnet Client.................................................................................................

 

104

Utilities/Upgrade Menu ............................................................................................

 

104

Upgrade/Transfer Method ................................................................................

104

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Table of Contents

 

Upgrade/TFTP Host ...........................................................................................

104

Upgrade/Filename ..............................................................................................

104

Upgrade/Status....................................................................................................

104

Upgrade/Start Transfer ......................................................................................

105

Upgrade/Abort Transfer ....................................................................................

105

Upgrade/TFTP Server.........................................................................................

105

Utilities/Exit.................................................................................................................

105

Chapter 4. Troubleshooting.............................................................................................

107

If Self Test Fails ...................................................................................................................

107

If the Express XL/XLT Does Not Read Ready...............................................................

107

If You are Unable to Connect Calls..................................................................................

113

Chapter 5. Specifications .................................................................................................

115

Specifications and Features...............................................................................................

115

Network Interface..........................................................................................

115

Ethernet Interface (LAN)..............................................................................

115

Switch Compatibility ....................................................................................

115

POTS Interface ...............................................................................................

115

Display ............................................................................................................

116

Environmental ...............................................................................................

116

Physical ...........................................................................................................

116

Power...............................................................................................................

116

Appendix A. Loop Status Messages ..............................................................................

117

Appendix B. Log Messages..............................................................................................

121

Appendix C. SNMP...........................................................................................................

139

Appendix D. Connector Pinouts ....................................................................................

143

Appendix E. Terminal Mode Commands.....................................................................

145

Glossary...............................................................................................................................

149

Acronyms ............................................................................................................................

159

Index ....................................................................................................................................

161

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List of Figures

Figure 1-1:

Express XL/XLT ....................................................................................

7

Figure 1-2:

Single User to Corporate LAN ............................................................

8

Figure 1-3:

Single User to Internet Service Provider ............................................

9

Figure 1-4:

Multiple User to Internet Service Provider........................................

10

Figure 1-5:

SOHO to Corporate LAN.....................................................................

11

Figure 1-6:

Express XL/XLT LEDs .........................................................................

17

Figure 1-7:

Express XL/XLT Rear Panels ..............................................................

18

Figure 2-1:

Wiring Scheme 1....................................................................................

24

Figure 2-2:

Wiring Scheme 2....................................................................................

25

Figure 3-1:

Top Level Terminal Menu....................................................................

28

Figure 3-2:

Configuration/System Info Screen.....................................................

34

Figure 3-3:

Configuration/WAN Screen ...............................................................

36

Figure 3-4:

Configuration/IP Screen ......................................................................

40

Figure 3-5:

Configuration/IPX Screen ...................................................................

47

Figure 3-6:

Configuration/Bridge Screen ..............................................................

50

Figure 3-7:

Configuration/Security Screen ...........................................................

56

Figure 3-8:

Configuration/Connection List Screen..............................................

63

Figure 3-9:

Configuration/Management Screen...................................................

83

Figure 3-10:

Dial Screen..............................................................................................

88

Figure 3-11:

Status Screen...........................................................................................

90

Figure 3-12:

Test Screen ..............................................................................................

98

Figure 3-13:

Logs Screen.............................................................................................

99

Figure 3-14:

Utilities Screen .......................................................................................

103

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List of Figures

x

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List of Tables

Table 2-A:

Using the Flash-Hook ...........................................................................

22

Table 4-A:

Troubleshooting Calls...........................................................................

113

Table D-A:

IBM/AT Style EIA-232 Interface.........................................................

143

Table D-B:

RJ-45 ISDN BRI U ..................................................................................

143

Table D-C:

RJ-11 POTS..............................................................................................

144

Table D-D:

10BaseT Ethernet ...................................................................................

144

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Quick Startup Guide

SETTING UP THE ISDN LINE

Before configuring the Express XL/XLT, ensure that the telephone service has provided the switch type, service profile identification (SPID), and local directory number (LDN).

Example:

Switch Type

National ISDN-1

 

SPID1

20555512120100

 

SPID2

20555512130100

 

LDN1

5551212

 

LDN2

5551213

1.Connect a VT 100 async terminal, or personal computer with a terminal emulator running 9600 N-8-1, to the MAINTENANCE port.

2.Hold down the Control key and press R; then press Enter to display the top menu.

3.Using the arrow keys and Enter key to navigate the menu, go to the Configuration/WAN/ISDN/Dial Line menu. Enter the SPIDs, LDNs, and switch type.

4.Use the left arrow key or the Escape key to go back up the menu tree. When asked to save ISDN parameters, type y.

5.Connect the ISDN line to the RJ-45 jack labeled ISDN BRI U on the rear panel.

6.When the Loop LED remains solid, the Express XL/XLT is ready for calling.

7.If using a POTS Phone with the Express XLT, connect the POTS telephone to the POTS port.

If the SPID(s) does not work or is unknown, try activating the ExpertISDNfeature. First enter the area code and local directory number(s); then press the Enter key over the ExpertISDN activator.

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CONNECTING TO AN INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER

Internet Access using Network Address Translation (NAT)

1.Connect the 10BaseT cable from the PC’s network card to the Express XL/ XLT. Select TO NIC on the Express XL/XLT back panel.

2.Go to the Configuration/Connection List menu, and then press the right arrow key to place the cursor on the Num column.

3.Type I to insert a new Connection List entry.

4.Using the arrow keys, move the cursor over the Num column for the inserted entry. Press Enter to place the subentries into the right pane.

5.Set the Description to an identifiable name (i.e., ISP).

6.Go into the Authentication field and select PAP or CHAP for the Tx Method.

7.Enter your user name and password (provided by your ISP) into the Tx Username and Tx Password fields.

8.Move the cursor to the left pane and highlight the IP parameters.

9.Set the NAT item to Yes. This is a very important step. The Express XL/ XLT will need to translate the “fake” IP address(es) on the PC(s) to the “real” address provided dynamically by the ISP. See IP/NAT on page 43 for more details.

10.All other IP parameters should be left at their default settings. Navigate over to the Dial Out parameters.

11.Enter the number into Number 1. If configured for two B-channel (PPP Multilink) by the ISP, enter Number 2 if it exists and set Initial Channels to 2.

12.Arrow left until the message Save Connection List Changes appears. Type y to save.

13.Go to the Configuration/IP menu and enter an IP address and net mask into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields. The factory default setting will work just as well (10.0.0.1, 255.255.255.0).

14.Go into the Configuration/IP/NAT submenu and set DHCP Mode to On.

15.Arrow left to save the configuration.

16.Go into the Dial menu.

17.Set the cursor over the Dial parameter for the Connection List profile you just set up.

18.Press Enter; the Express XL/XLT will start dialing.

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Quick Startup Guide

19.If the call is successful, the Status column will read active. If not, make sure the number(s) are correct or reference Chapter 4 on page 107 (the troubleshooting chapter) before going on to the next step.

20.Once the call is up, the PC must generate a DHCP request to obtain the IP parameters needed to get on the Internet. Refer to your PC’s user manual or help screen.

MULTIPROTOCOL ROUTING BETWEEN TWO LANS

Remote/Home Office Accessing the Corporate LAN

The following steps can be used to set up the Express XL/XLT on a remote LAN to access a corporate or central LAN using demand dial and dynamic bandwidth management.

1.Connect the 10BaseT cable from the hub to the Express XL/XLT. Select TO HUB on the Express XL/XLT back panel. The LI indicator should be illuminated.

2.Set the IP address and Subnet Mask assigned by the network administrator in the Configuration/IP menu.

3.For the Default Gateway, enter the IP address of the access server at the remote site. This creates a default route in the IP routing table that will be used with the dial-on-demand feature in the Express XL/XLT.

4.Use the arrow keys to get to the Configuration/IPX menu. Set the Network value to the IPX network supplied by the network administrator. Set the Seed Status to Seed. Arrow left and save the changes with a y when prompted.

5.Move to the Configuration/Connection List. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor over the Num column. Type I to insert a new entry.

6.Move the cursor over the Description field and press Enter. A pop up window appears in which to enter a name for this Connection List profile.

7.Move the cursor over the Authentication menu and press Return. This will place the authentication parameters into the right pane.

8.Enter the username and password under Tx Username and Tx Password. These items should be provided by the administrator at the site being dialed.

9.Use the down arrow to display the IP menu parameters in the right pane.

10.Move the cursor over the Route menu and press Return.

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11.Enter the IP address and Netmask parameters of the access server at the remote site. This creates a static route to the access server’s network which is entered into the Express XL/XLT’s IP route table.

12.Move the cursor over the RIP menu. Check with the network administrator for the type of routing protocol used. The Express XL/XLT supports RIP versions 1 and 2. The protocol is set in the Protocol parameter.

13.Select Yes for the Triggered parameter. This will prevent periodic RIP updates that keep the ISDN link from going “idle.”

14.Select Yes for the Retain parameter. This will allow the routes learned from the access server to be saved in the IP routing table. Access to any of those networks from the workstation will cause this profile to be dialed.

15.Use the left arrow to get back to the previous menu. Use the down arrow to view the IPX menu parameters in the right pane.

16.This is similar to steps 13 and 14. Select Yes for Triggered and Yes for Retain. This will allow the ISDN link to go to an idle state and permit the Express XL/XLT to “spoof” the server information obtained from the access server. A similar configuration must be selected on the access server.

17.Use the arrows to get the Dial Out menu parameters for this profile.

18.Enter the phone number of the access server in Number 1. If configured by the administrator to use two B-channels using Multilink PPP, set the Initial Channels field to 2. Some PPP protocols, if they exist in the access server, will allow the second channel to come into play only if the bandwidth is needed. If this is the case, the Express XL/XLT will automatically negotiate this with the access server.

19.Now move to the Bandwidth menu for this profile. Once there, use the right arrow to move to the On Demand submenu.

20.Set the Mode parameter to On. This enables the dynamic bandwidth features of the Express XL/XLT.

21.Select the Idle Timeout parameter and enter the number of seconds the Express XL/XLT should wait before hanging up the connection when no traffic is present. A value of 120 seconds is typical. A value of 0 means never idle the link.

22.All the parameters for this Connection List profile are complete. To save them, press the left arrow to get to the top (main) menu; when prompted

Save Connection List changes? enter y.

23.Set up the computer workstation’s IP and IPX parameters as instructed by the network administrator. The Express XL/XLT’s IP address should be the computer’s default gateway.

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Quick Startup Guide

When the computer which is attached to the local LAN attempts to access a host on the access server, the Express XL/XLT will dial the number provided in the Connection List profile. The Express XL/XLT will provide one of two B-channels based on traffic demand and POTS port usage (Express XLT model only). If no packet traffic is transmitted or received for the specified number of seconds, the Express XL/XLT will disconnect the link until a computer on the local LAN again attempts to access a host on the access server.

If Novell’s IPX protocol is being used, the link must be dialed first in the Dial menu to obtain the server and route information needed by the computer to boot up. Advanced users can use the Express XL/XLT’s Probe feature to periodically dial the access server to obtain the route and server information, thereby removing the need to manually dial the first time.

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Chapter 1

Understanding ISDN and

the Express XL/XLT

ISDN OVERVIEW

The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a public or private switched digital network. ISDN is an international standard for digital communications, allowing a full range of enhanced services supporting voice, data, and image applications through standard interfaces over a single telephone wire. ISDN provides a means of integrating these services and modernizing communication networks for information movement and management efficiency.

THE EXPRESS XL/XLT

The Express XL/XLT is a standalone device that links two Local Area Networks (LANs) using a high-speed ISDN public network or leased two-wire line. Optionally, the Express XLT has a plain old telephone service (POTS) connector that is used for voice/modem applications

See Figure 1-1 for an illustration of the Express XL/XLT. The 10BaseT connector operates at 10 megabits per second half duplex and accepts standard ethernet packets encapsulated using IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet II (DIX). Because the 10BaseT is a four-wire interface, a crossover switch permits the user to connect to either a hub-concentrator or network interface card without the need for special cabling. The maintenance port can connect to any asynchronous terminal emulating a VT 100 terminal for configuration.

 

 

 

 

ExpressXL

 

 

 

TEST

 

RX TX

LI COL JAB

ERR

LNK B1 B2 LOOP

PWR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SELECT TEST

Figure 1-1

Express XL/XLT

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Applications

Single User to Corporate LAN

Telecommuter/Home Office Access to the corporate LAN

Single device access

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) broadcasts are “relayed” to corporate LAN.

Client device can obtain the Internet Protocol (IP) address dynamically using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Compatible with popular central site LAN access devices

ISDN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Router

ISDN

 

 

 

 

BRI U PHONE

MAINTENANCE

TO TO

10BIT

POWER

 

NIC HUB

 

 

 

 

 

Server

 

 

 

 

10 BT

 

10 BT

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1-2

Single User to Corporate LAN

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Single User IP to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using Network Address Translation (NAT)

Provides high speed home access to the Internet

NAT provides translation from user assigned IP addresses to ISP assigned IP addresses.

The PC’s IP address can be dynamically assigned by the Express XL/XLT.

Overcomes the serial port speed limitations of current terminal adapter solutions

Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) plus compression yields effective throughput greater than 256 kbps.

Compatible with popular ISP access devices

ISDN

INTERNET

ISDN

PHONE

 

BRI U

MAINTENANCE

 

 

TO TO

10BIT

POWER

NIC HUB

 

 

 

10 BT

10 BT

Figure 1-3

Single User to Internet Service Provider

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Multiple Users to Internet Service Provider (ISP) using NAT

Provides high speed home access to the Internet

Multiple and simultaneous access

The PC’s IP address can by dynamically assigned by the Express XL/XLT.

On-demand Internet access

Multilink PPP plus compression yields effective throughput greater than 256 kbps.

Compatible with popular ISP access devices

ISDN

PHONE

 

BRI U

MAINTENANCE

TO TO

10BIT

POWER

NIC HUB

 

ISDN

INTERNET

10 BT

Hub

Figure 1-4

Multiple User to Internet Service Provider

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

Small Office - Home Office (SOHO) to Corporate LAN

Connects the small office or home office to the corporate LAN

Routes IP and Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) traffic from multiple devices to the corporate LAN

Bridges all non-routed traffic (e.g., AppleTalk)

Provides dedicated or on-demand services

Low cost alternative to buying a high-end router

Compatible with popular central site LAN access devices

ISDN

PHONE

 

 

10BIT

 

ISDN

BRI U

MAINTENANCE

TO TO

POWER

 

 

NIC HUB

 

 

10 BT

Hub

Router

Server

Figure 1-5

SOHO to Corporate LAN

The Express XL/XLT provides the following basic functions:

1.LAN Bridge: Bridging provides a point-to-point connection between two LANs. The bridge learning function scans the source and destination media access control (MAC) addresses of all packets on its local LAN and determines which packets should be transmitted over the ISDN link.

Applications include connectivity between single user or small offices to corporate LANs. The Express XL/XLT uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm (IEEE 802.1d-ISO/IEC10038), which provides a loop-free topology and redundancy.

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2.IP Router: The Express XL/XLT can function as an IP router using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for advertising and learning routes among other routers. Static routes may also be entered into the routing table.

3.IPX Router: IPX routers and services can be exchanged between the Express XL/XLT and other devices using RIP and Service Advertising Protocol (SAP). Watch dog serialization filtering and spoofing can permit the ISDN to be idle during no application traffic periods.

4.Network Address Translation (NAT): Single networks can connect to the Internet with this function. The Express XL/XLT translates outgoing IP packets over the ISDN to the IP router at the Internet Service Provider.

Popular Internet applications are supported.

5.POTS: The POTS interface can be used for interfacing to dual tone multifrequency (DTMF) analog devices such as telephones, modems, fax machines, etc. The Express XLT POTS option is available on part number 1200070L2 only.

Demand Routing and Bridging with the Express XL/XLT

The Express XL/XLT is a dial-up ISDN IP Router and Transparent Learning Bridge that provides Dial-On-Demand and Dynamic Bandwidth Management. Its features can be easily configured and used once several basic concepts are understood.

Factory Default

The Express XL/XLT comes from the factory configured for MAC Bridging, IP routing and IPX routing with no filters or connection information defined. An IP address of 10.0.0.1 with a network mask of 255.255.255.0 is preloaded. Dynamic Bandwidth Management features are disabled. Although dynamic assignment of a B-channel for the analog (POTS) port on the Express XLT model is always available, link idle time-out and adding/removing of B-channels based on traffic is initially disabled.

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

Bridging

In Bridge Mode, the Express XL/XLT can communicate with two remote networks at a time. The destination is dialed by setting up a Connection List profile and choosing Dial on the Dial menu. See Configuration/Connection List on page 63 for instructions on setting up a Connection List profile.

During a two B-channel PPP Multilink call, the Express XLT automatically drops one B-channel and provides it to the POTS port when a telephone call is placed or answered. When a POTS telephone call terminates, the Express XL redials the second B-channel and supplies the bandwidth back to the LAN connection. Since other bandwidth management features are disabled in the factory default configuration, the dialed links remain active until the Hang-up command is entered from the Dial menu, terminating the session with the selected remote network.

The Connection List described in the next section may be used to automate dialing and to store additional information specific to the remote site being dialed (phone numbers, number of B-channels to dial, authentication information, Caller ID, etc.). In addition, Demand Dialing may be enabled to allow idle links to disconnect when not being used to reduce line charges.

Simple Demand Bridging may be configured by enabling the Idle Time-Out parameter under the Configuration/ Connection List [1]/Bandwidth/On Demand option on the Connection List. Setting this parameter to a non-zero value allows a bridge connection to disconnect after the specified number of seconds with no traffic crossing the ISDN link. Bandwidth can be controlled using the Express XL/XLT’s advanced filtering capability. When new traffic needs to be transmitted, the Express XL/XLT will run each packet through its Demand filters defined for each Connection List profile. If a packet can pass through the filter, then the numbers for that profile are dialed. In addition, when both B-channels are selected for use, the link may be configured to add/ remove the second B-channel based on the amount of traffic crossing the link. The bridged connection is terminated when the Hang-up option is selected from the Dial menu, but will redial if the demand filter condition is met.

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IP Routing

The Express XL/XLT operates as a dial-up IP router when the Configuration/ IP/IP Router/Mode option is configured to On. The Express XL/XLT uses an IP unnumbered WAN interface; the IP address and mask assigned to the unit’s LAN interface apply to all routing and IP operations for the unit. If a default gateway is specified on the network of the Ethernet interface, the unit attempts to reach the gateway through that interface. If the gateway is specified on an unknown network, the unknown network is assigned to the router table and remains unused until that gateway becomes the peer on a WAN connection. If no default gateway is specified, the first connected peer on the WAN interface becomes the default gateway (recommended for remote applications when there are no other routers on the remote LAN).

For each profile in the Connection List that includes an IP address and has the

Configuration/Connection List/IP/Route/Static Route option set to Yes, the Network Address of the specified IP address is added to the router table with the Host Address as the gateway. If the Configuration/Connection List/IP/ Route/Private option is set to No, the route is advertised at the specified metric through the unit’s interfaces as if a connection is active to that network. These routes are referred to as spoofed routes.

Attempts by any computer connected to the LAN interface to access a host on a spoofed network causes a connection to be attempted using the information from that Connection List profile. Once connected, routes advertised by the peer router are learned and advertised to the local LAN. If Bandwidth-On-De- mand is enabled and an Idle Time-out value is specified, expiration of the Idle Timer causes the link to be disconnected; the routes learned from the peer router are retained if the Configuration/Connection List/IP/RIP/Retain option is set to Yes and advertised as if the connection is still active. These routes are referred to as retained routes. Attempts by any connected computer to access a host on any of the retained routes causes the link to be redialed. If Hang Up is activated from the Dial menu when the link is down, the retained routes are removed.

The Express XL/XLT can be connected to two WAN destinations at the same time. Each B-channel is dialed to a different location. Routes learned from one WAN destination are advertised to the other using RIP.

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

IPX Routing

Like IP routing, the Express XL/XLT can connect to two different sites and exchange IPX packets. Network routes and services are learned and advertised using Novell’s RIP and SAP. Routes and services learned from a separate site can be retained in the Express XL/XLT when the connection goes idle. While retained, the Express XL/XLT can spoof RIP/SAP and watch-dog and filter serialization packets that would normally be required between the Novell server and client.

Connection List - Simplifying and Enhancing the Dial Function

The Connection List, which is accessed from the Configuration menu, provides a location to define information regarding 15 individual destinations that may be dialed. A Connection List entry is required for each destination since authentication information (method, username, password), number of B-channels, telephone numbers, Caller ID, IP, or IPX address (for routed connections), and other information can be stored for each destination defined. Defined destinations may be dialed by selecting the Dial activator in the Dial menu or by demand for the desired Connection List profile.

Concurrent Routing And Bridging

The Express XL/XLT can route IP and IPX as well as bridge non-IP/IPX packets simultaneously. The Connection List profile will by default negotiate PPP network protocols to support the transmission and reception of IP, IPX, and Bridge packets. If the PPP peer does not accept a protocol, the Express XL/XLT will fall back to any combination of routing and bridging.

Routing over PPP Bridging

The Express XL/XLT can support legacy equipment which does not support PPP IP (IPCP) or IPX (IPXCP) protocols by allowing routing packets over the WAN connection using PPP Bridging (BCP). To perform this, the Express XL/ XLT uses a “virtual” ethernet port. This port is set up under the Configuration/Bridge menu.

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Network Address Translation Mode

NAT is a special mode of operation in which the Express XL/XLT obtains a dynamically assigned IP address from the peer router (typically an Internet Service Provider). This allows a network of computers to benefit from Ethernet to ISDN speeds while still appearing to the Internet Service Provider (or central site router) as a single IP address which is typical of PC based serial dial-up solutions.

A call is initiated to the ISP using the Dial menu or demand for a Connection List profile that has the IP parameter NAT set to Yes. The network computer’s IP stack may use DHCP to request an IP address, default gateway address, and domain name server addresses from the Express XL/XLT.

Front Panel

Figure 1-6 on page 17 shows the front panel of the Express XL/XLT. The indicators are divided into LAN functions, WAN functions, and Test functions.

LAN Indicators

 

RX

Flashes when receiving data from the 10BaseT connector.

TX

Flashes when transmitting data onto the 10BaseT connector.

LI

Link integrity. Illuminates when there is a good connection

 

between the Express XL/XLT and the Hub/NIC card.

COL

Illuminates when a collision occurs on the 10BaseT.

JAB

Indicates a jabber condition on the 10BaseT.

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

 

 

WAN Indicators

 

LNK

Flashes when the link is being negotiated; solid when the link

 

is active.

B1

Flashes when a call on the B1 channel is in progress; solid

 

when a call is connected.

B2

Flashes when a call on the B2 channel is in progress; solid

 

when a call is connected.

Loop

Indicates ISDN layers status. Indicator is off when layer 1 is

 

down. A fast flash indicates layer 1 is up and layer 2 is down.

 

A slow flash indicates layer 2 is up and layer 3 is down. A sol-

 

id illumination indicates all layers are up.

PWR

Flashes when self-test has failed; solid when unit is powered

 

on and self-test has passed.

Test Indicators

 

ERR

Illuminates when self-test or front panel test has failed.

B1/B2

Indicates test selected by front panel buttons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Express XL

 

 

 

 

 

TEST

 

 

RX

TX

LI

COL JAB

ERR

LNK B1 B2 LOOP

PWR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SELECT

TEST

Figure 1-6

Express XL/XLT LEDs

Pushbutton Tests

The echo request test can be executed by pressing the SELECT button one time and pressing TEST. A ping test is executed by pressing the SELECT button twice and pressing TEST. The IP address pinged comes from the previously pinged address set in the menu. If it is blank, the default gateway is used. If the default gateway is blank, an error is indicated. The ERR indicator illuminates if any pings are not returned. The dial self-test is invoked from the front panel if the SELECT button is pressed three times. The LDN(s) must be already programmed for this test to work.

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

ISDN Connection

From the network, ISDN is delivered by a single 2-wire 2B1Q U-interface which is connected directly to the Express XL/XLT. ISDN network termination is designed into the Express XL/XLT, eliminating the need and expense of a separate NT1. For network testing, the Express XL/XLT responds to NT1 test commands from the telephone company central office (CO).

The Express XL/XLT has one RJ-45 jack, labeled ISDN BRI U on the rear panel for network connection (see Figure 1-7). ISDN basic rate service divides a standard telephone line into three digital channels capable of simultaneous voice and data transmission. The three channels are comprised of two bearer (B) channels at 64 kbps and one data (D) channel at 16 kbps, known as 2B+D.

The Express XL/XLT also supports a leased digital connection allowing data to be transferred at up to 144 kbps over a 2-wire facility using the same RJ-45 jack. This type of service is a permanent connection between endpoints and is sometimes referred to as a leased connection, a dedicated connection, a nailedup connection, or a private circuit. Leased connection or leased line is used in this manual to represent these types of services.

ISDN

 

TO TO

10BT

 

BRI U

MAINTENANCE

POWER

 

NIC HUB

 

 

 

 

 

1200070L1

ISDN

PHONE

 

TO TO

10BT

 

BRI U

MAINTENANCE

POWER

 

 

NIC HUB

 

 

 

 

 

 

1200070L2

Figure 1-7

Express XL/XLT Rear Panels

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

Ordering ISDN

When ordering ISDN from the telephone company, request EZ-ISDN 1 (Capability Package U) to ensure it is set up properly. EZ-ISDN 1 is recommended by the industry for most home office/small business applications. If this is not available from your service provider or you would like more information regarding ordering ISDN, see the ADTRAN document Ordering ISDN Service User Guide part number 60000.015-8 or contact your telephone company for alternative line configurations. The Ordering ISDN Service User Guide is available on the ADTRAN home page at http://www.adtran.com or by calling ADTRAN.

Interoperability

The Express XL/XLT is standards based and uses PPP developed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). PPP provides a standard method of transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links. PPP is widely accepted by many ISDN bridge/router manufacturers. The Express XL/XLT will negotiate Multilink PPP when connecting both B-channels. The Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) may also negotiate, which enhances the management of adding and removing a B-channel. Data compression is also supported using LZS® technology from hi/fn™.

Connecting to the Internet

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) assign an IP address to use when connected to their service using PPP negotiation. This assignment is based on the assumption that the user has an ISDN terminal adapter running PPP async-to- sync conversion or another rate adaption where the PPP negotiation is terminated inside the PCs IP stack. However, if an ISDN-ethernet gateway device is used, the ISP must preassign the customer a subnet which uses multiple IP addresses. This may result in a much higher cost to the user.

The Express XL/XLT permits the user to assign any IP addresses to the unit and computers. Operations on the network can occur normally. In fact, one B- channel can connect to the ISP using NAT while the other B-channel connects to another “private” or “fake” network. All packets transmitted or received over the ISP connection are translated. The Express XL/XLT keeps track of the computers that request services over the Internet. A web server address can

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Chapter 1: Understanding ISDN and the Express XL/XLT

be assigned under the Configuration/IP/NAT menu that allows incoming HTTP, FTP, and mail server requests from the Internet to be translated and forwarded to this address on the user network.

Configuration

The Express XL/XLT is configured using a menu-based interface. This interface can be accessed via the maintenance port using any asynchronous VT100 terminal or personal computer running a terminal emulation program, or via the LAN using a Telnet client program. To use the Telnet interface, the Express XL/XLT must first have an IP address programmed into it via the maintenance port. The factory default is 10.0.0.1.

Security

Security on network devices is a major concern for almost anyone with a network. The Express XL/XLT provides many tools for securing the local network from hostile users. Incoming calls can be authenticated using passwords and Caller ID. A RADIUS client can also be used.

The Telnet configuration can also be protected using the same authentication methods. Each menu item in the Express XL/XLT has a security level associated with it. A telnet session is assigned a privilege level which determines which menu items are accessible to the telnet client. See Security Levels on page 33 (in Chapter 3) for more information on menu security levels.

Filters can be defined to prevent certain addresses or protocols from being transferred from LAN-to-WAN, WAN-to-LAN, or WAN-to-WAN.

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Chapter 2

Installation

After unpacking the unit, immediately inspect it for possible shipping damage. If damage is discovered, file a claim immediately with the shipping carrier; then contact the ADTRAN Repair and Return department.

ISDN NETWORK CONNECTION

The Express XL/XLT supports either dial or leased operation. A single RJ-45 modular jack labeled ISDN BRI U on the rear panel provides connection to either network service.

Dial operation allows the user to dial out or receive calls over the public network.

The leased operation mode supports dedicated 2B1Q data service at rates up to 144 kbps by using a nailed up circuit, or a permanent connection between end points.

See Appendix D on page 143 for ISDN network connector pin assignments.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK CONNECTION

The Express XL/XLT has a 10BaseT connector that provides half-duplex 10 Mbps operation over a four-wire twisted pair. Place the switch in the TO HUB position when connecting to a 10BaseT concentrator or Hub. Place the switch in the TO NIC position when connecting directly to a computer’s 10BaseT network interface card.

Other types of ethernet interfaces (i.e., AUI, 10Base2, etc.) can be accommodated by obtaining an appropriate converter.

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TELEPHONE CONNECTION (XLT ONLY)

Basic Telephone Service

The Express XLT supports an analog DTMF telephone type (AT&T 2500) with the POTS interface, part number 1200070L2. The telephone or other analog device (like a fax machine or modem) plugs into an RJ-11 jack labeled PHONE located on the rear of the unit. Using a multipoint line allows the POTS and data port to have unique phone numbers.

Supplementary Services

Supplementary services such as call holding, threeor six-way conferencing, call transfer, and call waiting are fully supported by the Express XL/XLT on a touch-tone telephone. Table 2-A explains how the flash-hook is used for handling multi-call situations.

DTMF Keypad

The following functions are performed on a touch-tone phone:

Disable call waiting:

Press **0

Enable call waiting:

Press **1

Redial last number:

Press **5

Enable ExpertISDN:

Press **6

Enter Area Code:

Press **7XXX

 

 

(where XXX is a 3-digit area code.

 

 

This must be entered first, before

 

 

enabling ExpertISDN.)

• Enter Phone Number 1:

Press **8XXXXXXX

 

 

(where XXXXXXX is the 7- digit

 

 

phone number. This must be entered

 

 

before enabling ExpertISDN.)

• Enter Phone Number 2:

Press **9XXXXXXX

 

 

(where XXXXXXX is the 7-digit

 

 

phone number. If only one phone

 

 

number is assigned, this does not have

 

 

to be entered.)

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Table 2-A

Using the Flash-Hook

Calling a second party with an active call.

Flash-hook to place active call on hold and dial new number. Hanging up will terminate the call.

Answering an incoming call with an active call at call waiting.

Flash-hook to place active call on hold and answer incoming call. Hanging up will terminate both calls.

Conferencing Calls.

With an outgoing call on hold, and a second outgoing call active, flash-hook to conference calls. Hanging up will transfer second call.

With an incoming call on hold, and outgoing call active, flash-hook to conference calls. Hanging up will transfer calls.

With two incoming calls (one on hold and one active) flash hook to conference calls. Hanging up transfers calls.

Answering calls on hold, and holding incoming active calls.

Flash-hook places the incoming call on hold and reconnects to outgoing call. Hanging up will terminate both calls.

When connecting to a National ISDN 1 switch, call conferencing and call transferring are assigned a unique feature identifier number. This number may not be the same in all areas. The Configuration/WAN/POTS menu contains the feature identifier numbers for conference and transfer. If these features do not work, contact your ISDN provider. They can determine the numbers for these features that can then be programmed into the Express XL/XLT.

Customer Premises Wiring

Customer premises wiring requirements for the Express XL/XLT vary depending on the application and existing wiring. It may be simpler for the ISDN provider to deliver another line to your location. This would eliminate the need to modify existing wiring. Figures 2-1 and 2-2 illustrate two wiring scheme possibilities.

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Chapter 2: Installation

 

Yellow

To

Red

 

Telephone

Green

Company

Black

 

New Wiring Scheme

Personal

Express XLT

Computer

10-Base-T Phone U

 

 

Yellow

To

Red

 

Telephone

Green

Company

Black

 

Figure 2-1

Wiring Scheme 1: Use existing analog telephone equipment, but replace single analog telephone service with ISDN service

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Yellow

To

Red

 

Telephone

Green

Company

Black

 

To

Telephone

Company

New Wiring Scheme

Personal

Express XLT

Computer

10-Base-T Phone U

 

 

Red Green

Yellow

Red

Green

Black

W A R N I N G

Ensure other yellow and black wire functions are removed before using this wiring scheme.

Figure 2-2

Wiring Scheme 2: Retain single analog telephone service and add ISDN service

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Chapter 3

Terminal Menu Operation and Structure

TERMINAL MENU STRUCTURE

The Express XL/XLT uses a multilevel menu structure containing both menu items and data fields. All menu operations and data display in the terminal menu window. The Express XL/XLT is shipped in the Factory Default configuration. Connect any VT 100 or VT 220 type terminal emulator to the maintenance port. The default rate is 9600 baud 8-N-1. The terminal emulator can flow the Express XL/XLT off using software flow control. Hardware flow control is not used.

The opening menu (the Main menu, or top-level menu) is the access point to all other operations. Each Main menu item has several functions and submenus to identify and access specific parameters. Figure 3-1 on page 28 shows the top-level terminal menu.

In order to edit items in the terminal menus, you must have the appropriate security level. Each menu description in this section indicates the required security level required for write access. The maintenance port is always at security level 0, giving full access to all configuration items.

The Main menu contains the following options.

Configuration

The Configuration menu provides options to set up the operational configuration for the Express XL/XLT. See the section Configuration Menu on page 34 for detailed information on the available options.

Dial

The Dial menu is used to connect to different sites based on the Connection List. See the section Dial Menu on page 88 for more details.

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Manual User XL/XLT Express

1-61200070L1

Menu Path

Describes the current position in the terminal menu structure.

1-3 Figure

Menu Terminal Level Top

Left Pane

Lists available menus.

Mode

Describescurrent operating mode.

Loop Status

Displays current status of ISDN line.

B-channel Status

Displays current status of each B channel.

Right Pane

Lists available submenus. Additional submenus available through this pane are indicated by the [+] and [DATA] symbols.

Navigation Help

Displays list of characters you can use to navigate the terminal menus. Press Control-Z.

System Time

Displays the current time. See Date/ Time on page 35 for details on setting the time.

Structure and Operation Menu Terminal 3: Chapter

Chapter 3: Terminal Menu Operation and Structure

Status

The Status menu provides options to review and monitor the status of the Express XL/XLT system. See the section Status Menu on page 90 for detailed information on the available options.

Test

The Test menu can be used for performing diagnostic testing of the Express XL/XLT. See the section Test Menu on page 98 for detailed information on the tests available.

Logs

The Logs menu can be used for viewing the operational logs for the Express XL/XLT. See the section Logs Menu on page 99 for detailed information on the available options.

Utilities

The Utilities menu provides tools for system diagnostics and upgrading the Express XL/XLT. See the section Utilities Menu on page 103 for detailed information on the available options.

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NAVIGATING THE TERMINAL MENUS

The following sections provide information on how to navigate through the terminal menus.

General Layout

When you first start a terminal mode session, the window shown in Figure 3- 1 on page 28 displays. The screen is divided into left and right panes. The left pane shows the current list of submenus, while the right pane shows the contents of a selected submenu.

Menu Path

The top line of the display shows this session’s current position (path) in the menu tree. Figure 3-1 shows the top menu level with the cursor on the Configuration submenu, so the path display shows Express XLT/Configuration.

Moving Around

Press Tab or the right arrow key to move the cursor from the left pane to the right pane. Press Tab or the left arrow key to move the cursor from the right pane back to the left pane. Use the up and down arrows to move around within each pane. Press Enter to activate a menu. Press the left arrow key or the Escape key to go back up the menu. The following options display throughout the menus.

Submenus [+] or [DATA]

Menus that display [+] or [DATA] indicate that more items are available when selected.

Activation Field <+>

Menus that display <+> indicate that an action is to be taken, such as activating a test.

Editable Data Field

A highlighted menu item indicates that you can enter data in that field.

Read-Only Field

An underlined field is a display field that contains read-only information.

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Navigation with the Keyboard

You can use different keystrokes to navigate through the terminal menu. Press Control-Z to activate a pop-up screen with the available keystrokes. The following section provides a list of the available keystrokes and the results:

General Navigation

HReturns to the home screen.

J

Jumps between two menu items. Press J while on a menu

 

item of interest, and you will jump back to the main

 

screen. Go to another menu item of interest, Press J, and

 

you will jump back to the screen that was displayed the

 

first time you pressed J. Press J anytime you want to

 

jump between these items.

Arrow Keys Selects items and moves between the left and right

 

panes. The left arrow key allows you to go back up the

 

menu.

Enter

Activates an item or moves into submenu.

Escape

Cancels an edit. Allows you to go back up the menu.

 

Also will dismiss the pop-up help screens.

Tab

Moves between the left and right panes.

AMoves to the top of a screen.

ZMoves to the bottom of a screen.

Backspace Ascends one menu level.

Session Management

Control-L Logs out of the session.

Control-S Invalidates the password entry and returns to the login screen. The Password prompt will display.

Control-R Refreshes the screen. To save time, only the portion of the screen that has changed is refreshed. This option should be necessary only if the display picks up incorrect characters.

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Configuration

FRestores factory default settings. This setting restores the factory defaults based on the location of the cursor. Entire submenus can be factory defaulted.

CCopies selected items to the clipboard. The amount of information you can copy depends on the cursor location when you press C. For example, if the cursor is over an editable field, only that item is copied. If the cursor is over the index number of a list, then all of the items in the row of the list are copied. For example, if the cursor is over the Num field in the Connection List screen, all of the information associated with the Connection List entry is copied.

PPastes the item stored in the clipboard, if the information in compatible. You must confirm all pastes except those to a single editable field.

>For certain types of fields, when you paste information into the field, the value increments by 1.

<For certain types of fields, when you paste information into the field, the value decrements by 1.

I

Inserts a new item in a list. For example, add a new item

 

to the Connection List by pressing I while the cursor is

 

over the index number.

DDeletes a list item. For example, delete an item from the Connection List by pressing D while the index number is active.

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Security Levels

Each menu item on the configuration screens has an associated security level. The security level ranges from 0 (highest security level) to 5 (lowest security level). This level determines whether a Telnet session can access that menu item. The Telnet session is assigned a security level set by the user. Passwords can only be accessed as security level 0. The maintenance port is always at security level 0.

The security levels are assigned as follows:

Level

 

0

Access all parameters including passwords

1

Access all parameters except passwords

2

Access all parameters except passwords and

 

authentication methods

3

Access all parameters except passwords,

 

authentication methods, and ISDN parameters

4

Access only test and status menus

5

Access status menus only

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CONFIGURATION MENU

Configuration/System Info

The System Info menu provides basic information about the unit and displays data fields for editing information. Figure 3-2 displays the submenus available under this menu item.

Figure 3-2

Configuration/System Info Screen

System Name

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Provides a user configurable text string for the name of the Express XL/XLT. This name can help distinguish between different installations. You can enter up to 31 alpha-numeric characters in this field, including spaces and special characters (such as an under bar). The system name is also used for PPP authentication and IPX service name.

System Location

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Provides a user configurable text string for the location of the Express XL/ XLT. This helps to keep track of the physical location of the unit. You can enter

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up to 31 alpha-numeric characters in this field, including spaces and special characters (such as an under bar).

System Contact

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Provides a user configurable text string for the contact name. This field can contain a name, phone number, or e-mail address of a person responsible for the Express XL/XLT. You can enter up to 31 alpha-numeric characters in this field, including spaces and special characters (such as an under bar).

Firmware Revision

Read security: 5

Displays the current firmware revision level of the Express XL/XLT. This field is a read-only field.

System Uptime

Read security: 5

Displays the length of time the Express XL/XLT has been running since power up or reset. This field is a read-only field.

Date/Time

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Displays the current data and time as programmed in the real time clock. This field can be edited. Enter the time in 24-hour format (such as 23:00:00 to represent 11:00 PM). Enter the data in mm-dd-yyyy format (for example, 09-30- 1997).

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Configuration/WAN

The WAN menu is used to set up the ISDN parameters for the Express XL/ XLT. Also, for the Express XLT, a POTS menu is provided. Figure 3-3 shows the WAN menu.

Figure 3-3

Configuration/WAN Screen

WAN/ISDN

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

Selects the mode the ISDN line is in. If connecting to the public network, select Dial (def). If connecting to a leased wire for back-to-back operation, select

Leased.

ISDN/Dial Line

Dial Line parameters are entered under this menu.

Dial Line/ExpertISDN

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The ExpertISDN option allows automatic determination of Service Profile Identifier (SPID) 1 and SPID 2 with entry of the Local Directory Number(s) (LDN(s)) and area code. Enter the 7-digit LDN in LDN 1 and LDN 2 (if a second number exists). The area code must be entered. The message Auto Spid Success will appear in the Call Log to indicate success in determining the SPID. See Appendix B on page 121 for additional messages and their definitions.

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Dial Line/Switch Protocol

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

Find out what kind of ISDN switch protocol the local CO is using by asking the local telephone administrator or the telephone company representative. The Express XL/XLT can be configured for the following:

AT&T 5ESS (def) AT&T 5ESS© Custom

DMS-100

Northern Telecom DMS-100™ Custom

National ISDN1

National ISDN-1 (could be a NorTel, AT&T, or

 

Siemens EWSD)

NEC

Nippon Electric Company Switch

Dial Line/Area Code

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

Enter 3-digit area code when using ExpertISDN.

Dial Line/SPID 1

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The SPID is a sequence of digits used to identify ISDN terminal equipment to the ISDN switch. The SPID is assigned by the local phone company when the ISDN line is installed and it usually looks similar to the phone number. Obtain SPIDs from the telephone administrator or local telephone representative.

The number of SPIDs required (0, 1, or 2) depends on how your ISDN line is configured. For instance, a point-to-point line has no SPID. Multipoint lines may have one or two SPIDs. The Express XL/XLT uses the presence of SPID 1 to determine if the line is multipoint. If the line has only one SPID, then it must be entered in SPID 1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPID

1

=

0

1

5

5

5

1

2

1

2

0

SPID

2

=

0

1

5

5

5

1

2

1

3

0

National ISDN-1 switches require the addition of a two-digit terminal identifier (TID) at the end of the SPID.

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Dial Line/LDN 1 or 2

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This option allows the entry of 0, 1, or 2 LDNs. The LDN is used when placing or receiving calls. The LDN is the local phone number assigned to the line.

LDN 1 = 5 5 5 1 2 1 2

LDN 2 = 5 5 5 1 2 1 3

Disconnect the network interface from the unit before initially entering or altering the SPIDs and LDNs.

ISDN/Leased Line

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

Leased Line parameters are entered under this menu. Leased mode would be used for permanent circuits.

Leased Line/Clock Mode

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The clock mode determines which unit will supply the clock for synchronization. If the two units are connected through channel banks, both units should be configured for Slave mode.

Slave (def)

Timing is derived from the master unit.

Master

Timing is derived from this unit.

Leased Line/Channel Rate

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

64k

Only B1 is used.

2x64k

B1 and B2 go to different locations.

128k (def)

B1 and B2 are used together.

144k

B1, B2 and D are used together.

ISDN/NEBEs

Read security: 5

This contains the number of Near-End-Block-Errors (NEBEs) that have been detected by the Express XL/XLT’s ISDN circuitry. Continuous errors can indicate a line problem, but a burst at one time is normal.

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ISDN/FEBEs

Read security: 5

This contains the number of Far-End-Block-Errors (FEBEs) that have been detected by the ISDN circuitry on the other end of the link. Continuous errors can indicate a line problem, but a burst at one time is normal.

WAN/POTS

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

POTS parameters are under this menu. They appear only under the Express XLT version.

POTS/POTS Assignment

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The Express XLT can assign the POTS interface either LDN 1 or LDN 2 (def). Once assigned, all incoming and outgoing calls are placed to/from this number.

POTS/NI-1 Conference FI

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

National ISDN Conference feature indication number is placed here. Most COs use the default of 60.

POTS/NI-1 Transfer FI

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

National ISDN Transfer feature indication number is placed here. Most COs use the default of 61.

POTS/Speech Calltype Routing

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This allows the Express XLT to treat incoming calls as “data over speech” when selected as LAN. Otherwise, when set to POTS (def), incoming speech calls are sent to the POTS when the destination number is the same as the POTS assignment.

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Configuration/IP

The IP menu is used to set up the IP parameters for the Express XL/XLT. Any general IP-related configuration item is under this menu. Figure 3-4 shows the IP menu.

Figure 3-4

Configuration/IP Screen

IP/IP Address

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The IP address assigned to the Express XL/XLT’s Ethernet port is set here. This address must be unique within the network. Factory default is 10.0.0.1.

IP/Subnet Mask

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The IP network mask to be applied to the Express XL/XLT’s Ethernet port is set here. Factory default is 255.255.255.0.

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IP/Default Gateway

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The default gateway is used by the Express XL/XLT for sending IP packets whose destination address is not found in the route table. If this address is all zeros, then the first WAN connection becomes the default gateway. If the address entered is not on the Ethernet segment, then an “idle route” entry is added to the route table.

IP/Static Routes

Static Routes can be inserted under this menu.

Static Routes/Active

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

Adds this static route entry to the IP routing table when set to Yes (def) and removes it (if it was previously added) if set to No.

Static Routes/IP Address

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

This is the IP address of the host or network address of the network.

Static Routes/Subnet Mask

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

This mask determines the bits in the previous IP address that are used. If this is to be a host route, it must be set to all ones (255.255.255.255).

Static Routes/Gateway

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

This is the IP address of the router to receive the forwarded IP packet.

Static Routes/Hops

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

This is the number of router hops required to get to the network or host. Maximum distance is 15 hops.

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Static Routes/Private

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

When set to No, the Express XL/XLT will advertise this static route using RIP. Otherwise, setting to Yes means that the route is kept private.

IP/IP Router

The IP router is configured under this menu as follows.

IP Router/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this option is set to On (def), the Express XL/XLT will advertise and listen to routes from other IP routers. If Off, the route table is still used but only static routes are used for routing IP packets and only the Ethernet port is used. IP packets can be sent over the WAN, but only when bridged.

IP/RIP

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is supported by the Express XL/XLT. The following parameters are required for setting up the mode on the Ethernet port:

RIP/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This option turns RIP On (def) or Off

RIP/Protocol

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Version can be V1 (def) or V2

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RIP/Method

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Split Horizon - Only routes not learned on the Ethernet port are advertised.

Poison Reverse (def) - All routes are advertised, including routes learned from the Ethernet port. These routes are poisoned.

None - All routes are advertised, including routes learned from the Ethernet port. No attempt is made to poison these routes.

RIP/Direction

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Tx and Rx (def)- RIP advertisements are transmitted and listened to on the Ethernet port.

Tx only - RIP advertisements are transmitted and not listened to.

Rx only - RIP advertisements are listened to but not transmitted.

RIP/V2 Secret

Write security: 0; Read security: 0

This is a text string used for authenticating advertised routes.

IP/NAT

The Network Address Translation general parameters are set up under this menu.

NAT/DHCP Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this option is set to On, the Express XL/XLT acts as a DHCP server and will dynamically assign IP, network mask, default gateway, and DNS addresses to any device which transmits a broadcast DHCP request. The addresses assigned are based on the Express XL/XLT’s own IP address and will be within the same network. This mode is most commonly used with the NAT functionality. The default is Off.

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NAT/DHCP Renewal Time

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the number of hours that the DHCP server should allow the device before it is required to send a new DHCP request. The default is 15 hours, and 0 represents an infinite lease.

NAT/Web Server

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the IP address of a web server on the Ethernet network. When an active NAT connection is made to the Internet, any HTTP, FTP, or Mail server requests from the WAN are translated and sent to this web server.

IP/DNS

The Domain Name Server parameters used by the Express XL/XLT are specified here. The DNS server addresses can be exchanged between PPP peers. When a connection occurs and IPCP is negotiated, the Express XL/XLT will get the DNS server addresses from the PPP peer. If the configured DNS server addresses (Server 1 and Server 2) are all zeros, the addresses from the PPP peer are used. In NAT mode, the PPP peer’s DNS addresses are always used. TheDNSaddressessetinServer1andServer2areofferedtoaPPPpeerifsorequested.

DNS/Domain Name

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is a text string used to represent the domain name used by the Express XL/XLT.

DNS/Server 1

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the IP address for the primary DNS device. It is the first server that domain name requests are sent.

DNS/Server 2

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the IP address for the secondary DNS device. It is used a back-up in case the primary address does not respond to the request.

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IP/UDP Relay

The Express XL/XLT can be configured as a relay agent for UDP broadcast packets. Normally, a router will not forward UDP broadcast packets. However, many network application use UDP broadcasts to configure addresses, host names, and other information. If hosts using these protocols are not on the same network segment as the servers providing the information, the client programs will not receive a response without enabling the UDP relay agent.

UDP Relay/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this option is set to On (def), the Express XL/XLT will act as a relay agent.

UDP Relay/UDP Relay List

Up to four relay destination servers can be specified in this list.

UDP Relay List/Relay Address

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the IP address of the server that will receive the relay packet.

UDP Relay List/UDP Port Type

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Standard (def) - The following standard UDP protocols are relayed when set: DHCP, TFTP, DNS, NTP (Network

Time Protocol, port 123). NBNS (NetBIOS Name Server, port 137), NBDG (NetBIOS Datagram, port 138), and BootP.

Specified - When set, the UDP port (1 to 65535) can be specified in the UDP Port columns. (up to a maximum of three per server)

UDP Relay List/UDP Port 1, UDP Port 2, UDP Port 3

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

UDP Port 1, UDP Port 2, and UDP Port 3 are used for specifying UDP ports to be relayed. These fields only apply when UDP Port Type is set to Specified.

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IP/Proxy ARP

Write security: 4; Read security: 5

This feature allows the network portion of a group of addresses to be shared between several physical network segments. The ARP protocol itself provides a way for devices to create a mapping between physical (i.e., Ethernet) addresses and logical IP addresses. Proxy ARP makes use of this mapping feature by instructing a router to answer ARP requests as a “proxy” for the IP addresses behind one of its ports. The device which sent the ARP request will then correctly assume that it can reach the requested IP address by sending packets to the physical address that was returned to it. This technique effectively hides the fact that a network has been (further) subnetted. If this option is set to Yes (def), when an ARP request is received on the Ethernet port the address is looked up in the IP routing table. If the forwarding port is not on the Ethernet port and the route is not the default route, the Express XL/XLT will answer the request with its own hardware address. If set to No, the Express XL/XLT will only respond to ARP requests received for its own IP address.

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Configuration/IPX

The IPX menu is used to set up the IPX parameters for the Express XL/XLT. Any general IPX-related configuration item can be found under this menu. Figure 3-5 shows the IPX menu.

Figure 3-5

Configuration/IPX Screen

IPX/Mode

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

When this option is set to On (def), the Express XL/XLT will route IPX. Setting it to Off will disable all IPX functionality.

IPX/Network

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The IPX network address for the Ethernet port is set here. This is an eight-digit hexadecimal value that uniquely identifies the network segment of the Ethernet port. Accidental selection of an IPX network which is already in use on another network segment may cause hard-to-diagnose problems. IPX network numbers should be carefully tracked.

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IPX/Frame Type

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The Express XL/XLT supports all four defined IPX frame types. The possible frame types are: Ether Type II (def), Ether 802.3 (Raw), Ether 802.2, or Ether SNAP (802.2 SNAP). Only one frame type can be used at one time.

IPX/Seed Status

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The seed status defines what the Express XL/XLT is to do with the network information on the selected frame type during startup. There are three possible seeding selections specified:

Seed - The Express XL/XLT will listen for an IPX network number being sent by another router (including Novell software routers residing on servers) on the Ethernet segment connected to this port and use this number if it exists. If it doesn’t discover a number in use, the Express XL/XLT will use the configured IPX network number for the Ethernet segment.

Non-Seed (def) - The Express XL/XLT will listen for an IPX network number being sent by another router (including Novell software routers residing on servers) on the Ethernet segment connected to this port and use this number if it exists. If it doesn’t discover a number in use, the Express XL/XLT will wait indefinitely until a number is sent by another router on the Ethernet segment.

Auto-Seed - The Express XL/XLT will listen for an IPX network number being sent by another router (including Novell software routers residing on servers) on the Ethernet segment connected to this port and use this number if it exists. If it doesn’t discover a number in use, the Express XL/XLT will auto-generate a valid number using its routing tables.

IPX/RIP Timer

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value specifies how often the Express XL/XLT sends out IPX RIP packets on the network segment attached to the Ethernet port. The RIP packets sent contain routing information about the networks for which this Express XL/ XLT is responsible. The default value is 60 seconds.

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IPX/SAP Timer

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value specifies how often the Express XL/XLT sends out IPX SAP (Service Access Protocol) packets on the network segment attached to the Ethernet port. The SAP packets sent contain information about the services (such as servers, printers, etc.) for which this Express XL/XLT is responsible. The default value is 60 seconds.

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Configuration/Bridge

The Bridge menu is used to set up the bridge parameters for the Express XL/ XLT. The bridging function runs at the Media Access Control (MAC) level which allows any protocol packets that run over Ethernet to be forwarded. Bridging can run concurrently with the IP and IPX routing. However, certain rules apply for when packets are bridged across a WAN connection. When IP routing is active, IP packets (which include ARP packets) are not bridged. When IPX routing is active, IPX packets are not bridged. Also, the WAN IP Bridge and WAN IPX Bridge menus allow the WAN connection to bridge packets to the Express XL/XLT but get routed as soon as they arrive at the unit. Figure 3-6 shows the Bridge menu.

Figure 3-6

Configuration/Bridge Screen

Bridge/Mode

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

When this option is set to On (def), the Express XL/XLT bridge function will be enabled. Setting it to Off will disable all bridge functionality.

Bridge/WAN IP Bridge

When IP routing is active, the Express XL/XLT will allow another WAN device to bridge IP packets to it using PPP BCP. Normally, two IP routers would

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negotiate PPP IPCP to exchange IP packets. However, if a device can only support PPP BCP, IP packets are encapsulated by the device as bridge packets. The Express XL/XLT can treat the WAN IP Bridge as a virtual Ethernet port connected only to a WAN device which has negotiated PPP BCP. This menu allows the IP parameters for this virtual Ethernet to be setup.

WAN IP Bridge/Network

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the IP address of the virtual Ethernet port.

WAN IP Bridge/Netmask

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the network mask to be applied to the virtual Ethernet port.

WAN IP Bridge/Triggered

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, only IP RIP updates are sent when the routing table has changed. When set to No (def), updates are sent periodically. RIP version, method, and direction are determined by the Ethernet parameters set in the

Configuration/IP/IP Router/RIP menu.

WAN IP Bridge/Proxy ARP

If this option is set to Yes (def), the Express XL/XLT will proxy ARP on the bridge IP port. See the section IP/Proxy ARP on page 46 for an explanation of the proxy ARP function.

Bridge/WAN IPX Bridge

When IPX routing is active, the Express XL/XLT will allow another WAN device to bridge IPX packets to it using PPP BCP. Normally, two IPX routers would negotiate PPP IPXCP to exchange IPX packets. However, if a device can only support PPP BCP, IPX packets are encapsulated by the device as bridge packets. The Express XL/XLT can treat the WAN IPX Bridge as a virtual Ethernet port connected only to a WAN device which has negotiated PPP BCP. This menu allows the IPX parameters for this virtual Ethernet to be setup.

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WAN IPX Bridge/Network

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the network address of the virtual Ethernet port. See IPX/Network on page 47 for explanation of the IPX network number.

WAN IPX Bridge/Frame Type

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the frame type used for the virtual Ethernet port. See IPX/Frame Type on page 48 for an explanation of the IPX frame type.

WAN IPX Bridge/Seed Status

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the seed status used for the virtual Ethernet port. See IPX/Seed Status on page 48 menu for an explanation of the IPX seed status.

WAN IPX Bridge/Triggered

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, only IPX RIP and SAP updates are sent when the routing or service table has changed. When set to No (def), updates are sent at the same rate set for the Ethernet port (see IPX/RIP Timer on page 48 and IPX/SAP Timer on page 49).

Bridge/Spanning Tree

The Spanning Tree Algorithm and Protocol ensures a loop-free topology and provides redundancy. The protocol parameters can be specifically tuned from their defaults, though most applications require no adjustment.

Spanning Tree/Mode

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

When the mode is set to On, the Express XL/XLT will participate in the spanning tree protocol between other bridges. When Off (def), all bridge ports remain permanently open for forwarding.

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Spanning Tree/Priority

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This assigns a priority to the Express XL/XLT that permits the relative priority of multiple bridges to be managed. The range is 0 to 65535 with a default of 32768.

Spanning Tree/Maximum Age

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the timeout value used by the Express XL/XLT to test against the root device. The value is in one-tenth seconds with a range between 60 (6.0 seconds) and 400 (40.0 seconds). The default is 200 (20.0 seconds).

Spanning Tree/Hello Time

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the time between the generation of configuration BPDUs (Bridging Protocol Data Units) by the root bridge. The value is in one-tenth seconds with a range between 10 (1.0 second) and 100 (10.0 seconds). The default is 20 (2.0 seconds).

Spanning Tree/Forward Delay

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the time spent in the listening and learning state while moving from the blocking state to the forwarding state. The value is in one-tenth seconds with a range between 40 (4.0 seconds) and 300 (30.0 seconds). The default is 150 (15.0 seconds).

Spanning Tree/LAN Port

The path cost and priority parameters for the Ethernet port are specified under this menu.

LAN Port/Active

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The Ethernet port can be disabled when set to No. In this mode, no bridge traffic will be forwarded in or out. Setting to Yes (def) allows the port to participate in the spanning tree topology.

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LAN Port/Path Cost

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the cost of using the Ethernet port in the total cost of the path. The range is from 1 to 65535 with a default of 100 (for 10 Mbits/second).

LAN Port/Priority

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The priority adjusts the relative priority of the Ethernet port among the multiple bridge ports. The range is 0 to 255 with a default of 128.

Spanning Tree/WAN Port 0

The WAN port 0 is considered to be the first PPP BCP connection that occurs over the ISDN link. It can be a single B channel or two B channels running PPP Multilink.

WAN Port 0/Active

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The WAN 0 port can be disabled when set to No. In this mode, no bridge traffic will be forwarded in or out. Setting to Yes (def) allows the port to participate in the spanning tree topology.

WAN Port 0/Path Cost

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is the cost of using the WAN port 0 in the total cost of the path. The range is from 1 to 65535 with a default of 15625 (for 64 kbits/second). Note that when running over two B channels using PPP Multilink, the range does not adjust itself. If it is known that the only WAN port will be WAN port 0 over two B-channels, then the path cost for this port should be changed 7812 (128 Kbits/second).

WAN Port 0/Priority

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The priority adjusts the relative priority of the WAN port 0 among the multiple bridge ports. The range is 0 to 255 with a default of 128.

Spanning Tree/WAN Port 1

WAN port 1 is considered to be the second B channel PPP BCP connection made. This port is only used when the first B channel (WAN Port 0) is going to an entirely different bridge.

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WAN Port 1/Active

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This setup is exactly like WAN Port 0 above.

WAN Port 1/Path Cost

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This setup is exactly like WAN Port 0 above.

WAN Port 1/Priority

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This setup is exactly like WAN Port 0 above.

Bridge/Address Table

The Express XL/XLT automatically maintains a table of MAC addresses detected and associates those addresses with the LAN, WAN0, or WAN1 port from which they were received. This menu permits the user to adjust the parameters or rules for the table as addresses are learned.

Address Table/Aging

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the maximum time an idle MAC address remains in the table before being removed. The value is in minutes and can range from 0 (which means never age) to 65535. The default is 5.

Address Table/Forward Policy

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this parameter is set to Unknown (def), any bridge packet with a destination MAC address that is not in the bridge table is forwarded to all other ports. When set to Known, the packet with the unknown destination MAC address is dropped and is not forwarded.

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Configuration/Security

The Security menu is used to set up the authentication parameters needed to authenticate PPP connection over the ISDN B-channels. Also, the filter defines are placed under this menu. Figure 3-7 shows the Security menu.

Figure 3-7

Configuration/Security Screen

Security/Authentication

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

The method used for authenticating the PPP peer is selected here. The possible values are:

None (def) - No attempt is made to authenticate the PPP peer.

Radius - The Express XL/XLT will act as a RADIUS client and authenticate the PPP peer using the RADIUS server. The Radius server parameters must be set up properly for this to work.

Connection List - The Connection List profile is used to authenticate the PPP peer.

See Configuration/Connection List on page 63 for more information on authenticating.

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Security/When

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

The Express XL/XLT can be configured to authenticate the PPP peer (using the above method) for incoming calls using Answer Only (def), or for outgoing and incoming calls using Originate and Answer.

Security/Radius Server

The parameters for the radius server are configured in this menu. The RADIUS server can be used for authenticating a PPP peer (if defined under Security/ Authentication) and for Telnet server sessions.

Radius Server/Primary Server

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

This is the IP address of the first RADIUS server that the Express XL/XLT should attempt to communicate with when authenticating a PPP peer.

Radius Server/Secondary Server

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

This is the IP address of the back-up RADIUS server that the Express XL/XLT should attempt to communicate with when the primary server does not respond.

Radius Server/UDP Port

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

This is the UDP port that the Express XL/XLT should use when communicating with the RADIUS server. The default is 1645, which is the commonly used port.

Radius Server/Secret

Write security: 0; Read security: 1

The RADIUS server and Express XL/XLT share this text string, which is used by the RADIUS sever to authenticate the Express XL/XLT that is the RADIUS client. The factory default is to not use a secret.

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Radius Server/Retry Count

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

This is the number of times the Express XL/XLT should send a request packet to the RADIUS server without a response before giving up. If the number of attempts to communicate with the primary server is equal to the retry count, the secondary server (if defined) is tried. If the secondary server does not respond within the retry count, the PPP peer (or Telnet session) is not authenticated and is dropped. The default is 5.

Security/PPP

Write security: 1; Read security: 2

The PPP peer can be authenticated using three standard methods: PAP (Password Authentication Protocol), CHAP (Challenge Handshake Protocol) and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol). The strength of the authentication is determined in the order EAP, CHAP, followed by PAP, where EAP is the strongest and PAP is the weakest. PAP is a clear-text protocol, which means it is sent over the PPP link in a readable format. Care must be taken not to allow highly sensitive passwords to become compromised using this method. CHAP and EAP use a one-way hashing algorithm which make it virtually impossible to determine the password. EAP has other capabilities which allow more flexibility than CHAP.

The following selections are possible:

PAP, CHAP or EAP (def) - The Express XL/XLT will ask for EAP during the first PPP LCP negotiation and allow the PPP peer to negotiate down to CHAP or PAP.

CHAP or EAP - The Express XL/XLT will ask for EAP during the first PPP LCP negotiation and allow the PPP peer to negotiate down to CHAP but not PAP.

EAP - The Express XL/XLT will only allow EAP to be negotiated. If the PPP peer is not capable of doing EAP, then the connection will not succeed.

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Security/Filter Defines

The Express XL/XLT can filter packets based on certain parameters within the packet. The method used by the Express XL/XLT allows the highest flexibility for defining filters and assigning them to a Connection List profile. The filters are set up in two steps: (1) defining the packet types, and (2) adding them to a list under the Connection List profile. See the section Connection List/Filters on page 79 for examples of how to set up filter profiles. This menu is used to define the individual filter defines based on packet type.

Filter Defines /MAC Filter Defines

Write security: 2; Read security: 3

The MAC filter is applied to bridge packets only. Bridge packets which are forwarded by the bridge functionality of the Express XL/XLT are defined here. Up to 32 MAC defines can be specified.

Name

Identifies the filter entry

Src Addr

48-bit MAC source address used for comparison.

 

(hexadecimal format)

Src Mask

Bits in the MAC source address which

 

are compared. (hexadecimal format)

Dest Addr

48-bit MAC destination address used

 

for comparison. (hexadecimal format)

Dest Mask

Bits in the MAC destination address used

 

for comparison. (hexadecimal format)

MAC Type

16-bit MAC type field used for comparison.

 

(hexadecimal format)

Type Msk

Bits in the MAC type field used for comparison.

 

(hexadecimal format)

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Filter Defines /Pattern Filter Defines

Write security: 2; Read security: 3

The pattern filter is applied to bridge packets only. That is any packet which is forwarded by the bridge functionality of the Express XL/XLT. Up to 32 pattern defines can be specified.

Name

Identifies the filter entry

Offset

Offset from beginning of packet of where to start

 

the pattern comparison

Pattern

64 bits used for comparison.

 

(hexadecimal format)

Mask

Bits in the pattern to be compared.

 

(hexadecimal format)

Filter Defines /IP Filter Defines

Write security: 2; Read security: 3

The IP filter defines apply to any IP packet, whether it is routed or bridged. Up to 32 IP defines can be specified.

Name

Identifies the filter entry

IP Src

IP address compared to the source address.

 

(dotted decimal format)

Src Mask

Bits which are used in the source comparison.

 

(dotted decimal format)

IP Dest

IP address compared to the destination address.

 

(dotted decimal format)

Dest Mask

Bits which are used in the destination

 

comparison. (dotted decimal format)

Src Port

IP source port number used for comparison

 

Range: 0 to 65535. (decimal format)

Src Port Cmpr

Type of comparison that is performed

 

= - means ports equal to

 

not = - means port not equal to

 

> - means port greater than

 

< - means port less than

 

None - means the source port is not compared

Dst Port

IP destination port number used for

 

comparison Range: 0 to 65535. (decimal format)

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Dst Port Cmpr

Type of comparison that is performed

 

= - means ports equal to

 

not = - means port not equal to

 

> - means port greater than

 

< - means port less than

 

None - means the destination port is not

 

compared

Proto

Protocol used for comparison. Range: 0 to 255.

 

(decimal format)

Proto Cmpr

Type of comparison that is performed

 

= - means protocols equal to

 

not = - means protocols not equal to

 

> - means protocols greater than

 

< - means protocols less than

 

None - means the protocol is not compared

TCP Est

Yes - only when TCP established

 

No - only when TCP not established

 

Ignore - ignore TCP flags

Filter Defines /IPX Filter Defines

Write security: 2; Read security: 3

The IPX filter defines apply to any IPX packet whether it is routed or bridged. Also, any IPX encapsulation type will be accounted for. Up to 32 IPX defines can be specified.

Name

Identifies the filter entry (15 characters max)

Src Net

32-bit source network address

Src Mask

Bits in the source network address which are

 

compared. (hexadecimal format)

Dest Net

32-bit destination network address

Dest Mask

Bits in the destination network address which

 

are compared. (hexadecimal format)

Src Socket

16-bit value which is the source socket.

 

Range is 0-65535.

Src Socket Comp Type of comparison that is performed:

 

= - means socket equal to

 

Not = - means socket not equal to

 

> - means socket greater than

 

< - means socket less than

 

None - no comparison is done on source

 

socket

Dest Socket

16-bit value which is the destination socket. Range

 

is 0-65535.

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Dest Socket Comp Type of comparison that is performed: = - means socket equal to

Not = - means socket not equal to > - means socket greater than

< - means socket less than

None - no comparison is done on destination socket

Type 8-bit value which is the IPX type Type Comp Type of comparison that is performed:

= - means type equal to

Not = - means type not equal to > - means type greater than

< - means type less than

None - no comparison is done on IPX type

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Configuration/Connection List

The Express XL/XLT uses the Connection List to specify the profile each user or group of users are to have when connected. Each profile or item in the Connection List has many configurable parameters giving high flexibility on a per user basis.

Up to 15 profiles can be defined in the Connection List. Calls cannot be originated or answered unless a Connection List profile is defined. The Express XL/XLT factory defaults with one profile called DEFAULT. This profile is used for any incoming calls when Configuration/Security/Authentication = None or when the username of the connecting PPP peer is not found in the Connection List.

To insert a new profile, press the I key when over the Num column. A new inserted profile will always be set up with the default parameters. To copy parameters from an old profile to this newly inserted profile, use the copy (C) and paste (P) keys. Entire configuration trees can be copied with this method.

Figure 3-8 shows the Connection List menu.

Figure 3-8

Configuration/Connection List Screen

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Connection List/Description

Write security: 3; Read security: 4

The description is a text string that identifies the profile.

Connection List/Active

Write security: 3; Read security: 4

When set to Yes (def), this profile is used for authentication and user association of incoming calls. Setting to No is the same as deleting the item but allows the information of the profile to be saved.

To delete an unused profile, use the D key when the cursor is over the number in the Num column. Once deleted, the profile is gone permanently as soon as the Connection List is saved. Items may be deleted when DEL appears below the status bar.

Connection List/Authentication

The authentication menu contains the required parameters for the authentication of the PPP peer and for being authenticated by the PPP peer.

Authentication is applied between the Express XL/XLT and the PPP peer as follows:

1.The Express XL/XLT as the authenticator:

When answering an incoming call:

-Express XL/XLT uses PPP method configured in

Configuration/Security/PPP.

-Authenticatee’s username is looked up in all active Connection List profiles (Rx Username).

-If found, the Rx Password is used for authenticating.

-If not found, DEFAULT entry’s Rx Password is used if

Rx Username is blank.

When answering a call, the Express XL/XLT does not know who the PPP peer is until the authentication phase is completed. Two PPP protocols (EAP and CHAP) require the authenticator to transmit a username which the authenticatee uses to cross reference the password to use. Since the PPP peer is unknown before the authentication phase is over, the Express XL/XLT uses the Tx Username in the DEFAULT profile to identify itself. If Tx Username is blank, Configuration/System Info/System Name is used. If that is blank, then the word “ADTRAN” is used.

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When originating an outgoing call:

-Express XL/XLT uses PPP method configured in

Configuration/Security/PPP.

-Authenticatee’s username is compared to profile used to dial.

Authenticating with RADIUS:

-When Configuration/Security/Authentication is set to Radius, authentication is performed by the RADIUS server.

-The Express XL/XLT uses the DEFAULT Connection List profile for all other parameters not supported by RADIUS attributes.

-RADIUS attributes currently supported are: framed ip, framed netmask, framed ipx network, framed routing, framed compression, and idle timeout.

2.The Express XL/XLT as the authenticatee:

When answering an incoming call:

-If the Configuration/Security/Authentication parameter is set to None, the DEFAULT profile’s Tx Username and Tx Password are used by

the Express XL/XLT for authenticating itself.

-If the Configuration/Security/Authentication parameter is set

to Connection List or RADIUS, the Express XL/XLT will wait until the PPP peer is authenticated before authenticating itself (except when CHAP or EAP is used). If CHAP or EAP is used, the username transmitted by the PPP peer’s authentication challenge packet is looked up in the Connection List. If found, the Express XL/XLT responds with the profile’s Tx Username and Tx Password parameters. If not found, the DEFAULT profile’s Tx Username and Tx Password parameters are used.

When originating an outgoing call:

-The dial-out profile Tx Username and Tx Password are used regardless of the PPP peer’s username received if CHAP or EAP is used.

Authentication/Tx Method

Write security: 2; Read security: 3

This parameter specifies how the Express XL/XLT is to be authenticated by the PPP peer. There are four possible selections. See Security/PPP on page 58 for an explanation of the three PPP standard authentication types.

None (def) - The connection will not allow the PPP peer to authenticate it.

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PAP, CHAP or EAP - The connection can be authenticated using PAP, CHAP or EAP.

CHAP or EAP - The connection can be authenticated using CHAP or EAP only.

EAP - The connection will only allow authentication by the peer using EAP.

Authentication/Tx Username

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

This is the username that is used when being authenticated by the PPP peer.

Authentication/Tx Password

Write security: 0; Read security: 1

This is the password or secret that is used when being authenticated by the PPP peer.

Authentication/Rx Username

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

This is the username that is used to match the user to the Connection List profile. During an incoming call, the Express XL/XLT will scan all active connection profiles and match the received PPP peer’s username. If the name is not found, then the DEFAULT profile is used, if and only if the DEFAULT profile has nothing in the Rx Username parameter. During an outgoing call, this username does not have to match the username reported by the PPP peer.

Authentication/Rx Password

Write security: 0; Read security: 1

This is the password or secret that is used to authenticate the PPP peer. This is only necessary when Configuration/Security/Authentication = Connection List.

Authentication/Caller ID

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

Incoming calls can be verified using the ISDN supplied caller identifier when this is set to Yes. When set to No (def), the caller identifier is not checked.

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Authentication/Call ID 1

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

The caller identification from the ISDN incoming call is compared to this number, starting from the right digits.

Authentication/Call ID 2

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

The caller identification from the ISDN incoming call is compared to this number, starting from the right digits.

Connection List/IP

The IP menu contains the parameters for exchanging IP data with the PPP peer. Static routes can also be created from here for IP dial-on-demand applications.

IP/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Setting to On (def) will permit this connection profile to negotiate PPP IPCP with the PPP peer for exchanging of IP packets.

IP/NAT

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The Express XL/XLT can perform Network Address Translation. This feature is most widely used when connecting to the Internet. The Ethernet network can consist of private network numbers. When this profile is connected, all IP addresses on the Ethernet side are translated into the one real IP address negotiated with the PPP peer (ISP). Multiple stations on the Ethernet side can access the Internet simultaneously. See the section IP/NAT on page 43 for more global options. Setting this option to On will cause the Express XL/XLT to perform NAT. In the Off (def) position, the unit will route across the connection normally.

IP/Route

The IP parameters are configured in this menu. Adjusting these parameters is only necessary for certain dial-on-demand applications. Usually the Express XL/XLT will automatically discover the PPP peer’s networks using PPP IPCP and/or RIP.

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Route/IP/Net

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The PPP peer’s IP address or network can be set here, if known. Leaving this at 0.0.0.0 means that the Express XL/XLT will determine the PPP peer’s IP and network using the PPP IPCP.

Route/Netmask

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This network mask is applied to the IP/NET address for determining the PPP peer’s network. If left as 0.0.0.0, a standard network mask is used.

Route/Static Route

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to Yes (def), the Express XL/XLT will add the network defined above as an idle route in the IP routing table. When an IP packet is routed to this idle route, the Express XL/XLT will dial using this profile. When set to No, an idle route is not placed in the table. This is necessary for dial-on-de- mand applications and if the probe feature is not used.

Route/Private

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, the Express XL/XLT will not advertise this static route entry. A setting of No (def) means any static route added for this profile is advertised using RIP.

Route/Hops

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value is the metric or number of hops that RIP will use in advertising the static route. The range is 1 to 16 where 1 is the default. The value 16 is considered an infinite distance in RIP and is, in effect, poisoning the route.

Route/Force IP

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, the Express XL/XLT will force the PPP peer to use the IP address in the IP/Net for this profile as its WAN IP address. Normally this is set in the No (def) position.

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IP/RIP

The RIP parameters can be adjusted from their defaults under this menu. The RIP parameters for all WAN connections are set on a per-session basis.

RIP/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The Express XL/XLT will perform RIP over the WAN connection when this is set to On (def).

RIP/Protocol

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The Express XL/XLT can perform version 1, V1 (def), or version 2, V2, of RIP on this WAN connection.

RIP/Method

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Split Horizon - Only routes not learned on the WAN connection are advertised.

Poison Reverse (def) - All routes are advertised, including routes learned from the WAN connection. These routes are poisoned.

None - All routes are advertised, including routes learned from the WAN connection. No attempt is made to poison these routes.

RIP/Direction

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Tx and Rx (def)- RIP advertisements are transmitted and listened to on the WAN connection.

Tx only - RIP advertisements are transmitted and not listened to.

Rx only - RIP advertisements are listened to but not transmitted.

RIP/Triggered

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, only IP RIP updates are sent when the routing table has changed and learned routes are not “aged.” When set to No (def), updates are sent periodically.

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RIP/Retain

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set to Yes, all routes learned from this WAN connection are retained and their routing interface is set to idle. This permits dial-on-demand to occur using this profile for any IP network that might have been advertised by the particular PPP peer. The idle routes can be flushed or “zombied” from the routing table if a manual hangup is performed when this WAN connection is not active. See Dial/Hang Up on page 89. When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set to No (def), routes learned from this session are “zombied” and are not retained.

Connection List/IPX

The IPX menu contains the parameters for exchanging IPX data with the PPP peer.

IPX/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Setting to On (def) will permit this connection profile to negotiate PPP IPXCP with the PPP peer for exchanging of IPX packets.

IPX/Remote Network

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

A non-zero value in this remote network number will allow the Express XL/ XLT to add a route to the PPP peer’s network to the routing table.

The Express XL/XLT normally will treat the WAN network as an unnumbered link. This is usually referred to as being a “half-router.” However, a PPP peer which wants to assign a network address to the WAN link can do so, in which case the Express XL/XLT will go into “full-router” mode.

IPX/Triggered

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, only IPX RIP and SAP updates are sent when the routing or service table has changed and learned routes are not “aged.” When set to No (def), updates are sent periodically based on the RIP and SAP timers set in

Configuration/IPX/RIP Timer and Configuration/IPX/SAP Timer.

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IPX/Retain

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set to Yes, all routes learned from this WAN connection are retained and their routing interface is set to idle. This permits dial-on-demand to occur using this profile for any IPX network or service that might have been advertised by the particular PPP peer. The idle routes can be flushed or “zombied” from the routing table if a manual hangup is performed when this WAN connection is not active. See Dial /Hang up. When this Connection List entry is disconnected and this parameter is set to No (def), IPX routes and services learned from this session are “zombied” and are not retained.

IPX/Type 20 Packets

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

In order for certain protocol implementations, like NetBIOS, to function in the NetWare environment, routes must allow a broadcast packet to be propagated throughout the IPX networks. The Type 20 IPX packet is used specifically for this purpose. This causes special handling of this packet by the Express XL/ XLT. When a router receives this type of packet, it rebroadcasts it across all interfaces except the one it is received on and includes the network number of that interface in the data portion of the packet. The IPX Router Specification from Novell notes that Type 20 packets should not be propagated across slower links with bandwidths of less than 1Mbps (like ISDN). However, when set to Pass (def), the Express XL/XLT will allow these packets to propagate over the WAN connection. This facilitates dial-on-demand applications. When set to Block, all Type 20 packets are not propagated across the WAN connection.

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Connection List/Bridge

The Bridge menu contains the parameters needed for exchanging bridged packets with the PPP peer.

Bridge/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to On (def), the Express XL/XLT will attempt to negotiate PPP BCP with the PPP peer. Bridging can be used even in route mode only if the PPP peer cannot support certain PPP protocols for that particular routing protocol. See Bridge/WAN IP Bridge on page 50 and Bridge/WAN IPX Bridge on page 51 for further details.

Connection List/Probe

The Probe feature on the Express XL/XLT is mainly used for allowing a network to have multiple virtual network connections to many destinations using the single ISDN link. The Express XL/XLT can periodically obtain routing information from various locations and retain this in the routing tables, thereby permitting the LAN connection to be aware of the networks at this location.

Probe helps keep route tables updated. When a service or network connection is required, the Express XL/XLT can demand dial that location. This can be beneficial for remote IPX workstations that cannot boot up properly without knowing the IPX services that would be in the Express XL/XLT’s SAP table.

Probe/Active

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When set to Yes, the Express XL/XLT will periodically dial this profiles dialout number to get routing and service table updates. The default is No.

Probe/Interval

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the time the Express XL/XLT waits between probes. The value is in minutes and ranges from 1 to 240. The default is 15 minutes.

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Probe/Update Window

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the time the Express XL/XLT stays connected during a probe. Normally route and service tables are exchanged immediately after connection. However, some routers could wait until their regular RIP or SAP time period has been reached before they advertise their routes or services to the Express XL/ XLT. The value is in seconds and ranges from 5 to 180. The default is 5 seconds and assumes that a routing update is received upon connection.

Connection List/PPP

The Express XL/XLT supports the IETF standards for the Point-to-Point Protocol. The PPP state machine running in the Express XL/XLT can be finetuned to support many applications that can be employed. The configurable items under this menu can be changed from their default values forspecialcases.

PPP/Multilink

Multilink PPP allows the two B-channels to be used together for increased bandwidth.

Multilink/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this item is set to On (def), Multilink PPP is negotiated with the PPP peer. When Off, the Express XL/XLT will only allow one B-channel for this connection.

Multilink/Fragment

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this item is set to Yes (def), the Express XL/XLT will split outgoing packets greater than 128 bytes into two Multilink fragments and simultaneously transmit them one per B-channel. The receiving PPP peer will then reassemble them. This decreases the transport delay. However, some legacy equipment might have trouble handling fragmented packets, in which case this option should be set to No.

Multilink/BACP

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP) and Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) are used to enhance Multilink PPP. Together, they allow

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phone numbers to be exchanged when more bandwidth is needed and member links to be dropped when bandwidth is to be decreased. When this item is set to On, BACP is negotiated with the PPP peer. When Off, the Express XL/XLT will not run BACP/BAP but dynamic bandwidth can still be operated.

Certain rules for bandwidth-on-demand apply, depending on whether BACP is negotiated. If BACP is not negotiated, the originator of the call will perform the dynamic bandwidth adjustments on its own. If BACP is negotiated, the decisions are made on either side but the call is always from the originator.

PPP/Compression

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The Express XL/XLT uses LZS® technology from hi/fnTM (formerly known as STAC) for data compression. The Ascend Communications version of this compression is also supported. The Express XL/XLT will automatically select the type of compression. Compression is negotiated when this item is set to STAC (def). No compression will be attempted when set to None.

PPP/VJ Compression

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this item is set to On, the Express XL/XLT will perform TCP/IP header compression known as Van Jacobson compression to the PPP peer. Normally, this is not necessary over ISDN connections and can be set to Off (def) to disable it.

PPP/Max Config

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value is the number of unanswered configuration-requests that should be transmitted before giving up on a call. The possible values are 5, 10 (def), 15 and 20.

PPP/Max Timer

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value is the number of seconds to wait between unanswered configura- tion-requests. The possible values are 1 sec, 2 secs (def), 3 secs, 5 secs and 10 secs.

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PPP/Max Failure

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Due to the nature of PPP, configuration options may not be agreed upon between two PPP peers. This value is the number of configuration-naks that should occur before an option is configuration-rejected. This allows a connection to succeed that might otherwise fail. The possible values are 5 (def), 10, 15 and 20.

Connection List/Dial Out

The dialing parameters for establishing this connection are defined under this menu.

Dial Out/Number 1

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the first number used for dialing up this connection.

Dial Out/Number 2

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the second number used for dialing a second B-channel when adding bandwidth. If BACP/BAP is negotiated, this number is not necessary. If this number is not specified and BACP/BAP is not used, the Number 1 number is re-dialed when adding bandwidth.

Dial Out/Call Type

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

The call type can be configured in four different ways:

Speech - Speech directs the call control software to request a Mu-law encoded speech circuit as the bearer capability for the outgoing calls. The speech option is used with an ISDN line configured for voice service. In some areas, voice service costs less than data services. A speech call type does not always guarantee an end-to-end digital connection with some local and long distance carriers.

Audio - Audio directs the call control software to request a 3.1 kHz audio circuit as the bearer capability for the outgoing

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calls. The audio option is used with an ISDN line configured for voice service. In some areas, audio service costs less than data services. An audio call type does guarantee a digital end-to-end digital connection.

56K - 56K directs the call control software to request a 64 kbps data circuit that is rate-adapted to 56 kbps. Data 56 kbps is intended for use in circumstances where interoperability with Switched 56 service is desired.

64K (def) - The default call type for ISDN service is Data 64 kbps. This directs the call control software to request an unrestricted 64 kbps circuit.

Dial Out/Redial at 56K

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Selecting Yes (def) causes the Express XL/XLT to re-dial a call at the 56K call type if a 64K call type was unsuccessful. This will not occur if set to No or if the original call type was other than 64K.

Dial Out/Delay

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the number of seconds between unsuccessful call attempts made during dial-on-demand or during dynamic bandwidth. The range is between 0 and 255, with a default of 15 seconds.

Dial Out/Connection Timeout

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the amount of time the Express XL/XLT waits for a call to be answered before giving up the attempt. Possible values are 15 secs (def), 30 secs, 1 min, 2 mins and 4 mins.

Dial Out/Attempts

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value is the number of attempts the Express XL/XLT will make before giving up on the connection. This is effective for manual dialing or dynamic bandwidth calls only. The range is from 1 (def) to 255.

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Dial Out/Initial Channels

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the number of B-channels to dial-up on the initial connection. Possible choices are 1 (def) and 2.

Connection List/Bandwidth

The bandwidth parameters that govern this connection are set here.

Bandwidth/On Demand

The parameters under this menu control the data rates required to change bandwidth.

Bandwidth/Mode

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

When this option is set to On, the Express XL/XLT will apply its bandwidth- on-demand features for this Connection List profile. If set to Off, none are performed.

Bandwidth/Idle Timeout

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the number of seconds the ISDN line must be idle before hanging up this connection. A value of 0 (def) means the Express XL/XLT will never drop the link based on the idle timer. The range is 0 to 255.

Bandwidth/Preempt Time

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

Occasionally an application will require to connect to a different location before the current connection’s idle timer has timed out. This causes the application to have to wait for idle timer before it can use the B-channel. This preempt time allows the Connection List that is active to be dropped sooner than the normal idle time. The value ranges from 0 to 255 and is in seconds. When bandwidth is needed for another application, the idle timer is compared to this preempt time. If the idle timer is greater, the connection is preempted. If set to 255 (def), the connection is never preempted. If set to 0, the connection is disconnected immediately when another application is requested.

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Bandwidth/Upper Threshold

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the percentage of bandwidth that must be at least present on one B- channel before a second B-channel is added. The range is 0 to 100 and is in percentages. The default is 80%, which is equivalent to 51.2 kbps. See the section Bandwidth/Samples (below) for more information on how the bandwidth rate is calculated.

Bandwidth/Lower Threshold

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the percentage of maximum bandwidth the bit rate must go below on two B-channels before one is dropped. The range is 0 to 100 and is in percentages. The default is 30%, which is equivalent to 38.4 kbps. See the section Bandwidth/Samples (below) for more information on how the bandwidth rate is calculated.

Bandwidth/Min Channels

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This represents the minimum number of B-channels that must be up for this Connection List profile. This value ranges from 0 to 2. The default is 0.

Bandwidth/Max Channels

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This represents the maximum number of B-channels this Connection List profile can have. The allowed values are 1 and 2. The default is 2. A value of 1 means that no extra bandwidth can be obtained for this connection.

Bandwidth/Samples

The parameters under this menu control the rate at which the Express XL/XLT samples the bandwidth on the B-channel(s).

Samples/Sample Rate

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the time between samples used for calculating data rates on the ISDN call. The value is in seconds and ranges from 1 to 255. The default is 5 seconds.

Samples/Samples

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This is the number of WAN data rate samples taken before a decision to change bandwidth is performed. The range is 1 (def) to 255 samples.

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Samples/Time Between Changes

Write security: 3; Read security: 5

This value is the minimum time between bandwidth changes for this Connection List profile. The range is 0 to 255 seconds. The default is 60 seconds.

Connection List/Filters

The Express XL/XLT can block packets in and out of a WAN port by use of the filters. These filters are set up on a per-Connection List profile basis. They are set up in two steps: 1) define the types of packets that would be of interest in the Configuration/Security/Filter Defines menu, and 2) set up the filter type and combination of defines that will cause a packet block.

Typical example of a filter setup:

Filters/WAN-to-LAN (In)

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The packets which come into the Express XL/XLT can be filtered in three ways:

Disabled (def) - Turns off packet input filtering. No incoming packets are blocked.

Block All - All incoming packets from the WAN are blocked except as defined in the Filters/In Exceptions list.

Forward All - All incoming packets from the WAN are not blocked except as defined in the Filters/In Exceptions list.

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Filters/In Exceptions

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is a list of up to 32 filter entries which can be combined using the operations field. The operations are performed in the order they appear on the list.

Active - Turns this entry active when set to On.

Type - Selects the filter define list to reference:

MAC

-

from the Configuration/Security/Filter

 

 

Defines/MAC Filter Defines list.

Pattern

-

from the Configuration/Security/Filter

 

 

Defines/Pattern Filter Defines list.

IP

-

from the Configuration/Security/Filter

 

 

Defines/IP Filter Defines list.

IPX

-

from the Configuration/Security/Filter

 

 

Defines/IPX Filter Defines list.

Filter List Name - Selects between filters defined in the list.

Next Oper - The next operation to use to combine with the next filter in the list:

END

- the last filter to combination.

AND

-

logically AND this filter with the next filter

 

 

in the list.

OR

-

logically OR this filter with the next filter in

 

 

the list.

Filters/LAN-to-WAN (Out)

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The packets which come out toward the WAN from the Express XL/XLT can be filtered in three ways:

Disabled (def) - Turns off packet output filtering. No outgoing packets are blocked.

Block All - All outgoing packets to the WAN are blocked except as defined in the Filters/Out Exceptions list.

Forward All - All outgoing packets to the WAN are not blocked except as defined in the Filters/Out Exceptions list.

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Filters/Out Exceptions

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is a list of up to 32 filter entries. The setup is exactly the same as the Filter/ In Exceptions list.

Filters/Demand Dial

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

The demand dial filters have two purposes: 1) cause the Express XL/XLT in Bridge mode to dial this Connection List profile, and 2) determine which traffic will cause the idle timer to be reset, keeping the connection active. The latter is used in Bridge or IP/IPX Router mode. The idle timer is a timer in the Express XL/XLT which continually increments until it reaches the idle timeout parameters value set in the Connection List, at which point the connection is hung-up.

When this filter is enabled, direct control can be placed over which packets are considered as demand and which are ignored. Packets that are ignored cause a connection not to be dialed and do not reset the idle timer of an active connection. This is especially helpful for bridged connections since bridges cannot easily distinguish true demand traffic from overhead traffic like certain broadcast and multicast packets. There are three possible selections for this parameter:

Disabled (def) - Turns off demand dial filtering. No packets cause demand dialing for this profile and all outgoing and incoming packets reset the idle timer.

Ignore All - When connected in any mode (Bridge, IP Router, or IPX router), the idle timer is reset only when there is a match in the Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions list. When not connected in Bridge mode only, causes the Express XL/XLT to dial using this Connection List profile if there is a match in the Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions.

Demand All - When connected in any mode (Bridge, IP Router, or IPX router), the idle timer is always reset except when there is a match in the Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions list. When not connected in Bridge mode only, causes the Express XL/XLT to dial using this Connection List profile if there is NOT a match in the Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions list.

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Filters/Dem Dial Exceptions

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This is a list of up to 32 filter entries. The setup is exactly the same as the Filter/ In Exceptions list.

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Configuration/Management

The Express XL/XLT can be managed using Telnet, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), or the maintenance port. SNMP support is limited to MIB definitions. See Appendix C on page 139 for a description of the MIBs supported by the Express XL/XLT. Each of the three methods can be protected using authentication. Figure 3-9 shows the Configuration/Management menu.

Figure 3-9

Configuration/Management Screen

Management/Telnet

Any telnet client application can bring up a session to the Express XL/XLT’s Telnet server using the standard telnet TCP port. Only one session is supported at a time. All sessions require a user name and password.

Telnet/Server Access

Write security: 2; Read security: 5

This option must be set to On (def) to access the Express XL/XLT via Telnet. Turning it Off means that access is denied.

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Telnet/User List

Up to four users can be configured for access to the Express XL/XLT. Each user can be assigned a privilege and time out.

User List/Name

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

A text string of the user name for this session.

User List/Authen Method

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

The user can be authenticated in two ways:

Password - The Password field is used to authenticate the user.

Radius - The Radius client is used for authenticating the user.

User List/Password

Write security: 0; Read security: 3

When the authenticating method is password, this text string is used for the password.

User List/Idle Time

Write security: 1; Read security: 3

When set to non-zero, the session is automatically logged out when no activity occurs for this amount of time. The range is 0 to 255 and is in minutes. The default is 10 minutes, and a setting of 0 will never time out the session. When a timeout occurs during an edit session, all changes are saved.

User List/Level

Write security: 0; Read security: 1

This is the security level privilege that is assigned for this user. See Security Levels on page 33 for an explanation of what those levels imply. Level 0 is the default.

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