4RF SQ757M160 User Manual

Loading...

July 2016

Version 1.6.0

| 1

Copyright

Copyright © 2016 4RF Limited. All rights reserved.

This document is protected by copyright belonging to 4RF Limited and may not be reproduced or republished in whole or part in any form without the prior written permission of 4RF Limited.

Trademarks

Aprisa and the 4RF logo are trademarks of 4RF Limited.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-related trademarks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.

Disclaimer

Although every precaution has been taken preparing this information, 4RF Limited assumes no liability for errors and omissions, or any damages resulting from use of this information. This document or the equipment may change, without notice, in the interests of improving the product.

RoHS and WEEE Compliance

The Aprisa SR+ is fully compliant with the European Commission’s RoHS (Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) environmental directives.

Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS)

The RoHS Directive prohibits the sale in the European Union of electronic equipment containing these hazardous substances: lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

4RF has worked with its component suppliers to ensure compliance with the RoHS Directive which came into effect on the 1st July 2006.

End-of-life recycling programme (WEEE)

The WEEE Directive concerns the recovery, reuse, and recycling of electronic and electrical equipment. Under the Directive, used equipment must be marked, collected separately, and disposed of properly.

4RF has instigated a programme to manage the reuse, recycling, and recovery of waste in an environmentally safe manner using processes that comply with the WEEE Directive (EU Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2002/96/EC).

4RF invites questions from customers and partners on its environmental programmes and compliance with the European Commission’s Directives (sales@4RF.com).

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

2 |

Compliance General

The Aprisa SR+ radio predominantly operates within frequency bands that require a site license be issued by the radio regulatory authority with jurisdiction over the territory in which the equipment is being operated.

It is the responsibility of the user, before operating the equipment, to ensure that where required the appropriate license has been granted and all conditions attendant to that license have been met.

Changes or modifications not approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.

Equipment authorizations sought by 4RF are based on the Aprisa SR+ radio equipment being installed at a fixed restricted access location and operated in point-to-multipoint or point-to-point mode within the environmental profile defined by EN 300 019, Class 3.4. Operation outside these criteria may invalidate the authorizations and / or license conditions.

The term ‘Radio’ with reference to the Aprisa SR+ User Manual, is a generic term for one end station of a point-to-multipoint Aprisa SR+ network and does not confer any rights to connect to any public network or to operate the equipment within any territory.

Compliance European Telecommunications Standards Institute

The Aprisa SR+ radio is designed to comply with the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) specifications as follows:

 

 

12.5 kHz and 25 kHz

50 kHz Channel

 

 

Channel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radio performance

 

EN 300 113-2

 

EN 302 561 (pending)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

EN 301 489-1 and 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency band

Channel size

 

Power input

Notified

 

 

 

 

 

 

body

 

 

 

 

 

 

135-175 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

215-240 MHz

12.5 kHz, 20 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

 

 

25 kHz, 50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

320-400 MHz

12.5 kHz, 20 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

 

 

25 kHz, 50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

400-470 MHz

12.5 kHz, 20 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

 

 

25 kHz, 50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

450-520 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz, 50 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

| 3

Compliance Federal Communications Commission

The Aprisa SR+ radio is designed to comply with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) specifications as follows:

Radio

 

47CFR part 24, part 27, part 90 and part 101 Private Land

 

 

Mobile Radio Services

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

47CFR part

15 Radio Frequency Devices, EN 301 489-1 and

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency Band *

Channel size

Power

Authorization

FCC ID

 

 

 

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

135-175 MHz

15 kHz, 30 kHz

13.8

VDC

Part 90

UIPSQ135M150

 

 

 

 

 

 

215-240 MHz

12.5 kHz, 15 kHz,

13.8

VDC

Part 90

UIPSQ215M141

 

25 kHz, 50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

400-470 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

13.8

VDC

Part 90

UIPSQ400M1311

 

50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

450-520 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz

13.8

VDC

Part 90

Pending

 

 

 

 

 

757-758 MHz and

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

13.8 VDC

Part 27

Pending

787-788 MHz

50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

896-902 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

13.8

VDC

Part 24 /

UIPSQ896M141

 

50 kHz

 

 

Part 90 /

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

928-960 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

13.8

VDC

Part 24 /

UIPSQ928M141

 

50 kHz

 

 

Part 90 /

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

* The Frequency Band is not an indication of the exact frequencies approved by FCC.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

4 |

Compliance Industry Canada

The Aprisa SR+ radio is designed to comply with Industry Canada (IC) specifications as follows:

Radio

 

 

RSS-119 / RSS-134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

 

This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian

 

 

 

standard ICES-003.

 

 

 

 

 

Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la

 

 

 

norme NMB-003 du Canada.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency Band *

Channel size

 

Power

 

Authorization

IC

 

 

 

 

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

135-175 MHz

15 kHz, 30 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

 

RSS-119

6772A-SQ135M150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

215-240 MHz

12.5 kHz, 15 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

RSS-119

Pending

 

25 kHz, 50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

400-470 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

RSS-119

6772A-SQ400M1311

 

50 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

896-902 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

RSS-119 and

Pending

 

50 kHz

 

 

 

RSS-134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

928-960 MHz

12.5 kHz, 25 kHz,

 

13.8 VDC

 

RSS-119 and

Pending

 

50 kHz

 

 

 

RSS-134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* The Frequency Band is not an indication of the exact frequencies approved by IC.

Compliance Brazil

Este produto será comercializado no Brasil com as configurações abaixo:

Faixa de frequência: 406,10 a 413,05, 423,05 a 430 MHz, 451,00625 a 452,0065 MHz, 459 a 460 MHz, 461,0025 a 462,00625 MHz e 469 a 470 MHz.

Modulações: QPSK, 16QAM e 64QAM

BW: 12,5 e 25 KHz.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

| 5

Compliance Hazardous Locations Notice

This product is suitable for use in Class 1, Division 2, Groups A - D hazardous locations or non-hazardous locations.

The following text is printed on the Aprisa SR+ fascia:

WARNING: EXPLOSION HAZARD - Do not connect or disconnect while circuits are live unless area is known to be non-hazardous.

The following text is printed on the Aprisa SR+ where the end user is in Canada:

AVERTISSEMENT: RISQUE D'EXPLOSION - Ne pas brancher ou débrancher tant que le circuit est sous tension, à moins qu'il ne s'agisse d'un emplacement non dangereux.

The USB service ports are not to be used unless the area is known to be non-hazardous.

Compliance IEEE 1613 class 2

Users requiring compliance to IEEE 1613 class 2 should use screened cables and connectors to connect to the serial ports.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

6 |

RF Exposure Warning

WARNING:

The installer and / or user of Aprisa SR+ radios shall ensure that a separation distance as given in the following table is maintained between the main axis of the terminal’s antenna and the body of the user or nearby persons.

Minimum separation distances given are based on the maximum values of the following methodologies:

1.Maximum Permissible Exposure non-occupational limit (B or general public) of

47 CFR 1.1310 and the methodology of FCC’s OST/OET Bulletin number 65.

2.Reference levels as given in Annex III, European Directive on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC). These distances will ensure indirect compliance with the requirements of EN 50385:2002.

Frequency (MHz)

Maximum Power

Maximum Antenna

Minimum Separation

 

(dBm) Note 1

Gain (dBi)

Distance

 

 

 

(m)

 

 

 

 

135

+ 37

15

3.5

 

 

 

 

175

+ 37

15

3.5

 

 

 

 

215

+ 37

15

3.5

 

 

 

 

240

+ 37

15

3.5

 

 

 

 

320

+ 37

15

3.5

 

 

 

 

400

+ 37

15

3.0

 

 

 

 

450

+ 37

15

3.0

 

 

 

 

470

+ 37

15

3.0

 

 

 

 

520

+ 37

15

3.0

 

 

 

 

757

+ 37

18

3.5

 

 

 

 

788

+ 37

18

3.5

 

 

 

 

896

+ 37

28

10.0

 

 

 

 

902

+ 37

28

10.0

 

 

 

 

928

+ 37

28

9.5

 

 

 

 

960

+ 37

28

9.5

 

 

 

 

Note 1: The Peak Envelope Power (PEP) at maximum set power level is +41 dBm.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

 

 

Contents | 7

Contents

 

1.

Getting Started ........................................................................

13

2.

Introduction............................................................................

15

 

About This Manual...............................................................................

15

 

What It Covers ............................................................................

15

 

Who Should Read It ......................................................................

15

 

Contact Us.................................................................................

15

 

What’s in the Box ...............................................................................

15

 

Aprisa SR+ Accessory Kit ................................................................

16

 

Aprisa SR+ CD Contents..................................................................

16

 

Software ............................................................................

16

 

Documentation ....................................................................

16

3.

About the Radio .......................................................................

17

 

The 4RF Aprisa SR+ Radio ......................................................................

17

 

Product Overview ...............................................................................

18

 

Network Coverage and Capacity .......................................................

18

 

Automatic Registration ..................................................................

18

 

Remote Messaging........................................................................

18

 

Store and Forward Repeater............................................................

19

 

Repeater Packet Forwarding.....................................................

19

 

Repeater Messaging ...............................................................

22

 

Peer To Peer Communication Between Remote Radios......................

23

 

Product Features ................................................................................

24

 

Functions ..................................................................................

24

 

Security ....................................................................................

25

 

Performance ..............................................................................

26

 

Usability ...................................................................................

26

 

System Gain vs FEC Coding .............................................................

27

 

Architecture......................................................................................

28

 

Product Operation........................................................................

28

 

Physical Layer.............................................................................

28

 

Data Link Layer / MAC layer ............................................................

29

 

Channel Access ....................................................................

29

 

Hop by Hop Transmission.........................................................

30

 

Adaptive Coding and Modulation ................................................

30

 

Network Layer ............................................................................

31

 

Packet Routing.....................................................................

31

 

Static IP Router ....................................................................

32

 

Bridge Mode with VLAN Aware ..................................................

35

 

VLAN Bridge Mode Description ..................................................

36

 

Avoiding Narrow Band Radio Traffic Overloading....................................

38

 

Interfaces.........................................................................................

40

 

Antenna Interface ........................................................................

40

 

Ethernet Interface .......................................................................

40

 

RS-232 / RS-485 Interface...............................................................

40

 

USB Interfaces ............................................................................

40

 

Protect Interface .........................................................................

40

 

Alarms Interface..........................................................................

40

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

8 |

Contents

 

 

Front Panel Connections .......................................................................

41

 

LED Display Panel ...............................................................................

42

 

Normal Operation ........................................................................

42

 

Single Radio Software Upgrade.........................................................

43

 

Network Software Upgrade .............................................................

43

 

Test Mode .................................................................................

44

 

Network Management ..........................................................................

45

 

Hardware Alarm Inputs / Outputs ............................................................

46

 

Alarm Input to SNMP Trap...............................................................

46

 

Alarm Input to Alarm Output ...........................................................

46

 

Aprisa SR Alarm Input to Aprisa SR+ Alarm Output ..................................

46

4.

Implementing the Network..........................................................

47

 

Network Topologies .............................................................................

47

 

Point-To-Point Network ..........................................................

47

 

Point-to-Multipoint Network .....................................................

47

 

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 1............................................

47

 

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 2............................................

47

 

Initial Network Deployment ...................................................................

48

 

Install the Base Station ..................................................................

48

 

Installing the Remote Stations .........................................................

48

 

Install a Repeater Station ...............................................................

48

 

Network Changes ................................................................................

49

 

Adding a Repeater Station ..............................................................

49

 

Adding a Remote Station ................................................................

49

5.

Preparation ............................................................................

51

 

Bench Setup......................................................................................

51

 

Path Planning ....................................................................................

52

 

Antenna Selection and Siting ...........................................................

52

 

Base or Repeater Station .........................................................

52

 

Remote station ....................................................................

53

 

Antenna Siting .....................................................................

54

 

Coaxial Feeder Cables ...................................................................

55

 

Linking System Plan ......................................................................

55

 

Site Requirements...............................................................................

56

 

Power Supply..............................................................................

56

 

Equipment Cooling .......................................................................

56

 

Earthing and Lightning Protection .....................................................

57

 

Feeder Earthing....................................................................

57

 

Radio Earthing .....................................................................

57

6.

Installing the Radio ...................................................................

58

 

Mounting..........................................................................................

58

 

Required Tools............................................................................

58

 

DIN Rail Mounting ........................................................................

59

 

Rack Shelf Mounting .....................................................................

60

 

Wall Mounting.............................................................................

61

 

Installing the Antenna and Feeder Cable ....................................................

62

 

Connecting the Power Supply .................................................................

63

 

External Power Supplies.................................................................

63

 

Spare Fuses................................................................................

64

 

Additional Spare Fuses............................................................

65

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

 

 

Contents | 9

7.

Managing the Radio ...................................................................

67

 

SuperVisor ........................................................................................

67

 

PC Requirements for SuperVisor .......................................................

68

 

Connecting to SuperVisor ...............................................................

69

 

Management PC Connection .....................................................

70

 

PC Settings for SuperVisor .......................................................

71

 

Login to SuperVisor................................................................

75

 

Logout of SuperVisor ..............................................................

76

 

SuperVisor Page Layout...........................................................

77

 

SuperVisor Menu ...................................................................

79

 

SuperVisor Menu Access ..........................................................

80

 

SuperVisor Menu Items ...........................................................

82

 

Standard Radio............................................................................

83

 

Terminal ............................................................................

83

 

Radio ..............................................................................

101

 

Serial ..............................................................................

122

 

Ethernet ..........................................................................

137

 

IP...................................................................................

147

 

QoS ................................................................................

160

 

Security ...........................................................................

182

 

Maintenance .....................................................................

204

 

Events .............................................................................

222

 

Software ..........................................................................

234

 

Monitoring ........................................................................

253

 

Network Status ..................................................................

271

 

Protected Station ......................................................................

278

 

Terminal ..........................................................................

279

 

Radio ..............................................................................

285

 

Ethernet ..........................................................................

287

 

IP...................................................................................

288

 

Security ...........................................................................

292

 

Maintenance .....................................................................

294

 

Events .............................................................................

302

 

Software ..........................................................................

305

 

Command Line Interface .....................................................................

322

 

Connecting to the Management Port ................................................

322

 

CLI Commands ..........................................................................

325

 

Viewing the CLI Terminal Summary...........................................

326

 

Changing the Radio IP Address with the CLI .................................

326

8.

In-Service Commissioning ..........................................................

327

 

Before You Start...............................................................................

327

 

What You Will Need....................................................................

327

 

Antenna Alignment............................................................................

328

 

Aligning the Antennas .................................................................

328

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

10

| Contents

 

9.

Product Options ......................................................................

329

 

Data Interface Ports ..........................................................................

329

 

Full Duplex Base Station .....................................................................

329

 

Protected Station .............................................................................

330

 

Protected Ports .........................................................................

331

 

Operation................................................................................

331

 

Switch Over ......................................................................

331

 

Switching Criteria ...............................................................

332

 

Monitored Alarms................................................................

333

 

Configuration Management ....................................................

334

 

Hardware Manual Lock .........................................................

335

 

Remote Control ..................................................................

335

 

L2 / L3 Protection Operation ..................................................

336

 

Hot-Swappable...................................................................

336

 

Antenna and Duplexer Options ................................................

337

 

Installation ..............................................................................

339

 

Mounting ..........................................................................

339

 

Cabling ............................................................................

340

 

Power .............................................................................

342

 

Alarms.............................................................................

342

 

Maintenance ............................................................................

343

 

Changing the Protected Station IP Addresses ...............................

343

 

Creating a Protected Station ..................................................

344

 

Replacing a Protected Station Faulty Radio .................................

344

 

Replacing a Faulty Power Supply..............................................

345

 

Replacing a Faulty Protection Switch ........................................

345

 

Spares ....................................................................................

345

 

Data Driven Protected Station...............................................................

346

 

Operation................................................................................

346

 

Over The Air Compatibility ....................................................

346

 

Switch Over ......................................................................

347

 

Configuration Management ....................................................

347

 

Power .............................................................................

347

 

Installation ..............................................................................

348

 

Mounting ..........................................................................

348

 

Cabling ............................................................................

348

 

Duplexer Kits...................................................................................

349

 

Radio Duplexer Kits ....................................................................

349

 

Protected Station Duplexer Kits......................................................

351

 

USB RS-232 / RS-485 Serial Port.............................................................

353

 

USB RS-232 / RS-485 operation.......................................................

353

 

USB RS-232 Cabling Options...........................................................

354

 

USB RS-485 Cabling Options...........................................................

354

 

USB Retention Clip ..............................................................

355

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

 

 

Contents | 11

10.

Maintenance ..........................................................................

357

 

No User-Serviceable Components ...........................................................

357

 

Software Upgrade .............................................................................

358

 

Network Software Upgrade ...........................................................

358

 

Non-Protected Network Upgrade Process....................................

358

 

Protected Network Upgrade Process .........................................

360

 

Single Radio Software Upgrade.......................................................

362

 

File Transfer Method............................................................

362

 

USB Boot Upgrade Method .....................................................

363

 

Software Downgrade ............................................................

363

 

Protected Station Software Upgrade ................................................

364

11.

Interface Connections...............................................................

365

 

RJ45 Connector Pin Assignments............................................................

365

 

Ethernet Interface Connections .............................................................

365

 

RS-232 Serial Interface Connections........................................................

366

 

RS-232 Pinout ....................................................................

366

 

RS-232 Customer Cable Wiring ................................................

366

 

RS-232 RJ45 LED Indicators ....................................................

366

 

Alarm Interface Connections ................................................................

367

 

Protection Switch Remote Control Connections ..........................................

367

12. Alarm Types and Sources...........................................................

368

 

Alarm Types ....................................................................................

368

 

Alarm Events ............................................................................

369

 

Informational Events...................................................................

374

13.

Specifications .........................................................................

375

 

RF Specifications ..............................................................................

375

 

Frequency Bands .......................................................................

375

 

Channel Sizes ...........................................................................

376

 

Receiver .................................................................................

389

 

Transmitter .............................................................................

392

 

Modem ...................................................................................

393

 

Data Payload Security .................................................................

393

 

Interface Specifications ......................................................................

394

 

Ethernet Interface .....................................................................

394

 

RS-232 Asynchronous Interface.......................................................

395

 

Hardware Alarms Interface ...........................................................

396

 

Protection Switch Specifications .....................................................

396

 

Power Specifications..........................................................................

397

 

Power Supply............................................................................

397

 

Power Consumption ....................................................................

398

 

Power Dissipation ......................................................................

398

 

General Specifications........................................................................

399

 

Environmental ..........................................................................

399

 

Mechanical ..............................................................................

399

 

Compliance..............................................................................

400

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

12 | Contents

 

14.

Product End Of Life..................................................................

401

 

End-of-Life Recycling Programme (WEEE) .................................................

401

 

The WEEE Symbol Explained ..........................................................

401

 

WEEE Must Be Collected Separately .................................................

401

 

YOUR ROLE in the Recovery of WEEE................................................

401

 

EEE Waste Impacts the Environment and Health ..................................

401

15.

Copyrights .............................................................................

402

16.

Abbreviations .........................................................................

403

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

Getting Started | 13

1.Getting Started

This section is an overview of the steps required to commission an Aprisa SR+ radio network in the field:

Phase 1:

Pre-installation

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Confirm path planning.

Page

52

 

 

 

 

2.

Ensure that the site preparation is complete:

Page

55

 

 

Power requirements

 

 

 

 

Tower requirements

 

 

 

Environmental considerations, for example, temperature control

 

 

 

 

Mounting space

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phase 2:

Installing the radios

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Mount the radio.

Page

58

 

 

 

 

2.

Connect earthing to the radio.

Page

57

 

 

 

 

3.

Confirm that the:

 

 

 

Antenna is mounted and visually aligned

 

 

 

Feeder cable is connected to the antenna

 

 

 

Feeder connections are tightened to recommended level

 

 

 

Tower earthing is complete

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

Install lightning protection.

Page

57

 

 

 

 

5.

Connect the coaxial jumper cable between the lightning protection and the

Page

62

 

radio antenna port.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

Connect the power to the radio.

Page

63

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

14 | Getting Started

Phase 3:

Establishing the link

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

If radio’s IP address is not the default IP address (169.254.50.10 with a subnet

Page

322

 

mask of 255.255.0.0) and you don’t know the radio’s IP address see ‘Command

 

 

 

Line Interface’ on page 322.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Connect the Ethernet cable between the radio’s Ethernet port and the PC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

Confirm that the PC IP settings are correct for the Ethernet connection:

Page

71

 

 

IP address

 

 

 

 

Subnet mask

 

 

 

 

Gateway IP address

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

Open a web browser and login to the radio.

Page

75

 

 

 

 

5.

Set or confirm the RF characteristics:

Page

103

 

TX and RX frequencies

 

 

 

 

TX output power

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

Compare the actual RSSI to the expected RSSI value (from your path planning).

Page

44

 

 

 

 

7.

Align the antennas.

Page

328

 

 

 

 

8.

Confirm that the radio is operating correctly; the OK, MODE and AUX LEDs are

 

 

 

green.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

Introduction | 15

2.Introduction

About This Manual

What It Covers

This user manual describes how to install and configure an Aprisa SR+ point-to-multipoint digital radio network.

It specifically documents an Aprisa SR+ radio running system software version 1.6.0 .

It is recommended that you read the relevant sections of this manual before installing or operating the radios.

Who Should Read It

This manual has been written for professional field technicians and engineers who have an appropriate level of training and experience.

Contact Us

If you experience any difficulty installing or using Aprisa SR+ after reading this manual, please contact Customer Support or your local 4RF representative.

Our area representative contact details are available from our website:

4RF Limited

26 Glover Street, Ngauranga

PO Box 13-506

Wellington 6032

New Zealand

E-mail

support@4rf.com

Web site

www.4rf.com

Telephone

+64 4 499 6000

Facsimile

+64 4 473 4447

Attention

Customer Services

What’s in the Box

Inside the box you will find:

One Aprisa SR+ radio fitted with a power connector.

One Aprisa SR+ Accessory kit containing the following:

Aprisa SR+ CD

Aprisa SR+ Quick Start Guide

Management Cable

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

16 | Introduction

Aprisa SR+ Accessory Kit

The accessory kit contains the following items:

Aprisa SR+ Quick Start Guide

Aprisa SR+ CD

Management Cable

USB Cable USB A to USB micro B, 1m

Aprisa SR+ CD Contents

The Aprisa SR+ CD contains the following:

Software

The latest version of the radio software (see ‘Software Upgrade’ on page 358)

USB Serial Driver

Web browsers - Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer are included for your convenience

Adobe™ Acrobat® Reader® which you need to view the PDF files on the Aprisa SR+ CD

Documentation

User manual - an electronic (PDF) version for you to view online or print

Product collateral - application overviews, product description, quick start guide, case studies, software release notes and technical papers

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 17

3.About the Radio

The 4RF Aprisa SR+ Radio

The 4RF Aprisa SR+ is a Point-To-Multipoint (PMP) and Point-To-Point (PTP) digital radio providing secure narrowband wireless data connectivity for SCADA, infrastructure and telemetry applications.

The radios carry a combination of serial data and Ethernet data between the base station, repeater stations and remote stations.

A single Aprisa SR+ is configurable as a:

Point-To-Multipoint base station, remote station, repeater station or a base-repeater station

Point-To-Point local or remote radio

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

18 | About the Radio

Product Overview

Network Coverage and Capacity

The Aprisa SR+ has a typical link range of up to 120 km, however, geographic features, such as hills, mountains, trees and foliage, or other path obstructions, such as buildings, will limit radio coverage. Additionally, geography may reduce network capacity at the edge of the network where errors may occur and require retransmission. However, the Aprisa SR+ uses 10W output power and Forward Error Correction (FEC) which greatly improves the sensitivity and system gain performance of the radio resulting in less retries and minimal reduction in capacity.

Ultimately, the overall performance of any specific network will be defined by a range of factors including the RF output power, the modulation used and its related receiver sensitivity, the geographic location, the number of remote stations in the base station coverage area and the traffic profile across the network. Effective network design will distribute the total number of remote stations across the available base stations to ensure optimal geographic coverage and network capacity.

One base station can register and operate with up to 500 remote / repeater stations.

The practical limit of remote / repeater stations that can operate with one base station is determined by a range of factors including the number of services, the packet sizes, the protocols used, the message types and network timeouts.

Automatic Registration

On start-up, the remote station transmits a registration message to the base station which responds with a registration response. This allows the base station to record the details of all the remote stations active in the network.

If a remote station cannot register with the base station after multiple attempts within 10 minutes, it will automatically reboot. If remote is not able to register with base station in 5 attempts, then a ‘Network Configuration Warning’ alarm event will be raised indicating that a remote is not registered with the base station.

If a remote station has registered with the base station but then loses communication, it will automatically reboot within 2 minutes.

Remote Messaging

There are two message types in the Aprisa SR+ network, broadcast messages and unicast messages. Broadcast messages are transmitted by the base station to the remote stations and unicast messages are transmitted by the remote station to the base station. These messages are commonly referred to as uplink (unicast remote to base) and downlink (broadcast base to remote).

All remotes within the coverage area will receive broadcast messages and pass them on to either the Ethernet or serial interface. The RTU determines if the message is intended for it and will accept it or discard it.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 19

Store and Forward Repeater

The Aprisa SR+ in Repeater mode is used to link remote stations to the base station when direct communication is not possible due to terrain, distance, fade margin or other obstructions in the network. The following example depicts a repeater on the hill top to allow communication between the base station and the remote stations on the other side of hilly terrain.

Repeater Packet Forwarding

The Aprisa SR+ works in packet Store and Forward (S&F) for simple and low cost repeater network.

Repeater mode is available in both Access Request (AR) and Listen Before Send (LBS/CSMA) MAC operating modes. It allows a radio in Repeater mode to store a received packet and retransmit it.

Single Repeater Single Hop

The following example depicts an Aprisa SR+ single repeater single hop Store and Forward network.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

20 | About the Radio

Multiple Repeater Single Hop

The following example depicts an Aprisa SR+ multiple repeater single hop store and forward network supporting both overlapping and non-overlapping coverage repeater networks. An overlapped RF coverage area creates radio interference and might affect network performance and reduce throughput, as show in figure (a), where Remote 1 is in overlapped RF coverage with Repeater 1 and Repeater 2.

The Aprisa SR+ functionality allows repeaters in Bridge mode to forward Ethernet packets based on Repeater Network Segment ID. The base station translates the destination address (DA) to the Repeater Network Segment ID. This improves repeater performance by forwarding the packet if the Repeater Network Segment ID belongs to the repeater branch and discards the packet if it doesn’t.

Router mode supports repeater packet forwarding based on IP destination address. This improves repeater performance by forwarding the packet if the IP destination address belongs to the repeater branch and discards the packet if it doesn’t

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 21

Multiple Repeater Multiple Hop

The following example depicts an Aprisa SR+ daisy chain multiple repeater multiple hop store and forward network i.e. multiple hops and multiple repeaters in non-overlapping RF coverage. The Aprisa SR+ daisy chain store and forward repeaters are currently supported in LBS MAC mode only.

In any type of store and forward repeater network base, repeater and remote radios must have their Tx/Rx frequencies sets to match to their appropriate linking devices as shown in the figures.

Note: Frequencies shown in the figures relates to the device on the left where {Tx, Rx} = {fx, fy}. In this example, the Base Station, Repeater 2 and remotes are deployed with Tx=f1 and Rx=f2. On the other hand Repeater 1 and Repeater 3 are deployed with Tx=f2 and Rx=f1, creating the required linking for daisy chain operation.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

22 | About the Radio

Repeater Messaging

The Aprisa SR+ uses a routed protocol throughout the network whereby messages contain source and destination addresses. The remote and repeater stations will register with a base station. In networks with a repeater, the repeater must register with the base station before the remotes can register with the base station.

Additionally, based on destination address, messages are designated as either a ‘broadcast’ message, (mostly originating from a base station) or a ‘unicast’ message (mostly originating from a remote station).

In a network with a repeater, or multiple repeaters, the base station broadcasts a message which contains a source address and a destination address. The repeater receives the message and recognizes it as a broadcast message, from the destination address and re-broadcasts the message across the network. In IP routing mode all remote stations in the coverage area will receive the message but only the radio with the destination address will act upon the message.

Similarly, the remote station will send a unicast message which contains a unicast destination address (the base station). The repeater will receive this message; recognize the destination address and forward it to the appropriate destination address.

In order to prevent repeater-repeater loops, a detection mechanism of ‘duplicate message’ and use of unicast messaging in remote to base/repeater direction is used.

For example, in the Multiple Repeater Single Hop figure above, the topology is of Base, Repeater 1, Repeater 2 and Remote 1 connected to Repeater 1 in overlapping coverage, where Remote 1 can also hear Repeater 2. When the Base station broadcasts a message, Remote1 will receive this message from both Repeater 1 and Repeater 2 but will drop one of them as ‘duplicate message’. It is possible that Repeater 1, for example, can also hear the broadcast sent out by Repeater 2. In this case, Repeater 1 will drop this broadcast as a ‘duplicate message’.

These phenomena will not happen in the upstream direction as all messages are sent ‘unicast’. Remote 1 will send a packet to Base station, setting the destination address in packet to Base station and ‘next hop’ address in packet to Repeater 1. Thus, only Repeater 1 will forward the packet to Base station and

Repeater 2 will drop the packet as the ‘next hop’ address is not Repeater 2.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 23

Peer To Peer Communication Between Remote Radios

The Aprisa SR+ peer to peer communication between remote radios is used to enable communication between remote radios via the repeater or base-repeater. It is useful if the SCADA server or base station fails or when in some industries like the water industry, where a reservoir remote station might send a direct message to a valve remote station to close or open the valve without the intervention of the SCADA server.

The Aprisa SR+ has a special operating mode for peer to peer communication between remote radios and requires the following settings:

1.If peer to peer communication between remote radios is required to operate via the base station, then the SuperVisor > Terminal > Operating Mode > Terminal operating mode must be set to ‘BaseRepeater’. Base-Repeater operating mode doesn’t change the Network Radius parameter as the base-repeater is considered to be like a regular base station.

2.The remote radios participating in peer to peer communication must set the SuperVisor > Radio > Channel Setup > Packet Filtering to Disable to allow a repeated packet received from peer to peer remote radios by the repeater or base-repeater to forward the packet to the relevant interface and not to discard it.

3.IP Header Compression must be disabled on all radios (base, repeater, remotes) for this feature to operate correctly (See ‘IP Header Compression Ratio’ on page 119).

4.The Network Repeaters Proximity must be set to ‘Base Repeater’ on all remote radios for this feature to operate correctly (See ‘Network Repeaters Proximity’ on page 89’).

5.Note: In ‘Router Mode’ setup a static route for any required peer to peer path.

The following example depicts peer to peer communication between remote radios via a base-repeater and via a repeater station where remote-1 and remote-2 communicate with each other via the baserepeater station and remote-3 and remote-4 communicate with each other via the repeater station. All the remote radios are configured with packet filtering disabled and all radios in the network are configured with IP header compression ratio disabled.

Note: The Aprisa SR+ network is transparent to the protocol being transmitted; therefore the Packet Filtering parameter is based on the Aprisa SR+ addressing and network protocols, not the user (SCADA, etc.) traffic protocols.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

24 | About the Radio

Product Features

Functions

Point-to-Point (PTP) or Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) operation

Licensed frequency bands:

VHF 135

135-175 MHz

VHF 220

215-240 MHz

UHF 320

320-400 MHz

UHF 400

400-470 MHz

UHF 450

450-520

MHz

UHF 700

757-758

MHz and 787-788 MHz

UHF 896

896-902

MHz

UHF 928

928-960

MHz

Channel sizes – software selectable:

12.5kHz 20 kHz 25 kHz 50 kHz 75 kHz

Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM): QPSK to 64 QAM

Half duplex or full duplex RF Point-To-Multipoint operation

Full duplex RF Point-To-Point operation

Ethernet data interface and RS-232 / RS-485 asynchronous multiple port options

Software selectable dual / single antenna port options (dual antenna port for external duplexers or filters)

Data encryption and authentication using 128,192 and 256 bit AES and CCM security standards

Terminal server operation for transporting RS-232 / RS-485 traffic over IP or Ethernet and converting IP packets to a local physical serial port

Mirrored Bits ® and SLIP support for RS-232

IEEE 802.1Q VLAN support with single and double VLAN tagged and add/remove VLAN manipulation to adapt to the appropriate RTU / PLCs

QoS supports using IEEE 802.1p VLAN priority bits to prioritize and handle the VLAN / traffic types

QoS per port (Ethernet, serial, management)

L2 / L3 / L4 filtering for security and avoiding narrow band radio network overload

L3 Gateway Router mode with standard static IP route for simple routing network integration

L3 Router mode with per Ethernet interface IP address and subnet

L2 Bridge mode with VLAN aware for standard Industrial LAN integration

Ethernet header and IP/TCP / UDP ROHC header compression to increase the narrow band radio capacity

Ethernet and serial payload compression to increase the narrow band radio capacity

Pseudo peer to peer communication between remote stations through base-repeater or repeater stations

SuperVisor web management support for element and sub-network (base-repeater-remotes) management

SNMPv1/2/3 & encryption MIB supports for 4RF SNMP manager or third party SNMP agent network management

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 25

SNMP context addressing for compressed SNMP access to remote stations

SNTP for accurate wide radio network time and date

RADIUS security for remote user authorization, authentication and accounting

Build-configuration / flexibility of serial and Ethernet interface ports (3+1, 2+2, 4+0)

Radio and user interface redundancy (provided with Aprisa SR+ Protected Station)

Protected Station fully hot swappable and monitored hot standby

Power optimized with sleep modes

Transparent to all common SCADA protocols; e.g. Modbus, IEC 60870-5-101/104, DNP3 or similar

Complies with international standards, including ETSI, FCC, IC, ACMA, EMC, safety and environmental standards

Security

The Aprisa SR+ provides security features to implement the key recommendations for industrial control systems. The security provided builds upon the best in class from multiple standards bodies, including:

IEC/TR 62443 (TC65) ‘Industrial Communications Networks – Network and System Security’

IEC/TS 62351 (TC57) ‘Power System Control and Associated Communications – Data and Communication Security’

FIPS PUB 197, NIST SP 800-38C, IETF RFC3394, RFC3610 and IEEE P1711/P1689/P1685

FIPS 140-2: Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules

The security features implemented are:

Data encryption

Counter Mode Encryption (CTR) using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 128, 192, 256 bit, based on FIPS PUB 197 AES encryption (using Rijndael version 3.0)

Data authentication

NIST SP 800-38C Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) based on RFC 3610 using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Data payload security

CCM Counter with CBC-MAC integrity (NIST special publication 800-38C)

Secured management interface protects configuration

L2 / L3 / L4 Address filtering enables traffic source authorization

Proprietary physical layer protocol and modified MAC layer protocol based on standardized IEEE 802.15.4

Licensed radio spectrum provides recourse against interference

SNMPv3 with Encryption for NMS secure access

Secure USB software upgrade

Key Encryption Key (KEK) based on RFC 3394, for secure Over The Air Re-keying (OTAR) of encryption keys

User privilege allows the accessibility control of the different radio network users and the user permissions

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

26 | About the Radio

Performance

Typical deployment of 30 remote stations from one base station with a practical limit of a few hundred remote stations

Long distance operation

High transmit power

Low noise receiver

Forward Error Correction

Electronic tuning over the frequency band

Thermal management for high power over a wide temperature range

Usability

Configuration / diagnostics via front panel Management Port USB interface, Ethernet interface

Built-in webserver SuperVisor with full configuration, diagnostics and monitoring functionality, including remote station configuration / diagnostics over the radio link

LED display for on-site diagnostics

Dedicated alarm port

Software upgrade and diagnostic reporting via the host port USB flash drive

Over-the-air software distribution and upgrades

Simple installation with integrated mounting holes for wall, DIN rail and rack shelf mounting

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 27

System Gain vs FEC Coding

This table shows the relationship between modulation, FEC coding, system gain, capacity and coverage.

Maximum FEC coding results in the highest system gain, the best coverage but the least capacity

Minimum FEC coding results in lower system gain, lower coverage but higher capacity

No FEC coding results in the lowest system gain, the lowest coverage but the highest capacity

This table defines the modulation order based on gross capacity:

Modulation

FEC Coding

Capacity

 

 

 

QPSK (High Gain)

Max Coded FEC

Minimum

 

 

 

QPSK (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

16QAM (High Gain)

Max Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

QPSK

No FEC

 

 

 

 

16QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

16QAM

No FEC

 

 

 

 

64QAM (High Gain)

Max Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

64QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

Maximum

 

 

 

This table defines the modulation order based on receiver sensitivity:

Modulation

FEC Coding

Coverage

 

 

 

QPSK (High Gain)

Max Coded FEC

Maximum

 

 

 

QPSK (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

16QAM (High Gain)

Max Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

QPSK

No FEC

 

 

 

 

16QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

64QAM (High Gain)

Max Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

16QAM

No FEC

 

 

 

 

64QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

Minimum

 

 

 

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

28 | About the Radio

Architecture

The Aprisa SR+ Architecture is based around a layered TCP/IP protocol stack:

Physical Proprietary wireless

RS-232 and Ethernet interfaces

Link

Proprietary wireless (channel access, ARQ, segmentation) VLAN aware Ethernet bridge

Network Standard IP

Proprietary automatic radio routing table population algorithm

Transport TCP, UDP

Application

HTTPS web management access through base station with proprietary management application software including management of remote stations over the radio link

SNMPv1/2/3 for network management application software

Product Operation

There are three components to the wireless interface: the Physical Layer (PHY), the Data Link Layer (DLL) and the Network Layer. These three layers are required to transport data across the wireless channel in the Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) configuration. The Aprisa SR+ DLL is largely based on the 802.15.4 Media Access Control (MAC) layer using a proprietary implementation.

Physical Layer

The Aprisa SR+ PHY uses a one or two frequency half duplex transmission mode which eliminates the need for a duplexer. However, a Dual Antenna port option is available for separate transmit and receive antenna connection to support external duplexers or filters (half duplex operation).

Remote nodes are predominantly in receive mode with only sporadic bursts of transmit data. This reduces power consumption.

The Aprisa SR+ is a packet based radio. Data is sent over the wireless channel in discrete packets / frames, separated in time. The PHY demodulates data within these packets with coherent detection.

The Aprisa SR+ PHY provides carrier, symbol and frame synchronization predominantly through the use of preambles. This preamble prefixes all packets sent over the wireless channel which enables fast Synchronization.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 29

Data Link Layer / MAC layer

The Aprisa SR+ PHY enables multiple users to be able to share a single wireless channel; however a DLL is required to manage data transport. The two key components to the DLL are channel access and hop by hop transmission.

Channel Access

The Aprisa SR+ radio has two modes of channel access, Access Request and Listen Before Send.

Option

Function

 

 

Access Request

Channel access scheme where the base stations controls the

 

communication on the channel. Remotes ask for access to the

 

channel, and the base station grants access if the channel is not

 

occupied.

 

 

Listen Before Send

Channel access scheme where network elements listen to ensure

 

the channel is clear, before trying to access the channel.

 

 

Access Request

This scheme is particularly suited to digital SCADA systems where all data flows through the base station. In this case it is important that the base station has contention-free access as it is involved in every transaction. The channel access scheme assigns the base station as the channel access arbitrator and therefore inherently it has contention-free access to the channel. This means that there is no possibility of contention on data originating from the base station. As all data flows to or from the base station, this significantly improves the robustness of the system.

All data messages are controlled via the AG (access grant) control message and therefore there is no possibility of contention on the actual end user data. If a remote station accesses the channel, the only contention risk is on the AR (access request) control message. These control messages are designed to be as short as possible and therefore the risk of collision of these control messages is significantly reduced. Should collisions occur these are resolved using a random back off and retry mechanism.

As the base station controls all data transactions multiple applications can be effectively handled, including a mixture of polling and report by exception.

Access Request – Full Duplex

This scheme is used in a network with a full duplex base / master station and half duplex repeater / remote stations. Full duplex Access Request utilizes the existing (half duplex) Access Request scheme as described in the section above.

The base / master station can transmit while simultaneously receiving from the remote / repeaters. This increases Access Request efficiency, especially in the report by exception scheme (spontaneous messages).

This feature can be operated on full duplex hardware only (see ‘Product Options’ section on page 329).

If the Access Scheme is set to full duplex on a repeater, packets start to egress a repeater before the entire packet has been received by the repeater. This scheme reduces latency on long packets through a repeater and improves performance in Overlapping Coverage mode.

To allow this new MAC scheme to operate, two new RF Network Detail parameters have been added; Base

Station ID and Repeater Network Segment ID (see ‘Base Station ID’ on page 89 and ‘Repeater Network Segment ID’ on page 90).

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

30 | About the Radio

Listen Before Send

The Listen Before Send channel access scheme is realized using Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA). In this mode, a pending transmission requires the channel to be clear. This is determined by monitoring the channel for other signals for a set time prior to transmission. This results in reduced collisions and improved channel capacity.

There are still possibilities for collisions with this technique e.g. if two radios simultaneously determine the channel is clear and transmit at the same time. In this case an acknowledged transaction may be used. The transmitter requests an ACK to ensure that the transmission has been successful. If the transmitter does not receive an ACK, then random backoffs are used to reschedule the next transmission.

Hop by Hop Transmission

Hop by Hop Transmission is realized in the Aprisa SR+ by adding a MAC address header to the packet. For 802.15.4, there are 2 addresses, the source and destination addresses.

Adaptive Coding and Modulation

The Aprisa SR+ provides Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) which maximizes the use of the RF path to provide the highest radio capacity available.

ACM automatically adjusts the modulation coding and FEC code rate in the remote to base direction of transmission based on the signal quality for each individual remote radio.

When the RF path is healthy (no fading), modulation coding is increased and the FEC code rate is decreased to maximize the data capacity.

If the RF path quality degrades, modulation coding is decreased and the FEC code rate is increased for maximum robustness to maintain path connectivity.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 31

Network Layer

Packet Routing

Aprisa SR+ is a standard static IP router which routes and forwards IP packet based on standard IP address and routing table decisions.

Aprisa SR+ router mode (see figure below), enables the routing of IP packets within the Aprisa SR+ wireless network and in and out to the external router / IP RTUs devices connected to the Aprisa SR+ wired Ethernet ports.

Within the Aprisa SR+ Router mode, each incoming Ethernet packet on the Ethernet port is stripped from its Ethernet header to reveal the IP packet and to route the IP packet based on its routing table. If the destination IP address is one of the RTUs, the packet is then forwarded to the wireless ports and broadcasted as a PMP wireless packet to all the repeater / remotes stations. The appropriate remote then routes the IP packet and forwards it based on its routing table to the appropriate Ethernet port, encapsulating the appropriate next hop MAC header and forwarding it to the RTU. The RTU can then interpret and process the IP data and communication is established between the RTU and the initiating communication device.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

32 | About the Radio

Static IP Router

The Aprisa SR+ works in the point-to-multipoint (PMP) network as a standard static IP router with the Ethernet and wireless / radio as interfaces and serial ports using terminal server as a virtual interface.

The Aprisa SR+ static router is semi-automated operation, where the routing table is automatically created in the base station and populated with routes to all remotes and repeater stations in the network during the registration process and vice versa, where the routing table is automatically created in remote and repeater stations and populated with routes to base station during the registration process. Updates occur when remote is disconnected from network for any reason, with the routing table updated in a controlled fashion.

Also, in decommission operation, the base station routing tables are completely flushed allowing an automatic rebuild. This avoids the user manually inserting / removing of multiple static routes to build / change the routes in the network which might be tedious and introduce significant human error. The Aprisa SR+ works as a static IP router without using any routing protocol and therefore does not have the overhead of a routing protocol for better utilization of the narrow bandwidth network.

In addition to the semi-automated routes, the user can manually add / remove routes in the routing table for the radio interface, Ethernet Interface and for routers which are connected to the radio network.

The Aprisa SR+ base station is used as a gateway to other networks. Thus, a configurable IP address default gateway can be set using a static route in the routing table with a destination IP address of the destination network address. It is recommended to use a real network IP address (actual device IP) for the gateway and not 0.0.0.0.

The Aprisa SR+ sub-netting rules distinguish between the wireless interface and the remote Ethernet interface where RTUs are connected. The entire wireless network is set on a single IP subnet, while each Aprisa SR+ remote’s Ethernet interface is set to a different subnet network. In this way, the user can easily distinguish between the remotes subnet IP addresses.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 33

The Radio Network as a Gateway Router

The Aprisa SR+ point-to-multipoint radio network can be considered as a gateway router where the

‘network Ethernet interface’ on each radio in the network is the ‘router port’.

The routing table for all directly attached devices to the Aprisa SR+ network, at the Base or the Remote stations is automatically built and no static routes are required to be entered for those device routes.

The ‘Radio interface IP address’ is used internally for the radio network and automatic routes. It is not used when setting static routes or default gateways.

Static route IP addresses or the default gateway should use the ‘network Ethernet interface’ IP address.

External network routers should be set with a high metric for the SR+ path, to prevent route updates being sent over the radio network.

The Radio Network as a Router – Example

The purpose of this example is to determine the static route setting for router R2 in the base station and remote station in the following network.

Since the Aprisa SR+ network should be considered as a router where the network Ethernet interface is the ‘router port’, the network configuration for setting the static routes or the default gateway IP addresses is described in the follow figure:

Thus, the static route setting for router R2 at the Aprisa SR+ base station and remote station will be:

Destination Address

Destination Mask

Gateway Address

Static Route Setting at ?

 

 

 

 

192.168.3.0

255.255.255.0

192.168.2.1

Base station

 

 

 

 

192.168.3.0

255.255.255.0

192.168.2.2

Remote station

 

 

 

 

Note: The radio network (base station and remote stations) will automatically build routes to the attached device e.g. SCADA Master station or attached router e.g. router R1 so static routes are not required for these devices.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

34 | About the Radio

Static IP Router – Human Error Free

To ensure correct operation, the Aprisa SR+ router base station alerts when one (or more) of the devices is not configured for router mode or a duplicated IP is detected when manually added.

When the user changes the base station IP address / subnet, the base station sends an ARP unsolicited announcement message and the remotes / repeaters auto-update their routing table accordingly. This also allows the router that is connected to the base station to update its next hop IP address and its routing table.

When the user changes the remote / repeater station IP address / subnet, a re-registration process in the base station then auto-updates its routing table accordingly.

Terminal Server - Transition to Converged Ethernet / IP Network

Customers that are transitioning their SCADA network to an Ethernet / IP SCADA network, can simultaneously operate their legacy serial RTUs, not as a separate serial network to the new Ethernet / IP network, but as part of the Ethernet / IP network, by using the terminal server feature.

The Aprisa SR+ terminal server is an application running in the radio that encapsulates serial traffic into Ethernet / IP traffic. For SCADA networks, this enables the use of both serial and Ethernet / IP RTUs within an Ethernet / IP based SCADA network.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 35

Bridge Mode with VLAN Aware

Ethernet VLAN Bridge / Switch Overview

The Aprisa SR+ in Bridge mode of operation is a standard Ethernet Bridge based on IEEE 802.1d or VLAN Bridge based on IEEE 802.1q/p which forward / switch Ethernet packet based on standard MAC addresses and VLANs using FDB (forwarding database) table decisions. VLAN is short for Virtual LAN and is a virtual separate network, within its own broadcast domain, but across the same physical network.

VLANs offer several important benefits such as improved network performance, increased security and simplified network management.

The Aprisa SR+ Bridge mode (see figure below), is the default mode of operation and it enables the switching / bridging of Ethernet VLAN tagged or untagged packets within the Aprisa SR+ wireless network and in and out to the external Industrial LAN network and RTUs devices connected to the Aprisa SR+ wired Ethernet ports or serial ports through the terminal server function.

Within the Aprisa SR+ Bridge mode, each incoming Ethernet packet is inspected for the destination MAC address (and VLAN) and looks up its FDB table for information on where to send the specific Ethernet frame. If the FDB table doesn’t contain the specific MAC address, it will flood the Ethernet frame out to all ports in the broadcast domain and when using VLAN, the broadcast domain is narrowed to the specific VLAN used in the packet (i.e. broadcast will be done only to the ports which configured with that specific VLAN).

The FDB table is used to store the MAC addresses that have been learnt and the ports associated with that MAC address. If the destination MAC address is one of the RTUs, the packet is then forwarded to the wireless ports and broadcast as a PMP wireless packet to all the repeater / remote stations. The appropriate remote then switches the Ethernet packet and forwards it based on its FDB table (based on the MAC or VLAN & MAC) to the appropriate Ethernet port to the RTU. The RTU can then interpret and process the Ethernet / IP data and communication is established between the RTU and the initiating communication device.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

4RF SQ757M160 User Manual

36 | About the Radio

VLAN Bridge Mode Description

General – Aprisa SR+ VLAN Bridge

The Aprisa SR+ works in a point-to-multipoint (PMP) network as a standard VLAN bridge with the Ethernet and wireless / radio as interfaces and serial ports using terminal server as a virtual interface.

The Aprisa SR+ is a standard IEEE 802.1q VLAN bridge, where the FDB table is created by the bridge learning / aging process. New MACs are learnt and the FDB table updated. Unused MACs are aged out and flushed automatically after aging period.

VLANs are statically configured by the user on the ports where a Virtual LAN is required across the radio network. An example of VLAN isolation of traffic type is shown in the figure below, where RTUs #1, 4 and 6 together with SCADA meter master form a Virtual LAN which is isolated from the other devices, even though they are on the same physical network. VLAN management can be used to manage with external NMS all the Aprisa SR+ devices on the radio network and is automatically created with a VLAN ID = 1 default value. The VLAN ID can be changed by the user later on.

Each device in the Aprisa SR+ bridge is identified by its own IP address, as shown in the figure.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 37

VLANs – Single, Double and Trunk VLAN ports

The Aprisa SR+ supports single VLAN (CVLAN), double VLAN (SVLAN) and trunk VLAN.

A single VLAN can be used to segregate traffic type.

A double VLAN can be used to distinguish between Aprisa SR+ sub-networks (base-repeater-remote), where the outer SVLAN is used to identify the sub-network and the CVLAN is used to identify the traffic type. In this case, a double tagged VLAN will be forwarded across the Industrial LAN network and switched based on the SVLAN to the appropriate Aprisa SR+ sub-network. When packet enters the Aprisa SR+ network, the SVLAN will be stripped off (removed) and the forwarding will be done based on the CVLAN, so only a single VLAN will pass through over the radio network and double VLAN will be valid on the borders of the radio network.

Trunk VLAN is also supported by the Aprisa SR+ where the user can configure multiple VLANs on a specific Ethernet port, creating a trunk VLAN port. For example, in the above figure, a single trunk VLAN port is created between the switch and the Aprisa SR+ base station, carrying VLAN ID #1, 20, 30 and 40.

VLAN Manipulation – Add / Remove VLAN Tags

In order to support double VLAN and different device types connected to the Aprisa SR+ e.g. switches, RTUs, etc, which can be VLAN tagged or untagged / plain Ethernet devices, add / remove VLAN manipulation is required.

In an Aprisa SR+ VLAN tagged network, a remote Aprisa SR+ connected to a plain RTU without VLAN support, will remove (strip-off) the VLAN tag from the packet before sending it to the RTU. On the other direction, when the RTU is sending an untagged packet, the Aprisa SR+ will add (append) an appropriate user pre-configure VLAN tag before sending it over the air to the base station. This is shown in the above figure on untagged RTU #5 and 7.

QoS using VLAN

VLANs carry 3 priority bits (PCP field) in the VLAN tag allowing prioritization of VLAN tagged traffic types with 8 levels of priority (where 7 is the highest priority and 0 is the lowest priority). The Aprisa SR+ supports QoS (Quality of Service) where the priority bits in the VLAN tagged frame are evaluated and mapped to four priority levels and four queues supported by the Aprisa SR+ radio. Packets in the queues are then scheduled out in a strict priority fashion for transmission over-the-air as per the priority level from high to low.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

38 | About the Radio

Avoiding Narrow Band Radio Traffic Overloading

The Aprisa SR+ supports mechanisms to prevent narrowband radio network overload:

1.L3/L4 Filtering

The L3 filtering can be used to block undesired traffic from being transferred on the narrow band channel, occupying the channel and risking the SCADA critical traffic. L3/4 filtering has the ability to block a known IP address and applications using TCP/IP or UDP/IP protocols with multiple filtering rules. The L3 (/L4) filter can block/forward (discard/process) a specific IP address and a range of IP addresses. Each IP addressing filtering rule set can also be set to filter a L4 TCP or UDP port/s which in most cases relates to specific applications as per IANA official and unofficial well-known ports. For example, filter and block E- mail SMTP or TFTP protocol as undesired traffic over the SCADA network. The user can block a specific or range of IP port addresses, examples SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) TCP port 25 or TFTP (Simple Trivial File Transfer Protocol) UDP port 69.

2.L2 Address Filtering

L2 Filtering (Bridge Mode) provides the ability to filter radio link traffic based on specified Layer 2 MAC addresses. Destination MAC (DA) addresses and a Source MAC (SA) addresses and protocol type (ARP, VLAN, IPv4, IPv6 or Any type) that meet the filtering criteria will be transmitted over the radio link. Traffic that does not meet the filtering criteria will not be transmitted over the radio link.

3. L2 Port VLANs Ingress Filtering and QoS

Double VLAN (Bridge Mode)

Double VLAN is used to distinguish/segregate between different radio sub-networks (Base-repeaters- remotes). Traffic with double VLANs which are not destined to a specific sub-network will be discarded on the ingress of the radio sub-network, avoiding the overload of the radio sub-network.

Single VLAN (Bridge Mode)

Single VLAN is used to distinguish/segregate between different traffic types assigned by the user in its industrial corporate LAN. In order to avoid the overload of the radio network, traffic with single VLANs which are not destined to a specific radio network will be discarded on the Ethernet ingress port of the radio network. All single VLANs which set and are eligible will be transmitted over the radio link.

QoS using 802.1p priority bits (Bridge Mode)

The priority bits can be used in the VLAN tagged frames to prioritized critical mission SCADA traffic and ensure SCADA traffic transmission relative to any other unimportant traffic. In this case, traffic based on VLAN priority (priority 0 to 7) enters one of the four priority queues of the Aprisa SR+ (Very High, High, Medium and Low). Traffic leaves the queues (to the radio network) from highest priority to lowest in a strict priority fashion.

4.Ethernet port QoS

The Aprisa SR+ supports ‘Ethernet Per Port Prioritization’. Each Ethernet port can be assigned a priority and traffic shall be prioritized accordingly. This is quite useful in networks where customers do not use VLANs or cannot use 802.1p prioritization.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 39

5.Ethernet Data and Management Priority and Background Bulk Data Transfer Rate

Alternatively to VLAN priority, users can control the Ethernet traffic priority (vs serial), management priority and rate in order to control the traffic load of the radio network, where important and high priority data (SCADA) will pass-through first assuring SCADA network operation. The user can set the use of the Ethernet Data Priority, which controls the priority of the Ethernet customer traffic relative to the serial customer traffic and can be set to one of the four queues. The Ethernet Management Priority controls the priority of the Ethernet management traffic relative to Ethernet customer traffic and can be set to one of the four queues. The Background Bulk Data Transfer Rate sets the data transfer rate (high, medium, low) for large amounts of management data.

6.Ethernet Packet Time to Live

Another aspect of avoiding overload radio network is the Ethernet packet TTL, which is used to prevent old, redundant packets being transmitted through the radio network. This sets the time an Ethernet packet is allowed to live in the system before being dropped if it cannot be transmitted over the air.

7.Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and Payload Compression

Aprisa SR+ supports ROHC (Robust Header Compression RFC3095). ROHC is a standard way to compress IP, UDP and TCP headers and this significantly increases IP traffic throughput especially in narrow band network.

Aprisa SR+ supports payload compression. A Lempel–Ziv (LZ) algorithm is used to efficiently compress up to 50% traffic with high percentage of repetitive strings. Both serial and Ethernet / IP payload traffic are compressed.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

40 | About the Radio

Interfaces

Antenna Interface

2 x TNC, 50 ohm, female connectors

Single or dual antenna ports (with or without the use of external duplexer / filter)

Ethernet Interface

2, 3 or 4 ports 10/100 base-T Ethernet layer 2 switch using RJ45 Used for Ethernet user traffic and radio sub-network management.

RS-232 / RS-485 Interface

2, 1 or 0 RS-232 asynchronous ports using RJ45 connector

Optional 1x RS-232 or RS-485 asynchronous port using USB host port with USB to RS-232 or USB to RS-485 converters

USB Interfaces

1 x Management port using USB micro type B connector

Used for product configuration with the Command Line Interface (CLI).

1 x Host port using USB standard type A connector

Used for software upgrade, diagnostic reporting and configuration save / restore.

Protect Interface

1x Protect interface port

Used for the Protected Station operation.

Alarms Interface

1x Alarm port using RJ45 connector

Used to provide 2 x hardware alarm inputs and 2 x hardware alarm outputs

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 41

Front Panel Connections

Example; 2 Ethernet ports and 2 RS-232 serial ports - see ‘Data Interface Ports’ on page 329 for the other interface port options.

Interface Port Option

Part Number

2 Ethernet ports and 2 RS-232 serial ports

APSQ-N400-SSC-HD-22-ENAA

All connections to the radio are made on the front panel. The functions of the connectors are (from left to right):

Designator

Description

 

 

10 - 30 VDC; 3A

+10 to +30 VDC (negative ground) DC power input using Molex 2 pin male screw

 

fitting connector.

 

AC/DC and DC/DC power supplies are available as accessories. See ‘External

 

Power Supplies’ on page 63.

 

 

ETHERNET 1 & 2

Integrated 10Base-T/100Base-TX layer-3 Ethernet switch using RJ45 connectors.

 

Used for Ethernet user traffic and product management.

 

See ‘Ethernet > Port Setup’ on page 138.

 

 

SERIAL 1 & 2

Two ports of RS-232 serial using RJ45 connectors.

 

Used for RS-232 asynchronous user traffic.

 

See ‘Serial > Port Setup’ on page 124.

 

 

 

Host Port using a USB standard type A connector.

 

Used for software upgrade and diagnostic reporting and optional: 1x RS-232

 

asynchronous port with USB to RS-232 converter.

 

See ‘Software Upgrade’ on page 358 and ‘Maintenance > General’ on page 208.

 

 

ALARM

Alarm Port using a RJ45 connector.

 

Used for two alarm inputs and two alarm outputs.

 

See ‘Hardware Alarms Interface’ on page 396.

 

 

MGMT

Management Port using a USB micro type B connector.

 

Used for product configuration with the Command Line Interface.

 

See ‘Connecting to the Management Port’ on page 322.

 

 

PROTECT

Protect port. Used for Protected Station operation.

 

 

TX / ANT

TNC, 50 ohm, female connector for connection of antenna feeder cable for half

 

duplex RF operation or the Transmit connection to an external duplexer for full

 

duplex RF operation or to an external filter.

 

See ‘Coaxial Feeder Cables’ on page 55.

 

 

RX

TNC, 50 ohm, female connector for the Receive connection to an external

 

duplexer for full duplex RF operation or to an external filter.

 

 

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

42 | About the Radio

LED Display Panel

The Aprisa SR+ has an LED Display panel which provides on-site alarms / diagnostics without the need for PC.

Normal Operation

In normal radio operation, the LEDs indicate the following conditions:

 

 

 

 

OK

 

MODE

 

AUX

 

TX

RX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

 

 

Radio has not

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red

 

 

 

registered

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alarm present

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

 

with severity

 

 

 

 

 

TX path fail

RX path fail

 

Red

 

Critical, Major

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and Minor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagnostics

 

Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

 

 

 

traffic on the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Active

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orange

 

 

 

 

USB MGMT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTA software

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

port

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

distribution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alarm present

 

 

 

Device detect

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

 

 

 

 

on the USB

 

 

 

 

 

 

with Warning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orange

 

 

 

 

host port

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(momentary)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

Software

Stand-by radio

 

Tx / Rx Data

 

RF path TX is

RF path RX is

 

 

Upgrade

 

in protected

 

on the USB

 

 

Green

 

 

 

 

active

active

 

 

Successful

 

station

 

host port

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Processor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

 

Power on and

 

Block is OK

 

USB interface

 

 

 

 

 

 

functions OK

or active radio

 

 

Tx path OK

Rx path OK

 

Green

 

 

OK

 

 

 

and no alarms

 

in protected

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

station

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LED Colour

 

Severity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Green

 

 

No alarm – information only

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orange

 

 

Warning alarm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red

 

 

Critical, major or minor alarm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 43

Single Radio Software Upgrade

During a radio software upgrade, the LEDs indicate the following conditions:

Software upgrade started - the OK LED flashes orange

Software upgrade progress indicated by running AUX to MODE LEDs

Software upgrade completed successfully - the OK LED flashes green

Software upgrade failed - any LED flashing red during the upgrade

Network Software Upgrade

During a network software upgrade, the MODE LED flashes orange on the base station and all remote stations.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

44 | About the Radio

Test Mode

Remote station and repeater station radios have a Test Mode which presents a real time visual display of the RSSI on the LED Display panel. This can be used to adjust the antenna for optimum signal strength (see ‘Maintenance > Test Mode’ on page 210 for Test Mode options).

To enter Test Mode, press and hold the TEST button on the radio LED panel until all the LEDs flash green (about 3 - 5 seconds). The response time is variable and can be up to 5 seconds.

To exit Test Mode, press and hold the TEST button until all the LEDs flash red (about 3 – 5 seconds).

Note: Test Mode traffic has a low priority but could affect customer traffic depending on the relative priorities setup.

The RSSI result is displayed on the LED Display panel as a combination of LED states:

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

About the Radio | 45

Network Management

The Aprisa SR+ contains an embedded web server application (SuperVisor) to enable element management with any major web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft® Internet Explorer).

SuperVisor enables operators to configure and manage the Aprisa SR+ base station radio and repeater / remote station radios over the radio link.

The key features of SuperVisor are:

Full element management, configuration and diagnostics

Manage the entire network from the Base Station (remote management of elements)

Managed network software distribution and upgrades

Performance and alarm monitoring of the entire network, including RSSI, alarm states, timestamped events, etc.

View and set standard radio configuration parameters including frequencies, transmit power, channel access, serial, Ethernet port settings

Set and view security parameters

User management

Operates over a secure HTTPS session on the access connection to the base station

SuperVisor, when connected to the base station radio allows management of all radios in the network. The Network Table displays a list of all the registered remote stations for the base station and provides management access to each of the remote stations (see ‘Network Status > Network Table’ on page 271).

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

46 | About the Radio

Hardware Alarm Inputs / Outputs

The Aprisa SR+ provides two hardware alarm inputs to generate alarm events in the network and two hardware alarm outputs to receive alarm events from the network.

The hardware alarm inputs and outputs are part of the event system. All alarm events can be viewed in SuperVisor event history log (see ‘Events > Event History’ on page 223). These include the alarm events generated by the hardware alarm inputs.

Alarm Input to SNMP Trap

An alarm event from an Aprisa SR+ hardware alarm input can be sent over the air to any SNMP Manager using SNMP traps.

Alarm Input to Alarm Output

An alarm event from an Aprisa SR+ hardware alarm input can be mapped to an hardware alarm output of another SR+ using an event action setup (see ‘Events > Event Action Setup’ on page 231).

Aprisa SR Alarm Input to Aprisa SR+ Alarm Output

The Aprisa SR+ event action setup feature is compatible with the Aprisa SR.

Since, the Aprisa SR only supports hardware alarm inputs, the Aprisa SR+ can be used as an option to provide a hardware alarm output. As shown in the figure below, an Aprisa SR+ connected on the same IP network of the Aprisa SR, alarm events from the SR hardware alarm input can be mapped to the hardware alarm output of the SR+ using an event action setup.

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

Implementing the Network | 47

4.Implementing the Network

Network Topologies

The following are examples of typical network topologies:

Point-To-Point Network

Point-to-Multipoint Network

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 1

Point-to-Multipoint with Repeater 2

Aprisa SR+ User Manual 1.6.0 PO

+ 112 hidden pages