4RF SI902M160 User Manual

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Standard Radio

July 2016

Version 1.0.0b

| 1

Copyright

Copyright © 2016 4RF Limited. All rights reserved.

This document is protected by copyright belonging to 4RF Limited and may not be reproduced or republished in whole or part in any form without the prior written permission of 4RF Limited.

Trademarks

Aprisa and the 4RF logo are trademarks of 4RF Limited.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-related trademarks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.

Disclaimer

Although every precaution has been taken preparing this information, 4RF Limited assumes no liability for errors and omissions, or any damages resulting from use of this information. This document or the equipment may change, without notice, in the interests of improving the product.

RoHS and WEEE Compliance

The Aprisa SRi is fully compliant with the European Commission’s RoHS (Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) environmental directives.

Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS)

The RoHS Directive prohibits the sale in the European Union of electronic equipment containing these hazardous substances: lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

4RF has worked with its component suppliers to ensure compliance with the RoHS Directive which came into effect on the 1st July 2006.

End-of-life recycling programme (WEEE)

The WEEE Directive concerns the recovery, reuse, and recycling of electronic and electrical equipment. Under the Directive, used equipment must be marked, collected separately, and disposed of properly.

4RF has instigated a programme to manage the reuse, recycling, and recovery of waste in an environmentally safe manner using processes that comply with the WEEE Directive (EU Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2002/96/EC).

4RF invites questions from customers and partners on its environmental programmes and compliance with the European Commission’s Directives (sales@4RF.com).

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

2 |

Compliance General

The Aprisa SRi radio predominantly operates within frequency bands that are covered under a class license or general user license which is a license is issued to ‘every person’.

Changes or modifications not approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.

Equipment authorizations sought by 4RF are based on the Aprisa SRi radio equipment being installed at a fixed restricted access location and operated in point-to-multipoint or point-to-point mode within the environmental profile defined by EN 300 019, Class 3.4. Operation outside these criteria may invalidate the authorizations and / or license conditions.

The term ‘Radio’ with reference to the Aprisa SRi User Manual, is a generic term for one end station of a point-to-multipoint Aprisa SRi network and does not confer any rights to connect to any public network or to operate the equipment within any territory.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

| 3

Compliance Federal Communications Commission

The Aprisa SRi radio is designed to comply with the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) specifications as follows:

Radio

 

47CFR part 15.247

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

47CFR part 15 Radio Frequency Devices

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency Band *

Channel size

 

Power

Authorization

 

FCC ID

 

 

 

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

902-928 MHz

50 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

Part 15.247

 

Pending

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

* The Frequency Band is not an indication of the exact frequencies approved by FCC.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

4 |

Compliance Industry Canada

The Aprisa SRi radio is designed to comply with Industry Canada (IC) specifications as follows:

Radio

 

RSS-247

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian

 

 

standard ICES-003.

 

 

 

 

Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la

 

 

norme NMB-003 du Canada.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency Band *

Channel size

 

Power

Authorization

IC

 

 

 

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

902-928 MHz

50 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

RSS-247

Pending

 

 

 

 

 

 

* The Frequency Band is not an indication of the exact frequencies approved by IC.

This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules and Industry Canada’s licence exempt RSSs. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause interference; and (2) This device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the device.

Ce dispositif est conforme à la partie 15 des règles de la Federal Communications Commission (FCC) des États Unis et d'Industrie Canada (IC) exempts de licence RSS norme(s). Son fonctionnement est assujetti aux deux conditions suivantes: (1) Ce dispositive nedoit pas provoquer de brouillage préjudiciable, et (2) il doit accepter tout brouillagereçu, y compris le brouillage pouvant entraîner unmauvais fonctionnement.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

| 5

Compliance ACMA

The Aprisa SRi radio is designed to comply with Australia ACMA specifications as follows:

Radio

 

Radio Communications (Short Range Devices) Standard

 

 

2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMC

 

AS/NZS 4268

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency Band *

Channel size

 

Power

Authorization

ACMA

 

 

 

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

915-928 MHz

50 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

 

Pending

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compliance RSM

The Aprisa SRi radio is designed to comply with New Zealand RSM specifications as follows:

Radio / EMC

 

AS/NZS 4268

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental

 

EN 300 019, Class 3.4

 

 

 

Ingress Protection IP51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety

 

EN 60950-1:2006

 

 

 

 

Class 1 division 2 for hazardous locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency Band *

Channel size

 

Power

Authorization

RSM

 

 

 

input

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

915-928 MHz

50 kHz

 

13.8 VDC

Licence 252286

Pending

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

6 |

Compliance Hazardous Locations Notice

This product is suitable for use in Class 1, Division 2, Groups A - D hazardous locations or non-hazardous locations.

The following text is printed on the Aprisa SRi fascia:

WARNING: EXPLOSION HAZARD - Do not connect or disconnect while circuits are live unless area is known to be non-hazardous.

The following text is printed on the Aprisa SRi where the end user is in Canada:

AVERTISSEMENT: RISQUE D'EXPLOSION - Ne pas brancher ou débrancher tant que le circuit est sous tension, à moins qu'il ne s'agisse d'un emplacement non dangereux.

The USB service ports are not to be used unless the area is known to be non-hazardous.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

| 7

RF Exposure Warning

WARNING:

The installer and / or user of Aprisa SRi radios shall ensure that a separation distance as given in the following table is maintained between the main axis of the terminal’s antenna and the body of the user or nearby persons.

Minimum separation distances given are based on the maximum values of the following methodologies:

1.Maximum Permissible Exposure non-occupational limit (B or general public) of

47 CFR 1.1310 and the methodology of FCC’s OST/OET Bulletin number 65.

2.Reference levels as given in Annex III, European Directive on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC). These distances will ensure indirect compliance with the requirements of EN 50385:2002.

Frequency (MHz)

Maximum Power

Maximum Antenna

Minimum Separation

 

(dBm) Note 1

Gain (dBi)

Distance

 

 

 

(m)

 

 

 

 

915

+ 26

10 dBi

0.3

 

 

 

 

Note 1: The Peak Envelope Power (PEP) at maximum set power level is 1.0 W ,+30 dBm.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

 

 

Contents | 9

Contents

 

1.

Getting Started ........................................................................

13

2.

Introduction............................................................................

15

 

About This Manual...............................................................................

15

 

What It Covers ............................................................................

15

 

Who Should Read It ......................................................................

15

 

Contact Us.................................................................................

15

 

What’s in the Box ...............................................................................

15

 

Aprisa SRi Accessory Kit .................................................................

16

 

Aprisa SRi CD Contents ..................................................................

16

 

Software ............................................................................

16

 

Documentation ....................................................................

16

3.

About the Radio .......................................................................

17

 

The 4RF Aprisa SRi Radio.......................................................................

17

 

Product Overview ...............................................................................

18

 

Network Coverage and Capacity .......................................................

18

 

Automatic Registration ..................................................................

18

 

Remote Messaging........................................................................

18

 

Product Features ................................................................................

19

 

Functions ..................................................................................

19

 

Security ....................................................................................

20

 

Performance ..............................................................................

21

 

Usability ...................................................................................

21

 

System Gain vs FEC Coding .............................................................

22

 

Architecture......................................................................................

23

 

Product Operation........................................................................

23

 

Physical Layer.............................................................................

23

 

Data Link Layer / MAC layer ............................................................

24

 

Channel Access ....................................................................

24

 

Hop by Hop Transmission.........................................................

25

 

Adaptive Coding and Modulation ................................................

25

 

Network Layer ............................................................................

26

 

Packet Routing.....................................................................

26

 

Static IP Router ....................................................................

27

 

Bridge Mode with VLAN Aware ..................................................

30

 

VLAN Bridge Mode Description ..................................................

31

 

Avoiding Narrow Band Radio Traffic Overloading....................................

33

 

Interfaces.........................................................................................

35

 

Antenna Interface ........................................................................

35

 

Ethernet Interface .......................................................................

35

 

RS-232 / RS-485 Interface...............................................................

35

 

USB Interfaces ............................................................................

35

 

Protect Interface .........................................................................

35

 

Alarms Interface..........................................................................

35

 

Front Panel Connections .......................................................................

36

 

LED Display Panel ...............................................................................

37

 

Single Radio Software Upgrade.........................................................

38

 

Network Software Upgrade .............................................................

38

 

Test Mode .................................................................................

39

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

10

| Contents

 

 

Network Management....................................................................

40

 

Hardware Alarm Inputs / Outputs ............................................................

41

 

Alarm Input to SNMP Trap...............................................................

41

 

Alarm Input to Alarm Output ...........................................................

41

 

Aprisa SR Alarm Input to Aprisa SRi Alarm Output...................................

41

4.

Implementing the Network..........................................................

42

 

Network Topologies .............................................................................

42

 

Point-To-Point Network ..........................................................

42

 

Point-to-Multipoint Network .....................................................

42

 

Initial Network Deployment ...................................................................

43

 

Install the Base Station ..................................................................

43

 

Installing the Remote Stations .........................................................

43

 

Network Changes ................................................................................

44

 

Adding a Remote Station ................................................................

44

5.

Preparation ............................................................................

45

 

Bench Setup......................................................................................

45

 

Compliance Considerations ....................................................................

46

 

Path Planning ....................................................................................

48

 

Antenna Selection and Siting ...........................................................

48

 

Base Station ........................................................................

48

 

Remote station ....................................................................

49

 

Antenna Siting .....................................................................

50

 

Coaxial Feeder Cables ...................................................................

51

 

Linking System Plan ......................................................................

51

 

Site Requirements...............................................................................

52

 

Power Supply..............................................................................

52

 

Equipment Cooling .......................................................................

52

 

Earthing and Lightning Protection .....................................................

53

 

Feeder Earthing....................................................................

53

 

Radio Earthing .....................................................................

53

6.

Installing the Radio ...................................................................

54

 

Mounting..........................................................................................

54

 

Required Tools............................................................................

54

 

DIN Rail Mounting ........................................................................

55

 

Rack Shelf Mounting .....................................................................

56

 

Wall Mounting.............................................................................

57

 

Installing the Antenna and Feeder Cable ....................................................

58

 

Connecting the Power Supply .................................................................

59

 

External Power Supplies.................................................................

59

 

Spare Fuses................................................................................

60

 

Additional Spare Fuses............................................................

61

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

 

 

Contents | 11

7.

Managing the Radio ...................................................................

63

 

SuperVisor ........................................................................................

63

 

PC Requirements for SuperVisor .......................................................

64

 

Connecting to SuperVisor ...............................................................

65

 

Management PC Connection .....................................................

66

 

PC Settings for SuperVisor .......................................................

67

 

Login to SuperVisor................................................................

71

 

Logout of SuperVisor ..............................................................

72

 

SuperVisor Page Layout...........................................................

73

 

SuperVisor Menu ...................................................................

75

 

SuperVisor Menu Access ..........................................................

76

 

Standard Radio............................................................................

78

 

Terminal ............................................................................

78

 

Radio ................................................................................

89

 

Serial ..............................................................................

106

 

Ethernet ..........................................................................

116

 

IP...................................................................................

126

 

QoS ................................................................................

139

 

Security ...........................................................................

161

 

Maintenance .....................................................................

183

 

Events .............................................................................

197

 

Software ..........................................................................

208

 

Monitoring ........................................................................

227

 

Network Status ..................................................................

246

 

Command Line Interface ..............................................................

253

 

Connecting to the Management Port ................................................

253

 

CLI Commands ..........................................................................

256

 

Viewing the CLI Terminal Summary...........................................

257

 

Changing the Radio IP Address with the CLI .................................

257

8.

In-Service Commissioning ..........................................................

258

 

Before You Start...............................................................................

258

 

What You Will Need....................................................................

258

 

Antenna Alignment............................................................................

259

 

Aligning the Antennas .................................................................

259

9.

Product Options ......................................................................

260

 

Country Specific Products....................................................................

260

 

USB Serial Ports................................................................................

261

 

USB RS-232 / RS-485 Serial Port......................................................

261

 

USB RS-232 / RS-485 operation.......................................................

261

 

USB RS-232 Cabling Options...........................................................

262

 

USB RS-485 Cabling Options...........................................................

262

 

USB Retention Clip ..............................................................

263

10.

Maintenance ..........................................................................

265

 

No User-Serviceable Components ...........................................................

265

 

Software Upgrade .............................................................................

266

 

Network Software Upgrade ...........................................................

266

 

Single Radio Software Upgrade.......................................................

268

 

File Transfer Method............................................................

268

 

USB Boot Upgrade Method .....................................................

269

 

Software Downgrade ............................................................

269

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

12 | Contents

11. Interface Connections...............................................................

270

RJ45 Connector Pin Assignments............................................................

270

Ethernet Interface Connections .............................................................

270

RS-232 Serial Interface Connections........................................................

271

RS-232

Pinout ....................................................................

271

RS-232

Customer Cable Wiring ................................................

271

RS-232 RJ45 LED Indicators ....................................................

271

Alarm Interface Connections ................................................................

272

12. Alarm Types and Sources...........................................................

273

Alarm Types ....................................................................................

273

Alarm Events ............................................................................

274

Informational Events...................................................................

278

13. Specifications .........................................................................

279

RF Specifications ..............................................................................

279

Frequency Bands .......................................................................

279

Channel Sizes ...........................................................................

279

Receiver .................................................................................

280

Transmitter .............................................................................

282

Spread Spectrum .......................................................................

282

Modem ...................................................................................

283

Data Payload Security .................................................................

283

Interface Specifications ......................................................................

284

Ethernet Interface .....................................................................

284

RS-232 Asynchronous Interface.......................................................

285

Hardware Alarms Interface ...........................................................

286

Power Specifications..........................................................................

287

Power Supply............................................................................

287

Power Consumption ....................................................................

287

Power Dissipation ......................................................................

287

General Specifications........................................................................

288

Environmental ..........................................................................

288

Mechanical ..............................................................................

288

Compliance..............................................................................

289

14.

Product End Of Life..................................................................

290

 

End-of-Life Recycling Programme (WEEE) .................................................

290

 

The WEEE Symbol Explained ..........................................................

290

 

WEEE Must Be Collected Separately .................................................

290

 

YOUR ROLE in the Recovery of WEEE................................................

290

 

EEE Waste Impacts the Environment and Health ..................................

290

15.

Copyrights .............................................................................

291

16.

Abbreviations .........................................................................

293

17.

Index ...................................................................................

294

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

Getting Started | 13

1.Getting Started

This section is an overview of the steps required to commission an Aprisa SRi radio network in the field:

Phase 1:

Pre-installation

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Confirm path planning.

Page

48

 

 

 

 

2.

Ensure that the site preparation is complete:

Page

51

 

 

Power requirements

 

 

 

 

Tower requirements

 

 

 

Environmental considerations, for example, temperature control

 

 

 

 

Mounting space

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phase 2:

Installing the radios

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Mount the radio.

Page

54

 

 

 

 

2.

Connect earthing to the radio.

Page

53

 

 

 

 

3.

Confirm that the:

 

 

 

Antenna is mounted and visually aligned

 

 

 

Feeder cable is connected to the antenna

 

 

 

Feeder connections are tightened to recommended level

 

 

 

Tower earthing is complete

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

Install lightning protection.

Page

53

 

 

 

 

5.

Connect the coaxial jumper cable between the lightning protection and the

Page

58

 

radio antenna port.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

Connect the power to the radio.

Page

59

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

14 | Getting Started

Phase 3:

Establishing the link

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

If radio’s IP address is not the default IP address (169.254.50.10 with a subnet

Page

253

 

mask of 255.255.0.0) and you don’t know the radio’s IP address see ‘Command

 

 

 

Line Interface’ on page 253.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Connect the Ethernet cable between the radio’s Ethernet port and the PC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

Confirm that the PC IP settings are correct for the Ethernet connection:

Page

67

 

 

IP address

 

 

 

 

Subnet mask

 

 

 

 

Gateway IP address

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

Open a web browser and login to the radio.

Page

71

 

 

 

 

5.

Set or confirm the RF characteristics:

Page

101

 

TX / RX frequency

 

 

 

 

TX output power

 

 

 

Zone / channel selection

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

Compare the actual RSSI to the expected RSSI value (from your path planning).

Page

235

 

 

 

 

7.

Align the antennas.

Page

259

 

 

 

 

8.

Confirm that the radio is operating correctly; the OK, MODE and AUX LEDs are

 

 

 

green.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

Introduction | 15

2.Introduction

About This Manual

What It Covers

This user manual describes how to install and configure an Aprisa SRi point-to-multipoint digital radio network.

It specifically documents an Aprisa SRi radio running system software version 1.0.0 .

It is recommended that you read the relevant sections of this manual before installing or operating the radios.

Who Should Read It

This manual has been written for professional field technicians and engineers who have an appropriate level of training and experience.

Contact Us

If you experience any difficulty installing or using Aprisa SRi after reading this manual, please contact Customer Support or your local 4RF representative.

Our area representative contact details are available from our website:

4RF Limited

26 Glover Street, Ngauranga

PO Box 13-506

Wellington 6032

New Zealand

E-mail

support@4rf.com

Web site

www.4rf.com

Telephone

+64 4 499 6000

Facsimile

+64 4 473 4447

Attention

Customer Services

What’s in the Box

Inside the box you will find:

One Aprisa SRi radio fitted with a power connector.

One Aprisa SRi Accessory kit containing the following:

Aprisa SRi CD

Aprisa SRi Quick Start Guide

Management Cable

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

16 | Introduction

Aprisa SRi Accessory Kit

The accessory kit contains the following items:

Aprisa SRi Quick Start Guide

Aprisa SRi CD

Management Cable

USB Cable USB A to USB micro B, 1m

Aprisa SRi CD Contents

The Aprisa SRi CD contains the following:

Software

The latest version of the radio software (see ‘Software Upgrade’ on page 266)

USB Serial Driver

Web browsers - Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer are included for your convenience

Adobe™ Acrobat® Reader® which you need to view the PDF files on the Aprisa SRi CD

Documentation

User manual - an electronic (PDF) version for you to view online or print

Product collateral - application overviews, product description, quick start guide, case studies, software release notes and technical papers

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

About the Radio | 17

3.About the Radio

The 4RF Aprisa SRi Radio

The 4RF Aprisa SRi is a Point-To-Multipoint (PMP) digital radio providing 915 MHz Industrial Licence Free Spread Spectrum communications.

The radios carry a combination of serial data and Ethernet data between the base station and remote stations.

A single Aprisa SRi is configurable as a Point-To-Multipoint base station or remote station.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

18 | About the Radio

Product Overview

Network Coverage and Capacity

The Aprisa SRi has a typical link range of up to 50 km, however, geographic features, such as hills, mountains, trees and foliage, or other path obstructions, such as buildings, will limit radio coverage. Additionally, geography may reduce network capacity at the edge of the network where errors may occur and require retransmission. However, the Aprisa SRi uses 0.4 W (+26 dBm) output power and Forward Error Correction (FEC) which greatly improves the sensitivity and system gain performance of the radio resulting in less retries and minimal reduction in capacity.

Ultimately, the overall performance of any specific network will be defined by a range of factors including the RF output power, the modulation used and its related receiver sensitivity, the geographic location, the number of remote stations in the base station coverage area and the traffic profile across the network. Effective network design will distribute the total number of remote stations across the available base stations to ensure optimal geographic coverage and network capacity.

One base station can register and operate with up to 500 remote stations.

The practical limit of remote stations that can operate with one base station is determined by a range of factors including the number of services, the packet sizes, the protocols used, the message types and network timeouts.

Automatic Registration

On start-up, the remote station listens for the base station before attempting registration. It then transmits a registration message to the base station which responds with a registration response. The base station records the details of all the remote stations active in the network.

If a remote station cannot register with the base station after multiple attempts within 10 minutes, it will automatically reboot. If remote is not able to register with base station in 5 attempts, then a ‘Network Configuration Warning’ alarm event will be raised indicating that a remote is not registered with the base station.

If a remote station has registered with the base station but then loses communication, it will automatically reboot within 2 minutes.

Remote Messaging

There are two message types in the Aprisa SRi network, broadcast messages and unicast messages. Broadcast messages are transmitted by the base station to the remote stations and unicast messages are transmitted by the remote station to the base station. These messages are commonly referred to as uplink (unicast remote to base) and downlink (broadcast base to remote).

All remotes within the coverage area will receive broadcast messages and pass them on to either the Ethernet or serial interface. The RTU determines if the message is intended for it and will accept it or discard it.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

About the Radio | 19

Product Features

Functions

Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) operation

Unlicensed frequency bands in the frequency range of 902-928 MHz as permitted by the local regulator

Channel size of 50 kHz

Half duplex RF Point-To-Multipoint operation

Military style jam resistant frequency hopping spread spectrum technology operating where other licence free radios have difficulty in break through

Full band and reduced non-overlapping zone options allow a tailored approach to interference management for maximum range

Ethernet data interface and RS-232 / RS-485 asynchronous

Data encryption and authentication using 128,192 and 256 bit AES and CCM security standards

Terminal server operation for transporting RS-232 / RS-485 traffic over IP or Ethernet and converting IP packets to a local physical serial port

SLIP support for RS-232

IEEE 802.1Q VLAN support with single and double VLAN tagged and add/remove VLAN manipulation to adapt to the appropriate RTU / PLCs

QoS supports using IEEE 802.1p VLAN priority bits to prioritize and handle the VLAN / traffic types

QoS per port (Ethernet, serial, management)

L2 / L3 / L4 filtering for security and avoiding narrow band radio network overload

L3 Gateway Router mode with standard static IP route for simple routing network integration

L3 Router mode with per Ethernet interface IP address and subnet

L2 Bridge mode with VLAN aware for standard Industrial LAN integration

Ethernet and serial payload compression to increase the narrow band radio capacity

SuperVisor web management support for element and sub-network management

SNMPv1/2/3 & encryption MIB supports for 4RF SNMP manager or third party SNMP agent network management

SNMP context addressing for compressed SNMP access to remote stations

SNTP for accurate wide radio network time and date

RADIUS security for remote user authorization, authentication and accounting

Transparent to all common SCADA protocols; e.g. Modbus, IEC 60870-5-101/104, DNP3 or similar

Complies with international standards, including FCC, EMC, safety and environmental standards

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20 | About the Radio

Security

The Aprisa SRi provides security features to implement the key recommendations for industrial control systems. The security provided builds upon the best in class from multiple standards bodies, including:

IEC/TR 62443 (TC65) ‘Industrial Communications Networks – Network and System Security’

IEC/TS 62351 (TC57) ‘Power System Control and Associated Communications – Data and Communication Security’

FIPS PUB 197, NIST SP 800-38C, IETF RFC3394, RFC3610 and IEEE P1711/P1689/P1685

FIPS 140-2: Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules

The security features implemented are:

Data encryption

Counter Mode Encryption (CTR) using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 128, 192, 256 bit, based on FIPS PUB 197 AES encryption (using Rijndael version 3.0)

Data authentication

NIST SP 800-38C Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) based on RFC 3610 using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Data payload security

CCM Counter with CBC-MAC integrity (NIST special publication 800-38C)

Secured management interface protects configuration

L2 / L3 / L4 Address filtering enables traffic source authorization

Proprietary physical layer protocol and modified MAC layer protocol based on standardized IEEE 802.15.4

SNMPv3 with Encryption for NMS secure access

Secure USB software upgrade

Key Encryption Key (KEK) based on RFC 3394, for secure Over The Air Re-keying (OTAR) of encryption keys

User privilege allows the accessibility control of the different radio network users and the user permissions

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About the Radio | 21

Performance

Typical deployment of 30 remote stations from one base station with a practical limit of a few hundred remote stations

Low noise receiver

Forward Error Correction

Electronic tuning over the frequency band

Thermal management for high power over a wide temperature range

Usability

Configuration / diagnostics via front panel Management Port USB interface, Ethernet interface

Built-in webserver SuperVisor with full configuration, diagnostics and monitoring functionality, including remote station configuration / diagnostics over the radio link

LED display for on-site diagnostics

Dedicated alarm port

Software upgrade and diagnostic reporting via the host port USB flash drive

Over-the-air software distribution and upgrades

Simple installation with integrated mounting holes for wall, DIN rail and rack shelf mounting

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22 | About the Radio

System Gain vs FEC Coding

Minimum FEC coding results in lower system gain, lower coverage but higher capacity.

This table defines the modulation order based on gross capacity:

Modulation

FEC Coding

Capacity

 

 

 

QPSK (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

Minimum

 

 

 

16QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

64QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

Maximum

 

 

 

This table defines the modulation order based on receiver sensitivity:

Modulation

FEC Coding

Coverage

 

 

 

QPSK (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

Maximum

 

 

 

16QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

 

 

 

 

64QAM (Low Gain)

Min Coded FEC

Minimum

 

 

 

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About the Radio | 23

Architecture

The Aprisa SRi Architecture is based around a layered TCP/IP protocol stack:

Physical Proprietary wireless

RS-232 and Ethernet interfaces

Link

Proprietary wireless (channel access, ARQ, segmentation) VLAN aware Ethernet bridge

Network Standard IP

Proprietary automatic radio routing table population algorithm

Transport TCP, UDP

Application

HTTPS web management access through base station with proprietary management application software including management of remote stations over the radio link

SNMPv1/2/3 for network management application software

Product Operation

There are three components to the wireless interface: the Physical Layer (PHY), the Data Link Layer (DLL) and the Network Layer. These three layers are required to transport data across the wireless channel in the Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) configuration. The Aprisa SRi DLL is largely based on the 802.15.4 Media Access Control (MAC) layer using a proprietary implementation.

Physical Layer

The Aprisa SRi PHY uses a one frequency half duplex transmission mode which eliminates the need for a duplexer.

Remote nodes are predominantly in receive mode with only sporadic bursts of transmit data. This reduces power consumption.

The Aprisa SRi is a packet based radio. Data is sent over the wireless channel in discrete packets / frames, separated in time. The PHY demodulates data within these packets with coherent detection.

The Aprisa SRi PHY provides carrier, symbol and frame synchronization predominantly through the use of preambles. This preamble prefixes all packets sent over the wireless channel which enables fast Synchronization.

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24 | About the Radio

Data Link Layer / MAC layer

The Aprisa SRi PHY enables multiple users to be able to share a single wireless channel; however a DLL is required to manage data transport. The two key components to the DLL are channel access and hop by hop transmission.

Channel Access

The Aprisa SRi radio uses a channel access of Access Request. Channel access scheme where the base stations controls the communication on the channel. Remotes ask for access to the channel, and the base station grants access if the channel is not occupied.

Access Request

This scheme is particularly suited to digital SCADA systems where all data flows through the base station. In this case it is important that the base station has contention-free access as it is involved in every transaction. The channel access scheme assigns the base station as the channel access arbitrator and therefore inherently it has contention-free access to the channel. This means that there is no possibility of contention on data originating from the base station. As all data flows to or from the base station, this significantly improves the robustness of the system.

All data messages are controlled via the AG (access grant) control message and therefore there is no possibility of contention on the actual end user data. If a remote station accesses the channel, the only contention risk is on the AR (access request) control message. These control messages are designed to be as short as possible and therefore the risk of collision of these control messages is significantly reduced. Should collisions occur these are resolved using a random back off and retry mechanism.

As the base station controls all data transactions multiple applications can be effectively handled, including a mixture of polling and report by exception.

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About the Radio | 25

Hop by Hop Transmission

Hop by Hop Transmission is realized in the Aprisa SRi by adding a MAC address header to the packet. For 802.15.4, there are 2 addresses, the source and destination addresses.

Adaptive Coding and Modulation

The Aprisa SRi provides Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) which maximizes the use of the RF path to provide the highest radio capacity available.

ACM automatically adjusts the modulation coding and FEC code rate in the remote to base direction of transmission over the defined modulation range based on the signal quality for each individual remote radio.

When the RF path is healthy (no fading), modulation coding is increased and the FEC code rate is decreased to maximize the data capacity.

If the RF path quality degrades, modulation coding is decreased and the FEC code rate is increased for maximum robustness to maintain path connectivity.

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26 | About the Radio

Network Layer

Packet Routing

Aprisa SRi is a standard static IP router which routes and forwards IP packet based on standard IP address and routing table decisions.

Aprisa SRi router mode (see figure below), enables the routing of IP packets within the Aprisa SRi wireless network and in and out to the external router / IP RTUs devices connected to the Aprisa SRi wired Ethernet ports.

Within the Aprisa SRi Router mode, each incoming Ethernet packet on the Ethernet port is stripped from its Ethernet header to reveal the IP packet and to route the IP packet based on its routing table. If the destination IP address is one of the RTUs, the packet is then forwarded to the wireless ports and broadcasted as a PMP wireless packet to all the remote stations. The appropriate remote then routes the IP packet and forwards it based on its routing table to the appropriate Ethernet port, encapsulating the appropriate next hop MAC header and forwarding it to the RTU. The RTU can then interpret and process the IP data and communication is established between the RTU and the initiating communication device.

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Static IP Router

The Aprisa SRi works in the point-to-multipoint (PMP) network as a standard static IP router with the Ethernet and wireless / radio as interfaces and serial ports using terminal server as a virtual interface.

The Aprisa SRi static router is semi-automated operation, where the routing table is automatically created in the base station and populated with routes to all remote stations in the network during the registration process and vice versa, where the routing table is automatically created in remote stations and populated with routes to base station during the registration process. Updates occur when remote is disconnected from network for any reason, with the routing table updated in a controlled fashion.

Also, in decommission operation, the base station routing tables are completely flushed allowing an automatic rebuild. This avoids the user manually inserting / removing of multiple static routes to build / change the routes in the network which might be tedious and introduce significant human error. The Aprisa SRi works as a static IP router without using any routing protocol and therefore does not have the overhead of a routing protocol for better utilization of the narrow bandwidth network.

In addition to the semi-automated routes, the user can manually add / remove routes in the routing table for the radio interface, Ethernet Interface and for routers which are connected to the radio network.

The Aprisa SRi base station is used as a gateway to other networks. Thus, a configurable IP address default gateway can be set using a static route in the routing table with a destination IP address of the destination network address. It is recommended to use a real network IP address (actual device IP) for the gateway and not 0.0.0.0.

The Aprisa SRi sub-netting rules distinguish between the wireless interface and the remote Ethernet interface where RTUs are connected. The entire wireless network is set on a single IP subnet, while each Aprisa SRi remote’s Ethernet interface is set to a different subnet network. In this way, the user can easily distinguish between the remotes subnet IP addresses.

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28 | About the Radio

The Radio Network as a Gateway Router

The Aprisa SRi point-to-multipoint radio network can be considered as a gateway router where the

‘network Ethernet interface’ on each radio in the network is the ‘router port’.

The routing table for all directly attached devices to the Aprisa SRi network, at the Base or the Remote stations is automatically built and no static routes are required to be entered for those device routes.

The ‘Radio interface IP address’ is used internally for the radio network and automatic routes. It is not used when setting static routes or default gateways.

Static route IP addresses or the default gateway should use the ‘network Ethernet interface’ IP address.

External network routers should be set with a high metric for the SRi path, to prevent route updates being sent over the radio network.

The Radio Network as a Router – Example

The purpose of this example is to determine the static route setting for router R2 in the base station and remote station in the following network.

Since the Aprisa SRi network should be considered as a router where the network Ethernet interface is the ‘router port’, the network configuration for setting the static routes or the default gateway IP addresses is described in the follow figure:

Thus, the static route setting for router R2 at the Aprisa SRi base station and remote station will be:

Destination Address

Destination Mask

Gateway Address

Static Route Setting at ?

 

 

 

 

192.168.3.0

255.255.255.0

192.168.2.1

Base station

 

 

 

 

192.168.3.0

255.255.255.0

192.168.2.2

Remote station

 

 

 

 

Note: The radio network (base station and remote stations) will automatically build routes to the attached device e.g. SCADA Master station or attached router e.g. router R1 so static routes are not required for these devices.

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About the Radio | 29

Static IP Router – Human Error Free

To ensure correct operation, the Aprisa SR router base station alerts when one (or more) of the devices is not configured for router mode or a duplicated IP is detected when manually added.

When the user changes the base station IP address / subnet, the base station sends an ARP unsolicited announcement message and the remote stations auto-update their routing table accordingly. This also allows the router that is connected to the base station to update its next hop IP address and its routing table.

When the user changes the remote station IP address / subnet, a re-registration process in the base station then auto-updates its routing table accordingly.

Terminal Server - Transition to Converged Ethernet / IP Network

Customers that are transitioning their SCADA network to an Ethernet / IP SCADA network, can simultaneously operate their legacy serial RTUs, not as a separate serial network to the new Ethernet / IP network, but as part of the Ethernet / IP network, by using the terminal server feature.

The Aprisa SR terminal server is an application running in the radio that encapsulates serial traffic into Ethernet / IP traffic. For SCADA networks, this enables the use of both serial and Ethernet / IP RTUs within an Ethernet / IP based SCADA network.

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30 | About the Radio

Bridge Mode with VLAN Aware

Ethernet VLAN Bridge / Switch Overview

The Aprisa SRi in Bridge mode of operation is a standard Ethernet Bridge based on IEEE 802.1d or VLAN Bridge based on IEEE 802.1q/p which forward / switch Ethernet packet based on standard MAC addresses and VLANs using FDB (forwarding database) table decisions. VLAN is short for Virtual LAN and is a virtual separate network, within its own broadcast domain, but across the same physical network.

VLANs offer several important benefits such as improved network performance, increased security and simplified network management.

The Aprisa SRi Bridge mode (see figure below), is the default mode of operation and it enables the switching / bridging of Ethernet VLAN tagged or untagged packets within the Aprisa SRi wireless network and in and out to the external Industrial LAN network and RTUs devices connected to the Aprisa SRi wired Ethernet ports or serial ports through the terminal server function.

Within the Aprisa SRi Bridge mode, each incoming Ethernet packet is inspected for the destination MAC address (and VLAN) and looks up its FDB table for information on where to send the specific Ethernet frame. If the FDB table doesn’t contain the specific MAC address, it will flood the Ethernet frame out to all ports in the broadcast domain and when using VLAN, the broadcast domain is narrowed to the specific VLAN used in the packet (i.e. broadcast will be done only to the ports which configured with that specific VLAN).

The FDB table is used to store the MAC addresses that have been learnt and the ports associated with that MAC address. If the destination MAC address is one of the RTUs, the packet is then forwarded to the wireless ports and broadcast as a PMP wireless packet to all the remote stations. The appropriate remote then switches the Ethernet packet and forwards it based on its FDB table (based on the MAC or VLAN & MAC) to the appropriate Ethernet port to the RTU. The RTU can then interpret and process the Ethernet / IP data and communication is established between the RTU and the initiating communication device.

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About the Radio | 31

VLAN Bridge Mode Description

General – Aprisa SRi VLAN Bridge

The Aprisa SRi works in a point-to-multipoint (PMP) network as a standard VLAN bridge with the Ethernet and wireless / radio as interfaces and serial ports using terminal server as a virtual interface.

The Aprisa SRi is a standard IEEE 802.1q VLAN bridge, where the FDB table is created by the bridge learning / aging process. New MACs are learnt and the FDB table updated. Unused MACs are aged out and flushed automatically after aging period.

VLANs are statically configured by the user on the ports where a Virtual LAN is required across the radio network. An example of VLAN isolation of traffic type is shown in the figure below, where RTUs #1, 4 and 6 together with SCADA meter master form a Virtual LAN which is isolated from the other devices, even though they are on the same physical network. VLAN management can be used to manage with external NMS all the Aprisa SRi devices on the radio network and is automatically created with a VLAN ID = 1 default value. The VLAN ID can be changed by the user later on.

Each device in the Aprisa SRi bridge is identified by its own IP address, as shown in the figure.

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32 | About the Radio

VLANs – Single, Double and Trunk VLAN ports

The Aprisa SRi supports single VLAN (CVLAN), double VLAN (SVLAN) and trunk VLAN.

A single VLAN can be used to segregate traffic type.

A double VLAN can be used to distinguish between Aprisa SRi sub-networks (remotes), where the outer SVLAN is used to identify the sub-network and the CVLAN is used to identify the traffic type. In this case, a double tagged VLAN will be forwarded across the Industrial LAN network and switched based on the SVLAN to the appropriate Aprisa SRi sub-network. When packet enters the Aprisa SRi network, the SVLAN will be stripped off (removed) and the forwarding will be done based on the CVLAN, so only a single VLAN will pass through over the radio network and double VLAN will be valid on the borders of the radio network.

Trunk VLAN is also supported by the Aprisa SRi where the user can configure multiple VLANs on a specific Ethernet port, creating a trunk VLAN port. For example, in the above figure, a single trunk VLAN port is created between the switch and the Aprisa SRi base station, carrying VLAN ID #1, 20, 30 and 40.

VLAN Manipulation – Add / Remove VLAN Tags

In order to support double VLAN and different device types connected to the Aprisa SRi e.g. switches, RTUs, etc, which can be VLAN tagged or untagged / plain Ethernet devices, add / remove VLAN manipulation is required.

In an Aprisa SRi VLAN tagged network, a remote Aprisa SRi connected to a plain RTU without VLAN support, will remove (strip-off) the VLAN tag from the packet before sending it to the RTU. On the other direction, when the RTU is sending an untagged packet, the Aprisa SRi will add (append) an appropriate user pre-configure VLAN tag before sending it over the air to the base station. This is shown in the above figure on untagged RTU #5 and 7.

QoS using VLAN

VLANs carry 3 priority bits (PCP field) in the VLAN tag allowing prioritization of VLAN tagged traffic types with 8 levels of priority (where 7 is the highest priority and 0 is the lowest priority). The Aprisa SRi supports QoS (Quality of Service) where the priority bits in the VLAN tagged frame are evaluated and mapped to four priority levels and four queues supported by the Aprisa SRi radio. Packets in the queues are then scheduled out in a strict priority fashion for transmission over-the-air as per the priority level from high to low.

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Avoiding Narrow Band Radio Traffic Overloading

The Aprisa SRi supports mechanisms to prevent narrowband radio network overload:

1.L3/L4 Filtering

The L3 filtering can be used to block undesired traffic from being transferred on the narrow band channel, occupying the channel and risking the SCADA critical traffic. L3/4 filtering has the ability to block a known IP address and applications using TCP/IP or UDP/IP protocols with multiple filtering rules. The L3 (/L4) filter can block/forward (discard/process) a specific IP address and a range of IP addresses. Each IP addressing filtering rule set can also be set to filter a L4 TCP or UDP port/s which in most cases relates to specific applications as per IANA official and unofficial well-known ports. For example, filter and block E- mail SMTP or TFTP protocol as undesired traffic over the SCADA network. The user can block a specific or range of IP port addresses, examples SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) TCP port 25 or TFTP (Simple Trivial File Transfer Protocol) UDP port 69.

2.L2 Address Filtering

L2 Filtering (Bridge Mode) provides the ability to filter radio link traffic based on specified Layer 2 MAC addresses. Destination MAC (DA) addresses and a Source MAC (SA) addresses and protocol type (ARP, VLAN, IPv4, IPv6 or Any type) that meet the filtering criteria will be transmitted over the radio link. Traffic that does not meet the filtering criteria will not be transmitted over the radio link.

3. L2 Port VLANs Ingress Filtering and QoS

Double VLAN (Bridge Mode)

Double VLAN is used to distinguish/segregate between different radio sub-networks (remotes). Traffic with double VLANs which are not destined to a specific sub-network will be discarded on the ingress of the radio sub-network, avoiding the overload of the radio sub-network.

Single VLAN (Bridge Mode)

Single VLAN is used to distinguish/segregate between different traffic types assigned by the user in its industrial corporate LAN. In order to avoid the overload of the radio network, traffic with single VLANs which are not destined to a specific radio network will be discarded on the Ethernet ingress port of the radio network. All single VLANs which set and are eligible will be transmitted over the radio link.

QoS using 802.1p priority bits (Bridge Mode)

The priority bits can be used in the VLAN tagged frames to prioritized critical mission SCADA traffic and ensure SCADA traffic transmission relative to any other unimportant traffic. In this case, traffic based on VLAN priority (priority 0 to 7) enters one of the four priority queues of the Aprisa SRi (Very High, High, Medium and Low). Traffic leaves the queues (to the radio network) from highest priority to lowest in a strict priority fashion.

4.Ethernet port QoS

The Aprisa SRi supports ‘Ethernet Per Port Prioritization’. Each Ethernet port can be assigned a priority and traffic shall be prioritized accordingly. This is quite useful in networks where customers do not use VLANs or cannot use 802.1p prioritization.

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34 | About the Radio

5.Ethernet Data and Management Priority and Background Bulk Data Transfer Rate

Alternatively to VLAN priority, users can control the Ethernet traffic priority (vs serial), management priority and rate in order to control the traffic load of the radio network, where important and high priority data (SCADA) will pass-through first assuring SCADA network operation. The user can set the use of the Ethernet Data Priority, which controls the priority of the Ethernet customer traffic relative to the serial customer traffic and can be set to one of the four queues. The Ethernet Management Priority controls the priority of the Ethernet management traffic relative to Ethernet customer traffic and can be set to one of the four queues. The Background Bulk Data Transfer Rate sets the data transfer rate (high, medium, low) for large amounts of management data.

6.Ethernet Packet Time to Live

Another aspect of avoiding overload radio network is the Ethernet packet TTL, which is used to prevent old, redundant packets being transmitted through the radio network. This sets the time an Ethernet packet is allowed to live in the system before being dropped if it cannot be transmitted over the air.

7.Payload Compression

Aprisa SRi supports payload compression. A Lempel–Ziv (LZ) algorithm is used to efficiently compress up to 50% traffic with high percentage of repetitive strings. Both serial and Ethernet / IP payload traffic are compressed.

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Interfaces

Antenna Interface

1 x TNC, 50 ohm, female connector

Ethernet Interface

2 ports 10/100 base-T Ethernet layer 2 switch using RJ45

Used for Ethernet user traffic and radio sub-network management.

RS-232 / RS-485 Interface

1 port RS-232 asynchronous ports using RJ45 connector

Optional 1x RS-232 or RS-485 asynchronous port using USB host port with USB to RS-232 or USB to RS-485 converters

USB Interfaces

1 x Management port using USB micro type B connector

Used for product configuration with the Command Line Interface (CLI).

1 x Host port using USB standard type A connector

Used for software upgrade, diagnostic reporting and configuration save / restore.

Protect Interface

1x Protect interface port Not Used.

Alarms Interface

1x Alarm port using RJ45 connector

Used to provide 2 x hardware alarm inputs and 2 x hardware alarm outputs

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36 | About the Radio

Front Panel Connections

All connections to the radio are made on the front panel. The functions of the connectors are (from left to right):

Designator

Description

 

 

10 - 30 VDC; 3A

+10 to +30 VDC (negative ground) DC power input using Molex 2 pin male screw

 

fitting connector.

 

AC/DC and DC/DC power supplies are available as accessories. See ‘External

 

Power Supplies’ on page 59.

 

 

ETHERNET 1 & 2

Integrated 10Base-T/100Base-TX layer-3 Ethernet switch using RJ45 connectors.

 

Used for Ethernet user traffic and product management.

 

See ‘Ethernet > Port Setup’ on page 117.

 

 

SERIAL 1

One port of RS-232 serial using RJ45 connector.

 

Used for RS-232 asynchronous user traffic.

 

See ‘Serial > Port Setup’ on page 108.

 

 

 

Host Port using a USB standard type A connector.

 

Used for software upgrade and diagnostic reporting and optional: 1x RS-232

 

asynchronous port with USB to RS-232 converter.

 

See ‘Software Upgrade’ on page 266 and ‘Maintenance > General’ on page 185.

 

 

ALARM

Alarm Port using a RJ45 connector.

 

Used for two alarm inputs and two alarm outputs.

 

See ‘Hardware Alarms Interface’ on page 286.

 

 

MGMT

Management Port using a USB micro type B connector.

 

Used for product configuration with the Command Line Interface.

 

See ‘Connecting to the Management Port’ on page 253.

 

 

PROTECT

Protect port. Not used for the SRi.

 

 

ANT

TNC, 50 ohm, female connector for connection of antenna feeder cable for half

 

duplex RF operation.

 

See ‘Coaxial Feeder Cables’ on page 51.

 

 

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LED Display Panel

The Aprisa SRi has an LED Display panel which provides on-site alarms / diagnostics without the need for PC.

The LEDs indicate the following conditions:

 

 

 

OK

MODE

AUX

TX

RX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

 

Radio has not

 

 

 

 

Red

 

 

registered

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alarm present

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

 

with severity

 

 

TX path fail

RX path fail

 

Red

 

Critical, Major

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and Minor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagnostics

Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

Function

 

 

 

Flashing

 

 

traffic on the

 

 

 

 

 

Active

 

 

 

Orange

 

 

USB MGMT

 

 

 

 

 

OTA software

 

 

 

 

 

 

port

 

 

 

 

 

 

distribution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alarm present

 

Device detect

 

 

 

Solid

 

 

on the USB

 

 

 

 

with Warning

 

 

 

 

Orange

 

 

host port

 

 

 

 

Severity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(momentary)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flashing

 

Software

 

Tx / Rx Data

RF path TX is

RF path RX is

 

 

Upgrade

 

on the USB

 

Green

 

 

active

active

 

 

Successful

 

host port

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid

 

Power on and

Processor

USB interface

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

functions OK

Tx path OK

Rx path OK

 

Green

 

Block is OK

OK

 

 

and no alarms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LED Colour

Severity

 

 

Green

No alarm – information only

 

 

Orange

Warning alarm

 

 

Red

Critical, major or minor alarm

 

 

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38 | About the Radio

Single Radio Software Upgrade

During a radio software upgrade, the LEDs indicate the following conditions:

Software upgrade started - the OK LED flashes orange

Software upgrade progress indicated by running AUX to MODE LEDs

Software upgrade completed successfully - the OK LED flashes green

Software upgrade failed - any LED flashing red during the upgrade

Network Software Upgrade

During a network software upgrade, the MODE LED flashes orange on the base station and all remote stations.

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About the Radio | 39

Test Mode

Remote station radios have a Test Mode which presents a real time visual display of the RSSI on the LED Display panel. This can be used to adjust the antenna for optimum signal strength.

To enter Test Mode, press and hold the TEST button on the radio LED panel until all the LEDs flash green (about 3 - 5 seconds). The response time is variable and can be up to 5 seconds.

To exit Test Mode, press and hold the TEST button until all the LEDs flash red (about 3 – 5 seconds).

Note: Test Mode traffic has a low priority but could affect customer traffic depending on the relative priorities setup.

The RSSI result is displayed on the LED Display panel as a combination of LED states:

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40 | About the Radio

Network Management

The Aprisa SRi contains an embedded web server application (SuperVisor) to enable element management with any major web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft® Internet Explorer).

SuperVisor enables operators to configure and manage the Aprisa SRi base station radio and remote station radios over the radio link.

The key features of SuperVisor are:

Full element management, configuration and diagnostics

Manage the entire network from the Base Station (remote management of elements)

Managed network software distribution and upgrades

Performance and alarm monitoring of the entire network, including RSSI, alarm states, timestamped events, etc.

View and set standard radio configuration parameters including frequencies, transmit power, channel access, serial, Ethernet port settings

Set and view security parameters

User management

Operates over a secure HTTPS session on the access connection to the base station

SuperVisor, when connected to the base station radio allows management of all radios in the network. The Network Table displays a list of all the registered remote stations for the base station and provides management access to each of the remote stations (see ‘Network Status > Network Table’ on page 246).

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Hardware Alarm Inputs / Outputs

The Aprisa SRi provides two hardware alarm inputs to generate alarm events in the network and two hardware alarm outputs to receive alarm events from the network.

The hardware alarm inputs and outputs are part of the event system. All alarm events can be viewed in SuperVisor event history log (see ‘Events > Event History’ on page 198). These include the alarm events generated by the hardware alarm inputs.

Alarm Input to SNMP Trap

An alarm event from an Aprisa SRi hardware alarm input can be sent over the air to any SNMP Manager using SNMP traps.

Alarm Input to Alarm Output

An alarm event from an Aprisa SRi hardware alarm input can be mapped to an hardware alarm output of another SRi using an event action setup (see ‘Events > Event Action Setup’ on page 205).

Aprisa SR Alarm Input to Aprisa SRi Alarm Output

The Aprisa SRi event action setup feature is compatible with the Aprisa SR.

Since, the Aprisa SR only supports hardware alarm inputs, the Aprisa SRi can be used as an option to provide a hardware alarm output. As shown in the figure below, an Aprisa SRi connected on the same IP network of the Aprisa SR, alarm events from the SR hardware alarm input can be mapped to the hardware alarm output of the SRi using an event action setup.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

42 | Implementing the Network

4.Implementing the Network

Network Topologies

The following are examples of typical network topologies:

Point-To-Point Network

Point-to-Multipoint Network

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

Implementing the Network | 43

Initial Network Deployment

Install the Base Station

To install the base station in your network:

1.Install the base station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 54).

2.Set the radio Network ID to a unique ID in your entire network (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 82).

3.Set the radio operating mode to ‘base station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 86).

4.Set the radio IP address (see ‘IP > IP Setup > Bridge / Gateway Router Modes’ on page 129).

5.Set the radio zones / channels.

6.Set the radio security settings (see ‘Security > Setup’ on page 162).

Installing the Remote Stations

To install the remote stations in your network:

1.Install the remote station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 54).

2.Set the radio Network ID to the same ID as the other stations in the network (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 82).

3.Set the radio operating mode to ‘remote station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 86).

4.Set the radio IP address (see ‘IP > IP Setup > Bridge / Gateway Router Modes’ on page 129).

5.Set the radio zones / channels to be compatible with the base station.

6.Set the radio security settings to the same as the base station (see ‘Security > Setup’ on page 162). The base station will automatically allocate a node address to the new remote station.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

44 | Implementing the Network

Network Changes

Adding a Remote Station

To add a remote station to your network:

1.Install the remote station radio (see ‘Installing the Radio’ on page 54).

2.Set the radio Network ID to the same ID as the other stations in the network (see ‘Terminal > Device’ on page 82).

3.Set the radio IP address (see ‘IP > IP Setup > Bridge / Gateway Router Modes’ on page 129).).

4.Set the radio zones / channels to be compatible with the base station.

5.Set the radio operating mode to ‘remote station’ (see ‘Terminal > Operating Mode’ on page 86).

The base station will automatically allocate a node address to the new remote station.

To remove a remote station from your network:

1.Turn the power off on the remote station radio you wish to remove. This is the only action that is required.

Note: The remote station will continue to show in the Network Table list.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

Preparation | 45

5.Preparation

Bench Setup

Before installing the links in the field, it is recommended that you bench-test the links. A suggested setup for basic bench testing is shown below:

When setting up the equipment for bench testing, note the following:

Earthing

Each radio should be earthed at all times. The radio earth point should be connected to a protection earth.

Attenuators

In a bench setup, there should be 60 - 80 dB at up to 1 GHz of 50 ohm coaxial attenuation, capable of handling the transmit power of +26 dBm (0.4 W) between the radios’ antenna connectors.

Splitter

If more than two radios are required in your bench setup, a multi-way splitter is required. The diagram shows a two way splitter. This splitter should be 50 ohm coaxial up to 1 GHz and capable of handling the transmit power of +26 dBm (0.4 W).

Cables

Use double-screened coaxial cable that is suitable for use up to 1 GHz at ≈ 1 metre.

CAUTION: Do not apply signals greater than +10 dBm to the antenna connection as they can damage the receiver.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

46 | Preparation

Compliance Considerations

The Aprisa SRi is a professional radio product and as such must be installed by a suitably trained and qualified installer who is aware of the local regulatory requirements existing at the time of installation and is capable of ensuring that the regulations are adhered to.

The maximum Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) permitted from the Aprisa SRi is regulated and must not exceed the limits provided in the following table. To meet this regulatory requirement; knowledge of the antenna gain and feeder cable loss must be known before setting the transmitter output power.

Regulatory Requirement

Frequency Range

Maximum

SRi Equivalent

 

 

EIRP1

Maximum Average

 

 

 

Power (RdBm)

USA, FCC Part 15.247

902 MHz to 928 MHz

+36 dBm PEP

+32 dBm

 

 

 

 

Canada, IC RSS-247

902 MHz to 928 MHz

+36 dBm PEP

+32 dBm

 

 

 

 

Australia, ACMA AS/NZS 4268

915 MHz to 928 MHz

+30 dBm

+30 dBm

 

 

 

 

New Zealand, General User Radio

915 MHz to 928 MHz

+30 dBm

+30 dBm

Licence for Short Rage Devices

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Zealand, General User Radio

920 MHz to 928 MHz

+36 dBm

+36 dBm

Licence for Short Rage Devices

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Aprisa SRi has a maximum mean output power of +26 dBm into a 50 ohm antenna which equates to a maximum peak power of +30 dBm PEP. To determine the maximum power to be set on the Aprisa SRi, the following installation parameters must be known:

1.

Aprisa SRi equivalent average power for maximum permitted EIRP (specified in dBm)

RdBm

2.

Antenna isotropic gain (specified in dBi)

GdBi

3.

Feeder coax loss between Aprisa SRi and antenna (specified in dB/m)

LdB/m

4.

Length of feeder coax between Aprisa SRi and antenna (specified in metres)

dm

From these the above information, the power setting of the Aprisa SRi (PdBm) can be calculated to ensure operation within the regulatory requirements using the formula:

= + ( × /) −

Antenna gain information can be obtained from the Antenna manufacturer and is either expressed in terms of dBi, referenced to an isotropic radiator, or dBd, referenced to a dipole.

If the gain is expressed in dBd, it can be converted to dBi by adding 2.15 dB to the gain value.

1 These are correct at the time of printing. The installer must ensure that the installation complies with the regulatory requirements at the time of installation.

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

Preparation | 47

This radio transmitter Aprisa SRi IC: 6772A-SI902M160 has been approved by Industry Canada to operate with the antenna types listed below with the maximum permissible gain indicated. Antenna types not included in this list, having a gain greater than the maximum gain indicated for that type, are strictly prohibited for use with this device.

The following is an example of transmitter power calculations:

Antenna Type

Feeder Coax Length and Loss

Regulatory

Maximum SRi

and Gain

 

Limit

Power Setting

 

 

 

 

Yagi, 11 dBi

10 m of ½” Heliax @ 0.11 dB/m gives 1.1 dB loss

+36 dBm PEP

22 dBm

 

 

 

 

Panel, 12 dBi

33 m of RG214 @ 0.22 dB/m gives 7.3 dB loss

+30 dBm

25 dBm

 

 

 

 

Dipole, 3.5 dBi

3 m of RG214 @ 0.22 dB/m gives 0.66 dB loss

+30 dBm

26 dBm

 

 

 

 

Grid, 18 dBi

15 m of ½” Heliax @ 0.11 dB/m gives 1.65 dB loss

+30 dBm

13 dBm

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

48 | Preparation

Path Planning

The following factors should be considered to achieve optimum path planning:

Antenna Selection and Siting

Coaxial Cable Selection

Linking System Plan

Antenna Selection and Siting

Selecting and siting antennas are important considerations in your system design. The antenna choice for the site is determined primarily by the frequency of operation and the gain required to establish reliable links.

Base Station

The predominant antenna for a base station is an omni-directional collinear gain antenna.

Omni Directional Collinear Antennas

 

Factor

Explanation

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Often used in 380-530 MHz bands

 

 

 

 

Gain

Varies with size (5 dBi to 8 dBi typical)

 

 

 

 

Wind loading

Minimal

 

 

 

 

Tower aperture required

Minimal

 

 

 

 

Size

Range from 2 m to 3 m length

 

 

 

 

Polarization

Vertical

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aprisa SRi User Manual 1.0.0

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