Texas Instruments APA100 User Manual

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APA100

100−W Analog Input Class-DAmplifier TPA2001D1/TAS5111

User’s Guide

August 2004

Audio Power Amplifiers

SLOU170

IMPORTANT NOTICE

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TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where mandated by government requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.

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Copyright 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated

Information About Cautions and Warnings

Preface

Read This First

About This Manual

This user’s guide describes the characteristics, operation, and the use of the APA100 reference design board. It covers all pertinent areas involved to properly use this reference design board along with the devices that it supports. The physical PCB layout, schematic diagram, and circuit descriptions are included.

This reference design demonstrates how to make the TPA2001D1 and TAS5111 into a 100-Wclass-Damplifier. The user’s guide discusses how the TPA2001D1 is used as an analog inputclass-Dmodulator. The analog modulator is input to the TAS5111, which is an H−bridge that effectively extends the supply range from the TPA2001D1’s3-Vrails to 29.5 V with the TAS5111. The user’s guide also goes into detail on the external feedback using the TLV2464A quad operational amplifier to add power supply rejection. The user’s guide shows the measured audio results including: total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) versus frequency, THD+N versus output power,signal-to-noiseratio (SNR), output power versus supply voltage, output power versus load, and supply rejection ratio versus frequency.

How to Use This Manual

-Chapter 1 — EVM Overview

-Chapter 2 — PCB Design

-Chapter 3 — EVM Operation

-Chapter 4 — Technical Information

-Chapter 5 — Measured Results

Information About Cautions and Warnings

This book may contain cautions and warnings.

This is an example of a caution statement.

A caution statement describes a situation that could potentially damage your software or equipment.

iii

Related Documentation From Texas Instruments

This is an example of a warning statement.

A warning statement describes a situation that could potentially cause harm to you.

The information in a caution or a warning is provided for your protection. Read each caution and warning carefully.

Related Documentation From Texas Instruments

To obtain a copy of any of the following TI documents, call the Texas Instruments Literature Response Center at (800) 47–8924or the Product Information Center (PIC) at (972)644–5580.When ordering, identify this manual by its title and literature number. Updated documents can also be obtained through the TI Web site atwww.ti.com.

Data Sheets:

Literature Number:

TPA2001D1 SLOS338

TAS5111 SLES049

TLV2464A SLOS220

FCC Warning

This equipment is intended for use in a laboratory test environment only. It generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and has not been tested for compliance with the limits of computing devices pursuant to subpart J of part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against radio frequency interference. Operation of this equipment in other environments may cause interference with radio communications, in which case the user at his own expense will be required to take whatever measures may be required to correct this interference.

iv

Contents

Contents

1 EVM Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.1

Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-2

1.2

Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-2

 

1.2.1 Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-2

 

1.2.2 TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A Supply Voltage (3-VReference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-3

1.3

EVM Basic Function/Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-3

2 PCB Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-1

2.1 PCB Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

2.1.1 Split Ground Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

2.1.2 H-BridgeLayout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3

2.1.3 Analog Section Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

2.1.4 PCB Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

2.2 Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

2.3 Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

3 EVM Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-1

3.1 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

3.2 Power−Up/Down Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

3.3 Reset Button/Mute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

3.4 Error Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

3.5 Changing the Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

4 Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

4.1 Feedback System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2

4.2 TPA2001D1 (Class-DModulator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-7

4.3 TAS5111 (H-Bridge) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9

4.4 TLV2464A (Gain Setting and Feedback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

4.5 LC Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

4.6 Thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

5 Measured Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-1

5.1 Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25.2 Output Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45.3 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55.4 Gain and Phase Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-65.5Signal-to-NoiseRatio (SNR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-65.6 Supply Ripple Rejection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7

v

Contents

Figures

1−1

THD+N vs Output Power (a), THD+N vs Frequency (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 1-2

1−2

APA100 EVM Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 1-4

2−1

APA100 Split Plane Top Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2-2

2−2

APA100 Split Plane Bottom Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-3

2−3

Top Copper and Silkscreen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-4

2−4

Bottom Copper and Silkscreen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-5

2−5

Drill Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-5

3−1

Quick Start Module Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-2

4−1

APA100 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-2

4−2

Openand Closed-LoopFrequency Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-3

4−3

Openand Closed-LoopFrequency Response With TPA2001D1 Pole and

 

 

Canceling Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-4

4−4

APA100 Integrator Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-4

4−5

PSPICE Circuit for Simulating the Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-6

4−6

PSPICE Simulation of Open−Loop Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-7

4−7

TPA2001D1 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-8

4−8

TPA2001D1 Inputs and Outputs With 20-kHzSine Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-8

4−9

APA100 Output Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-10

5−1

APA100 THD+N vs Frequency With 4-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-2

5−2

APA100 THD+N vs Frequency With 8-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-2

5−3

APA100 THD+N vs Output Power With 4-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-3

5−4

APA100 THD+N vs Output Power With 8-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-3

5−5

APA100 Output Power vs Supply Voltage With 4-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-4

5−6

APA100 Output Power vs Supply Voltage With 8-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-4

5−7

APA100 Efficiency vs Output Power With 4-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-5

5−8

APA100 Gain vs Frequency With 4-Wand8-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-6

5−9

APA100 Supply Ripple Rejection Ratio vs Frequency With 8-WLoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-7

Tables

2−1

Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2-6

3−1

TAS5111 Error Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 3-3

4−1

TAS5111 Thermal Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-11

vi

Chapter 1

EVM Overview

This reference design demonstrates how to make the TPA2001D1 and the TAS5111 into a 100-Wclass-Damplifier. The user’s guide discusses how the TPA2001D1 is used as an analog inputclass-Dmodulator. The analog modulator is input to the TAS5111, which is anH-bridgethat effectively extends the supply range from the TPA2001D1’s3-Vrails to 29.5 V with the TAS5111.

The 18-Vto29.5-Vpower supply is applied across the power supply banana plugs J3 and J4. Apply 18 V to 29.5 V to J3 and 0 V (ground) to J4. A simple zener diode and NPN transistor circuit is used to create the3-Vsupply for the TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A; therefore, the user only needs to apply thesingle-supplyvoltage.

The analog single-endedinput is received through the phono jack, J5. The user should connect the load across the differential output banana jacks, J1 and J2.

Topic

 

Page

 

 

 

1.1

Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 1-2

1.2

Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 1-2

1.3

EVM Basic Function/Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 1-3

 

 

 

EVM Overview

1-1

Features

1.1 Features

This reference design or evaluation module (EVM) features the TPA2001D1, TAS5111, and TLV2464A. For simplicity, this EVM is referred to as the APA100 EVM to cover all parts that are supported in this user’s guide. The APA100 EVM is an evaluation module designed for a quick and easy way to evaluate the functionality and performance of the 100−W analog input class−D amplifier.

The features of this amplifier follow.

-Wide supply range of 18 V to 29.5 V

->85% efficiency into 4 Ω and 8 Ω

-100 W at 4% THD+N with 29.5-Vsupply and4-Ωload

-100 W at 10% THD+N with 28-Vsupply and4-Ωload

-63 W at 10% THD+N with 29.5-Vsupply and8-Ωload

-THD+N = 0.04% at 1 W with 29.5-Vsupply and4-Ωload

-THD+N = 0.03% at 1 W with 29.5-Vsupply and8-Ωload

-SNR = 95 dB

-Supply rejection = 63 dB at 1 kHz

-Internal short circuit and thermal protection

-Onboard 3−V supply for TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A

-Module gain set to 31.4 dB typical and easily adjusted.

Figure 1−1 shows the amplifier’s (a) THD+N vs output power and (b) THD+N vs frequency with a4-Ωload, respectively. More graphs are shown in Chapter 5, Measured Results.

Figure 1−1. THD+N vs Output Power (a), THD+N vs Frequency (b)

THD+N − Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise − %

20

10f = 1 kHz,

PVDD = 15 V, 18 V,

5 20 V, 28 V, 29.5 V

2

1

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.05

0.02

0.01

100 m 500 m 1 5 10 20 50 100 200

PO − Output Power − W

THD+N − Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise − %

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

70 W

 

 

0.5

 

1 W

 

 

10 W

 

40 W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

50

100 200

 

1 k 2 k

10 k 20 k

f − Frequency − Hz

(a)

(b)

1.2 Power Requirements

The following sections describe the power requirements of this EVM.

1.2.1Supply Voltage

The 18-Vto29.5-Vsupply (A+) is applied across the power supply banana plugs J3 and J4. Apply 18 V to 29.5 V to J3 and ground to J4. A zener diode

1-2

EVM Basic Function/Block Diagram

and NPN transistor circuit is used to create the 3-Vsupply for the TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A; therefore, the user only needs to apply thesingle-supplyvoltage. A+ supply is used for powering the TAS5111 and is input for the zener diode/NPN transistor circuit used to generate the3-Vsupply for the TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A.

To avoid potential damage to the EVM board, make sure that the correct cables are connected to their respective terminals as labeled on the EVM board.

Stresses above 29.5-Vmaximum voltage rating may cause permanent damage to the TAS5111.

1.2.2TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A Supply Voltage (3-VReference)

The 3-Vsupply is generated by a3.9-Vzener diode, an NPN transistor, and a few resistors to supply VDD for the TPA2001D1 and TLV2464A. The3-Vsupply voltage goes through a20-Ωresistor to filter any noise. Test point 3V is placed after the20-Ωresistor to allow the user to remove the20-Ωresistor and insert an external3-Vsupply. If an external supply is inserted, the voltage needs to be greater than 2.75 V to enable proper operation of the TPA2001D1 and less than 3.6 V to allow proper voltage levels to the inputs of the TAS5111.

When applying an external voltage reference through test point 3V, ensure that it does not exceed +3.6 V. Otherwise, this can permanently damage the installed device under test (DUT).

1.3 EVM Basic Function/Block Diagram

The APA100 EVM uses the TPA2001D1 as the analog modulator. The TAS5111 level shifts the 3-V,peak-to-peakoutput to the18-Vto29.5-V,peak-to-peakoutput level of the TAS5111 enabling high−power output. The TLV2464A is used for the input gain stage, to provide a buffered midsupply voltage (1.5 V) and as feedback. The feedback improves total harmonic distortion (THD) and gives the amplifier power supply rejection, which allows the amplifier to have excellent audio performance even with a noisy power supply. Chapter 4, Technical Information provides more details about the component selection and feedback. A block diagram of the reference design is shown inFigure 1−2.

EVM Overview

1-3

EVM Basic Function/Block Diagram

Figure 1−2. APA100 EVM Block Diagram

 

(TLV2464)

 

 

Audio Input

Gain

Feedback

 

and

 

 

 

 

 

 

Integrator

 

 

(TLV2464)

 

 

Analog Input

 

 

 

Class-D

H-Bridge

Audio

 

Modulator

(TAS5111)

Output

 

TPA2001D1

 

 

1-4