Apple DARWIN STREAMING SERVER User Manual
Size:
1.77 Mb
Download

QuickTime

Streaming Server

Darwin

Streaming Server

Administrator’s Guide

K Apple Computer, Inc.

© 2002 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.

The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of QuickTime Streaming Server and Darwin Streaming Server software may reproduce this publication for the purpose of learning to use such software. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling copies of this publication or for providing paidfor support services.

The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K)for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws.

Apple, the Apple logo, AppleScript, AppleShare, AppleTalk, ColorSync, FireWire, Keychain, Mac, Macintosh, Power Macintosh, QuickTime, Sherlock, and WebObjects are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. AirPort, Extensions Manager, Finder, iMac, and Power Mac are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

Adobe and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Java and all Java-basedtrademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries.

Netscape Navigator is a trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation.

RealAudio is a trademark of Progressive Networks, Inc.

© 1995–2001The Apache Group. All rights reserved.

UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company, Ltd.

022-0329/11-20-02

Contents

Preface

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QuickTime Streaming

7

 

 

What Is Streaming?

7

 

 

 

 

 

About Streaming Servers

7

 

 

Live Versus On-Demand Delivery

8

 

Simple Setup for Live Video 8

 

 

How Does Streaming Work? 9

 

 

Multicast Versus Unicast

10

 

 

Relaying Streamed Media

11

 

 

The Total Streaming Solution

11

 

 

The QuickTime Suite

12

 

 

 

More About QTSS and DSS

12

 

 

For More Information

13

 

 

 

 

1 Getting Started

 

15

 

 

 

Setup Overview

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardware and Software

16

 

 

 

Client Computer Requirements

16

 

Server Requirements

17

 

 

 

Live Broadcasting Requirements

17

 

Setting Up Your Streaming Server

18

 

Testing Your Setup

19

 

 

 

 

 

2 Managing Your Streaming Server

21

User Interface

21

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working With Streaming Server Admin

21

3

Viewing Streaming Status

22

 

 

 

 

Starting or Stopping Streaming Service

22

 

 

Working With Connected Users 22

 

 

 

Changing Server Settings

23

 

 

 

 

Controlling QuickTime Broadcaster Remotely

23

 

Working With General Settings

24

 

 

 

Working With Port Settings

25

 

 

 

Working With Log Settings

25

 

 

 

Viewing Error Logs and Access History

26

 

 

Media

27

 

 

 

 

 

 

About Instant-On Streaming

27

 

 

 

Preparing Prerecorded Media

27

 

 

 

Preparing Audio

28

 

 

 

 

 

Streaming Media Files With Multiple Sources

28

 

Streaming File Formats Like .avi, .text, and .wav

28

Exporting a QuickTime Movie as a Hinted Movie

29

Improving the Performance of Hinted Movies

30

 

Session Description Protocol (SDP) Files

30

 

 

Streaming Live Media 31

 

 

 

 

 

Viewing Streamed Media From a Client Computer

31

Setting Up a Web Page With Streamed Media

32

 

Creating Links to MP3 Playlists

33

 

 

 

Bandwidth Considerations

33

 

 

 

Playlists

34

 

 

 

 

 

 

Using Playlists to Broadcast Prerecorded Media

34

Working With Playlist Settings

34

 

 

 

Starting and Stopping Playlists

35

 

 

 

Creating a Playlist

35

 

 

 

 

 

Changing a Playlist

36

 

 

 

 

 

Deleting a Playlist

36

 

 

 

 

 

Relays

37

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working With Relay Settings

 

37

 

 

 

Setting Up Relays

38

 

 

 

 

 

Turning a Relay On or Off

39

 

 

 

 

4Contents

Security

39

 

 

 

 

 

Resetting the Streaming Server Admin User Name and Password 39

 

Controlling Access to Streamed Media

40

 

 

 

Creating an Access File

40

 

 

 

 

What Clients Need to Access Protected Media

42

 

 

Adding User Accounts and Passwords

42

 

 

 

Adding or Deleting Groups 42

 

 

 

 

Making Changes to the User or Group File 42

 

 

Installing SSL 43

 

 

 

 

 

Using Automatic Unicast (Announce) With QTSS or DSS on a Separate Computer

43

Executing a Command With sudo 44

 

 

 

Streaming on Port 80

45

 

 

 

 

Firewalls and Networks With Address Translation

45

 

Problems

45

 

 

 

 

 

Streaming Server Admin Is Not Responding

46

 

 

The Server Doesn’t Start Up or Quits Unexpectedly

46

 

The Streaming Server Computer Crashes or Is Restarted 46

 

Media Files Do Not Stream Properly

46

 

 

 

Streaming Performance Seems Slow

47

 

 

 

Users Can’t Connect to Your Broadcast

47

 

 

 

Users See Error Messages While Streaming Media

47

 

Users Can’t See Live Streamed Media

48

 

 

 

You’re Having Problems With Playlists

48

 

 

 

Advanced

49

 

 

 

 

 

How do I bind the Streaming Server Admin computer to a single IP address if my machine

is multihomed?

49

 

 

 

 

How do I bind QTSS or DSS to a single IP address if my machine is multihomed?

50

How do I kill and restart the QuickTime Streaming Server processes in Mac OS X Server?

51

 

 

 

 

 

How do I kill and restart Streaming Server Admin processes in Mac OS X Server?

51

How do I get QTSS to re-read its preferences without killing or restarting the server? 52

How do I configure QTSS to host streams from multiple user media directories?

52

3 Setup Example 55

 

 

 

 

 

Streaming Presentations—Live and On Demand

55

 

 

Contents 5

Setting It Up 57

Creating a Web Page for Easy Access 65

Shooting the Live Presentation

66

Archiving the Live Presentation

66

Glossary 69

Index 77

6Contents

P R E F A C E

QuickTime Streaming

The focus of this guide is QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS) and Darwin Streaming Server (DSS). But before getting into the details of QTSS and DSS, it may be helpful to learn what streaming is all about and to get an overview of the total streaming solution provided by the QuickTime suite of products.

What Is Streaming?

Streaming delivers media from a server over a network to a client in real time, from modem rates to broadband. No file is ever downloaded to a viewer’s hard drive. Media is played by the client software as it is delivered.

With QuickTime streaming you can deliver

mbroadcasts of live events in real time

mvideo on demand

mplaylist broadcasts of prerecorded content

About Streaming Servers

If you want to send streams to people over the Internet or a local network, you need a streaming server. Just as you need a web server for web pages, and a mail server for email messages, you need a streaming server to send real-timestreams.

The streaming server transmits video and audio streams to individuals in response to requests from those individuals using client software such as QuickTime Player. The requests are handled using Real-TimeStreaming Protocol (RTSP), a protocol for controlling a stream ofreal-timemultimedia content. The streams are sent usingReal-TimeTransport Protocol (RTP), a transport protocol used for transmittingreal-timemultimedia content over networks. A streaming server can create streams from QuickTime movies stored on a disk. It can also send copies of any live streams to which it has access.

7

For small audiences, the same computer can run web server software, mail server software, and streaming server software. For larger audiences, one or more computers typically are dedicated to acting purely as streaming servers.

Live Versus On-DemandDelivery

Delivery options for real-timestreaming media are divided into two categories: live and on demand. You can serve both from QuickTime Streaming Server and from Darwin Streaming Server.

Live events, such as concerts, speeches, and lectures, are commonly streamed over the Internet as they happen with the assistance of broadcasting software, such as QuickTime Broadcaster. The broadcasting software encodes a live source, such as video from a camera, in real time and delivers the resulting stream to the server. The server then serves, or “reflects,” the live stream to clients.

Regardless of when different customers connect to the stream, each sees the same point in the stream at the same time. This live experience can be simulated with recorded content by broadcasting from an archive source such as a tape deck or creating playlists of media on the server.

For an on-demanddelivery experience, such as a movie or an archived lecture, each customer initiates the stream from the beginning, so no customer ever comes in “late” to the stream. No broadcasting software is required in this case.

Simple Setup for Live Video

The illustration below shows a setup for streaming live video and audio. (Most video cameras have a built-inmicrophone.) You can stream audio only using a microphone, mixer, and other appropriate audio equipment.

Broadcaster

Streaming server

8Preface

A PowerBook G4 with QuickTime Broadcaster software captures and encodes video and audio. The encoded signal is sent over an Internet Protocol (IP) network to a server computer running QTSS or DSS software. QTSS or DSS on the server computer sends the signal over the Internet or a local network to client computers that tune in using QuickTime Player.

You can also run QuickTime Broadcaster and QTSS or DSS on the same computer. If you are broadcasting to a large audience (more than, say, 100), however, Apple recommends that you run QuickTime Broadcaster and QTSS or DSS on separate computers.

How Does Streaming Work?

When you watch and listen to cable or over-the-airmedia transmissions on television or radio, the cable or electromagnetic wavelengths used are dedicated to that transmission. Those transmissions are mostly uncompressed and so consume large amounts of transmission bandwidth. But that’s not a problem, because they don’t have to compete with other transmissions within the frequency over which they’re broadcast.

When you send that same media over the Internet, the bandwidth used is no longer dedicated to only that transmission stream. The media now has to share extremely limited bandwidth with thousands, potentially millions, of other transmissions traveling back and forth over the Internet.

Multimedia sent over the Internet is therefore encoded and compressed for transmission. The resulting files are saved in a specific location, and streaming server software such as QuickTime Streaming Server or Darwin Streaming Server is used to send the media over the Internet to client computers.

Streamed media can be viewed by both Macintosh and Windows users using QuickTime Player (available free on the Apple web site) or any other application that supports QuickTime or standard MPEG-4files. Streams can also be set up so that users can view them from within a web browser when the QuickTimeplug-inis installed.

When a user starts to play streamed media through a web page, the QuickTime plug-insends a request to the streaming server. The server responds by sending the multimedia content to the client computer.

The type of multimedia that is sent to the client computer depends on what content you specified on the web page. If you linked to a playlist created on the streaming server, that’s sent. If you linked to a QuickTime movie in the specified media directory, that movie is sent. If you linked to a live broadcast, that’s sent.

QuickTime Streaming

9

Multicast Versus Unicast

QTSS and DSS support both multicast and unicast network transport to deliver streaming media.

In a multicast, a single stream is shared among the clients (see illustration). Each client “tunes in” to the stream much as a radio tunes in to an FM broadcast. Although this technique reduces network congestion, it does require a network that either has access to the multicast backbone, otherwise called the Mbone, for content generally distributed over the Internet, or is multicast enabled for content distributed within a contained private network.

Multicast

In a unicast, each client initiates its own stream, resulting in the generation of many one-to-one connections between client and server (see illustration). Many clients connected via unicast to a stream in a local network can result in heavy network traffic. But this technique is the most reliable for delivery over the Internet since no special transport support is required.

Unicast

10 Preface