Apple Computer Network Router 2 User Manual

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Newton 2.0 User Interface

Guidelines

Addison-WesleyPublishing Company

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96-20168 CIP

Apple Computer, Inc.

© 1996, 1994 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, mechanical, electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Apple Computer, Inc., except to make a backup copy of any documentation provided on CD-ROM.Printed in the United States of America.

No licenses, express or implied, are granted with respect to any of the technology described in this book. Apple retains all intellectual property rights associated with the technology described in this book. This book is intended to assist application developers to develop applications only for Apple-labeledorApple-licensedcomputers.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors.

Apple Computer, Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014 408-996-1010

Apple, the Apple logo, APDA, AppleLink, AppleTalk, LaserWriter, Macintosh, and Newton are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.

Balloon Help, Espy, Geneva, the light bulb logo, MessagePad, NewtonScript, Newton Toolkit, New York, QuickDraw, and System 7 are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

Adobe Illustrator and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated, which may be registered in certain jurisdictions.

FrameMaker is a registered trademark of Frame Technology Corporation.

Helvetica and Palatino are registered trademarks of Linotype Company.

ITC Zapf Dingbats is a registered trademark of International Typeface Corporation.

Simultaneously published in the United States and Canada.

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ISBN 0-201-48838-8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-MA-0099989796First Printing, May 1996

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData

Newton 2.0 user interface guidelines / Apple Computer, Inc. p. cm.

Includes index. ISBN 0-201-48838-8

1. User interfaces (Computer systems) I. Apple Computer, Inc. QA76.9.U83N49 1996

005.265—dc20

Contents

 

Figures

xiii

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preface

About This Book

xxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who Should Read This Book

 

xxi

 

 

 

What’s in This Book

xxii

 

 

 

 

 

Related Books

xxii

 

 

 

 

 

 

Visual Cues Used in This Book

 

xxiii

 

 

 

Developer Products and Support

xxiii

 

Chapter 1

Newton and Its Users

 

1-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Understand Newton

1-1

 

 

 

 

 

Know Your Audience

1-2

 

 

 

 

 

What People Do With Newton

 

1-3

 

 

 

Accessibility

1-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Observe Basic Human Interface Principles

1-4

 

Metaphors

1-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct Manipulation

1-6

 

 

 

 

 

Feedback

 

1-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

See and Point

1-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consistency

1-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

User Control

1-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forgiveness

1-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stability

1-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aesthetic Integrity

1-9

 

 

 

 

 

Design for the Newton System

 

1-10

 

 

 

Observe the Built-InApplications

1-10

 

 

Use the Common Pool of Data

 

1-10

 

 

Keep Applications Simple

1-11

 

 

iii

 

Use Screen Space Wisely

1-11

 

 

 

Check the Screen Size

1-11

 

 

 

Involve Users in the Design Process

1-13

 

 

Define Your Audience

1-13

 

 

 

Analyze Tasks

1-13

 

 

 

 

Build Prototypes

1-14

 

 

 

Observe Users

1-14

 

 

 

 

Ten Steps for Conducting a User Observation

1-15

Chapter 2

Container Views

2-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Views Look

2-3

 

 

 

 

View Controls

2-3

 

 

 

 

View Title

2-4

 

 

 

 

 

View Border

2-6

 

 

 

 

Matte Border

2-6

 

 

 

 

Striped Border

2-7

 

 

 

 

Wavy Border

2-7

 

 

 

 

Plain Border

2-8

 

 

 

 

Drop Shadows

2-8

 

 

 

View Fill

2-9

 

 

 

 

 

Main Views

2-9

 

 

 

 

 

Title or Folder Tab

2-10

 

 

 

Primary Controls and Status Bar

2-11

 

 

Separator Bars

2-11

 

 

 

 

The Main View’s Border

2-13

 

 

 

Auxiliary Views

2-14

 

 

 

 

Slips

2-15

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notification Alerts

2-17

 

 

 

Confirmation Alerts

2-18

 

 

 

Status Slips

2-20

 

 

 

 

Title and Message

2-21

 

 

 

Progress Indicator

2-22

 

 

iv

Close, Stop, or Cancel

 

2-23

 

 

 

User Decision

2-24

 

 

 

 

Palettes

2-24

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drawers

2-26

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roll Views

2-27

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Views Work

2-28

 

 

 

 

 

Opening Container Views

2-28

 

 

View Display Order

2-28

 

 

 

The Backdrop

2-29

 

 

 

 

 

What Is Active

2-29

 

 

 

 

 

View Position

2-30

 

 

 

 

 

Position of a Main View

2-30

 

 

Position of Auxiliary Views

2-31

 

 

Closing a View

2-32

 

 

 

 

 

Closing a Main View

 

2-32

 

 

 

Closing a Slip

2-33

 

 

 

 

Closing a Drawer

2-33

 

 

 

Moving a View

2-33

 

 

 

 

 

Changing a View’s Size

 

2-34

 

 

 

Scrolling

2-36

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scrolling With Scroll Arrows

2-37

 

 

Universal Scroll Arrows

2-38

 

 

Local Scroll Arrows

 

2-39

 

 

 

Four-wayScrolling

2-41

 

 

 

Automatic Scrolling

 

2-43

 

 

 

Scrolling Performance

2-44

 

 

 

Overview

2-44

 

 

 

 

 

Overview Contents

 

2-44

 

 

 

Overview Button

2-46

 

 

 

Switching to and from an Overview

2-47

 

Scroll and Overview in an Overview

2-48

 

Closing an Overview

 

2-49

 

 

 

Nonfunctional Scroll and Overview Controls

2-49

v

Chapter 3

Controls

3-1

Buttons

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Text Buttons

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

Text Button Sizes

3-3

 

 

 

 

Naming Text Buttons

3-4

 

 

 

Naming Take-ActionButtons

 

3-4

 

Naming Canceland Stop-ActionButtons

3-5

Picture Buttons

3-7

 

 

 

 

Designing Picture Buttons

3-8

 

 

Button Behavior

3-9

 

 

 

 

Button Feedback

3-9

 

 

 

 

Button States

3-10

 

 

 

 

Button Placement

3-11

 

 

 

 

Button Spacing

3-12

 

 

 

 

Large Buttons

3-14

 

 

 

 

Close Boxes

3-14

 

 

 

 

 

Where to Use a Regular Close Box

3-15

 

Where to Use a Large Close Box

 

3-15

 

Radio Buttons

 

3-16

 

 

 

 

 

Checkboxes

3-18

 

 

 

 

 

Sliders

3-20

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hot Spots

 

3-21

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard Newton Buttons

3-22

 

 

 

Analog Clock Button

3-23

 

 

 

Info Button

3-23

 

 

 

 

 

Recognizer Button

3-24

 

 

 

 

Keyboard Button

3-25

 

 

 

 

New Button

3-26

 

 

 

 

 

Show Button

3-26

 

 

 

 

Filing Button

3-27

 

 

 

 

Action Button

3-28

 

 

 

 

Item Info Button

3-29

 

 

 

 

Rotate Button

3-30

 

 

 

 

vi

Chapter 4

Pickers

4-1

List Pickers

4-2

 

 

 

Elements of List Pickers

4-2

 

Check Marks

4-3

 

 

Icons

4-3

 

 

 

 

Item Names

4-3

 

 

Table of Items

4-4

 

 

Unavailable Items

4-5

 

Organization of List Pickers

4-6

Sources of List Pickers

4-7

 

Position of List Pickers

4-8

 

Using a List Picker

4-9

 

 

Picking an Item

4-9

 

 

User Editing of Pickers

4-11

Scrolling

4-12

 

 

 

Index Tabs

4-13

 

 

 

Hierarchical List Pickers

4-14

Number Picker

4-16

 

 

 

Date and Time Pickers

4-17

 

Overview Pickers

4-19

 

 

Contents of Overview Pickers

4-19

Position of Overview Pickers

4-20

Using an Overview Picker

4-21

Picking Items

4-21

 

 

Scrolling Items

4-22

 

 

Creating New Items

4-23

 

Standard Newton Pickers

4-23

 

Info Picker

4-24

 

 

 

New Picker

 

4-25

 

 

 

Show Picker

4-26

 

 

 

Action Picker

4-26

 

 

People Picker

4-27

 

 

vii

Chapter 5

Icons

5-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Designing Effective Icons

 

5-1

 

 

 

Thinking Up an Icon Image

5-2

 

 

Make Shapely Icons

 

5-3

 

 

 

 

Design for the Newton Display

5-3

 

 

Avoid Text in Icons

 

5-4

 

 

 

 

Make All Sizes of an Icon Look Alike

5-4

 

Use Icons Consistently

5-5

 

 

 

Think About Multicultural Compatibility

5-6

 

Extras Drawer Icons

5-6

 

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icons Together

5-6

 

 

Extras Drawer Icon Size

5-8

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icon Shape

5-9

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icon Names

5-9

 

 

Animating an Extras Drawer Icon

5-9

 

 

Title Icons

5-11

 

 

 

 

 

 

Button Icons

5-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Icons in a Picker

5-12

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Data Input

6-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Input Fields

 

6-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tapping

6-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pickers

6-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scrolling Lists and Tables

6-4

 

 

 

Radio Buttons

6-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Checkboxes

6-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sliders

6-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Writing, Drawing, and Editing

6-8

Text Input

6-8

 

 

Simple Input Line

6-9

 

Labeled Input Line

6-10

 

Text Input Lines that Expand

6-11

Paragraph Input

6-12

 

Structured List Input

6-12

 

viii

Shape Input

6-13

 

 

 

 

 

General Input

6-14

 

 

 

 

Recognition

6-15

 

 

 

 

 

User Control of Recognition

 

6-16

 

Deferred Recognition

6-18

 

 

Forcing Recognition

6-19

 

 

 

Configuring Recognition

6-19

 

Editing

6-21

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selecting Text and Shapes

6-22

 

Erasing Text or Shapes

6-24

 

 

Joining Words

 

6-26

 

 

 

 

Breaking Paragraphs

6-26

 

 

Inserting Space in Text

6-26

 

 

Inserting New Text

6-27

 

 

 

Replacing Text

6-29

 

 

 

 

Correcting Misrecognized Text

6-29

 

Changing Capitalization of Text

6-31

 

Changing Paragraph Margins

6-31

 

Removing Extra Space from Paragraphs

6-31

Duplicating Text or Shapes

6-31

 

Changing Shapes

6-31

 

 

 

Moving Objects

6-32

 

 

 

Typing

6-32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Displaying Keyboards

6-33

 

 

 

Keyboard Position

6-34

 

 

 

Keys

6-34

 

 

 

 

 

 

Character Keys

6-34

 

 

 

Return

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

Tab

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Del

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shift

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caps

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Option

6-36

 

 

 

 

 

Arrow Keys

6-36

 

 

 

 

Type-AheadandAuto-Repeat

 

6-36

 

ix

 

Error Handling

6-37

 

 

 

 

 

Error Correction

6-37

 

 

 

 

 

Error Detection

6-38

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Routing and Communications

7-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The In/Out Box

7-2

 

 

 

 

 

The In Box

7-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Out Box

7-4

 

 

 

 

 

In/Out Box Items

7-4

 

 

 

 

 

Viewing Items in the In/Out Box

7-5

 

 

Viewing Routing Information

 

7-6

 

 

Routing Outgoing Items

7-7

 

 

 

 

Action Button and Picker

 

7-8

 

 

 

An Action Button’s Location

7-9

 

 

Action Picker Contents

 

7-10

 

 

Building an Action Picker

7-11

 

 

Routing Slips

7-12

 

 

 

 

 

Sender Picker

7-13

 

 

 

 

 

Recipient Pickers

7-15

 

 

 

 

Choosing a Printer

7-15

 

 

 

 

Choosing Fax or E-mailRecipients

7-16

 

Transport Picker

7-18

 

 

 

 

Send Button and Close Box

 

7-18

 

 

Other Routing Slip Elements

7-20

 

 

Format Picker

7-20

 

 

 

 

 

Preview Button

7-23

 

 

 

Sending Out Box Items

7-24

 

 

 

Routing Incoming Items

7-24

 

 

 

Receiving In Box Items

7-25

 

 

 

Receiving Remote In Box Items

 

7-26

 

Disposing of Received Items

7-26

 

Putting Away Received Items

7-27

 

Putting Away Items Automatically

7-28

Filing Items That Are Put Away

7-28

Extending the Tag Picker

7-29

 

x