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Newton 2.0 User Interface

Guidelines

Addison-WesleyPublishing Company

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96-20168 CIP

Apple Computer, Inc.

© 1996, 1994 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, mechanical, electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Apple Computer, Inc., except to make a backup copy of any documentation provided on CD-ROM.Printed in the United States of America.

No licenses, express or implied, are granted with respect to any of the technology described in this book. Apple retains all intellectual property rights associated with the technology described in this book. This book is intended to assist application developers to develop applications only for Apple-labeledorApple-licensedcomputers.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors.

Apple Computer, Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014 408-996-1010

Apple, the Apple logo, APDA, AppleLink, AppleTalk, LaserWriter, Macintosh, and Newton are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.

Balloon Help, Espy, Geneva, the light bulb logo, MessagePad, NewtonScript, Newton Toolkit, New York, QuickDraw, and System 7 are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

Adobe Illustrator and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated, which may be registered in certain jurisdictions.

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Simultaneously published in the United States and Canada.

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ISBN 0-201-48838-8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-MA-0099989796First Printing, May 1996

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData

Newton 2.0 user interface guidelines / Apple Computer, Inc. p. cm.

Includes index. ISBN 0-201-48838-8

1. User interfaces (Computer systems) I. Apple Computer, Inc. QA76.9.U83N49 1996

005.265—dc20

Contents

 

Figures

xiii

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preface

About This Book

xxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who Should Read This Book

 

xxi

 

 

 

What’s in This Book

xxii

 

 

 

 

 

Related Books

xxii

 

 

 

 

 

 

Visual Cues Used in This Book

 

xxiii

 

 

 

Developer Products and Support

xxiii

 

Chapter 1

Newton and Its Users

 

1-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Understand Newton

1-1

 

 

 

 

 

Know Your Audience

1-2

 

 

 

 

 

What People Do With Newton

 

1-3

 

 

 

Accessibility

1-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Observe Basic Human Interface Principles

1-4

 

Metaphors

1-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct Manipulation

1-6

 

 

 

 

 

Feedback

 

1-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

See and Point

1-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consistency

1-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

User Control

1-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forgiveness

1-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stability

1-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aesthetic Integrity

1-9

 

 

 

 

 

Design for the Newton System

 

1-10

 

 

 

Observe the Built-InApplications

1-10

 

 

Use the Common Pool of Data

 

1-10

 

 

Keep Applications Simple

1-11

 

 

iii

 

Use Screen Space Wisely

1-11

 

 

 

Check the Screen Size

1-11

 

 

 

Involve Users in the Design Process

1-13

 

 

Define Your Audience

1-13

 

 

 

Analyze Tasks

1-13

 

 

 

 

Build Prototypes

1-14

 

 

 

Observe Users

1-14

 

 

 

 

Ten Steps for Conducting a User Observation

1-15

Chapter 2

Container Views

2-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Views Look

2-3

 

 

 

 

View Controls

2-3

 

 

 

 

View Title

2-4

 

 

 

 

 

View Border

2-6

 

 

 

 

Matte Border

2-6

 

 

 

 

Striped Border

2-7

 

 

 

 

Wavy Border

2-7

 

 

 

 

Plain Border

2-8

 

 

 

 

Drop Shadows

2-8

 

 

 

View Fill

2-9

 

 

 

 

 

Main Views

2-9

 

 

 

 

 

Title or Folder Tab

2-10

 

 

 

Primary Controls and Status Bar

2-11

 

 

Separator Bars

2-11

 

 

 

 

The Main View’s Border

2-13

 

 

 

Auxiliary Views

2-14

 

 

 

 

Slips

2-15

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notification Alerts

2-17

 

 

 

Confirmation Alerts

2-18

 

 

 

Status Slips

2-20

 

 

 

 

Title and Message

2-21

 

 

 

Progress Indicator

2-22

 

 

iv

Close, Stop, or Cancel

 

2-23

 

 

 

User Decision

2-24

 

 

 

 

Palettes

2-24

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drawers

2-26

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roll Views

2-27

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Views Work

2-28

 

 

 

 

 

Opening Container Views

2-28

 

 

View Display Order

2-28

 

 

 

The Backdrop

2-29

 

 

 

 

 

What Is Active

2-29

 

 

 

 

 

View Position

2-30

 

 

 

 

 

Position of a Main View

2-30

 

 

Position of Auxiliary Views

2-31

 

 

Closing a View

2-32

 

 

 

 

 

Closing a Main View

 

2-32

 

 

 

Closing a Slip

2-33

 

 

 

 

Closing a Drawer

2-33

 

 

 

Moving a View

2-33

 

 

 

 

 

Changing a View’s Size

 

2-34

 

 

 

Scrolling

2-36

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scrolling With Scroll Arrows

2-37

 

 

Universal Scroll Arrows

2-38

 

 

Local Scroll Arrows

 

2-39

 

 

 

Four-wayScrolling

2-41

 

 

 

Automatic Scrolling

 

2-43

 

 

 

Scrolling Performance

2-44

 

 

 

Overview

2-44

 

 

 

 

 

Overview Contents

 

2-44

 

 

 

Overview Button

2-46

 

 

 

Switching to and from an Overview

2-47

 

Scroll and Overview in an Overview

2-48

 

Closing an Overview

 

2-49

 

 

 

Nonfunctional Scroll and Overview Controls

2-49

v

Chapter 3

Controls

3-1

Buttons

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Text Buttons

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

Text Button Sizes

3-3

 

 

 

 

Naming Text Buttons

3-4

 

 

 

Naming Take-ActionButtons

 

3-4

 

Naming Canceland Stop-ActionButtons

3-5

Picture Buttons

3-7

 

 

 

 

Designing Picture Buttons

3-8

 

 

Button Behavior

3-9

 

 

 

 

Button Feedback

3-9

 

 

 

 

Button States

3-10

 

 

 

 

Button Placement

3-11

 

 

 

 

Button Spacing

3-12

 

 

 

 

Large Buttons

3-14

 

 

 

 

Close Boxes

3-14

 

 

 

 

 

Where to Use a Regular Close Box

3-15

 

Where to Use a Large Close Box

 

3-15

 

Radio Buttons

 

3-16

 

 

 

 

 

Checkboxes

3-18

 

 

 

 

 

Sliders

3-20

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hot Spots

 

3-21

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard Newton Buttons

3-22

 

 

 

Analog Clock Button

3-23

 

 

 

Info Button

3-23

 

 

 

 

 

Recognizer Button

3-24

 

 

 

 

Keyboard Button

3-25

 

 

 

 

New Button

3-26

 

 

 

 

 

Show Button

3-26

 

 

 

 

Filing Button

3-27

 

 

 

 

Action Button

3-28

 

 

 

 

Item Info Button

3-29

 

 

 

 

Rotate Button

3-30

 

 

 

 

vi

Chapter 4

Pickers

4-1

List Pickers

4-2

 

 

 

Elements of List Pickers

4-2

 

Check Marks

4-3

 

 

Icons

4-3

 

 

 

 

Item Names

4-3

 

 

Table of Items

4-4

 

 

Unavailable Items

4-5

 

Organization of List Pickers

4-6

Sources of List Pickers

4-7

 

Position of List Pickers

4-8

 

Using a List Picker

4-9

 

 

Picking an Item

4-9

 

 

User Editing of Pickers

4-11

Scrolling

4-12

 

 

 

Index Tabs

4-13

 

 

 

Hierarchical List Pickers

4-14

Number Picker

4-16

 

 

 

Date and Time Pickers

4-17

 

Overview Pickers

4-19

 

 

Contents of Overview Pickers

4-19

Position of Overview Pickers

4-20

Using an Overview Picker

4-21

Picking Items

4-21

 

 

Scrolling Items

4-22

 

 

Creating New Items

4-23

 

Standard Newton Pickers

4-23

 

Info Picker

4-24

 

 

 

New Picker

 

4-25

 

 

 

Show Picker

4-26

 

 

 

Action Picker

4-26

 

 

People Picker

4-27

 

 

vii

Chapter 5

Icons

5-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Designing Effective Icons

 

5-1

 

 

 

Thinking Up an Icon Image

5-2

 

 

Make Shapely Icons

 

5-3

 

 

 

 

Design for the Newton Display

5-3

 

 

Avoid Text in Icons

 

5-4

 

 

 

 

Make All Sizes of an Icon Look Alike

5-4

 

Use Icons Consistently

5-5

 

 

 

Think About Multicultural Compatibility

5-6

 

Extras Drawer Icons

5-6

 

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icons Together

5-6

 

 

Extras Drawer Icon Size

5-8

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icon Shape

5-9

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icon Names

5-9

 

 

Animating an Extras Drawer Icon

5-9

 

 

Title Icons

5-11

 

 

 

 

 

 

Button Icons

5-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Icons in a Picker

5-12

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Data Input

6-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Input Fields

 

6-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tapping

6-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pickers

6-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scrolling Lists and Tables

6-4

 

 

 

Radio Buttons

6-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Checkboxes

6-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sliders

6-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Writing, Drawing, and Editing

6-8

Text Input

6-8

 

 

Simple Input Line

6-9

 

Labeled Input Line

6-10

 

Text Input Lines that Expand

6-11

Paragraph Input

6-12

 

Structured List Input

6-12

 

viii

Shape Input

6-13

 

 

 

 

 

General Input

6-14

 

 

 

 

Recognition

6-15

 

 

 

 

 

User Control of Recognition

 

6-16

 

Deferred Recognition

6-18

 

 

Forcing Recognition

6-19

 

 

 

Configuring Recognition

6-19

 

Editing

6-21

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selecting Text and Shapes

6-22

 

Erasing Text or Shapes

6-24

 

 

Joining Words

 

6-26

 

 

 

 

Breaking Paragraphs

6-26

 

 

Inserting Space in Text

6-26

 

 

Inserting New Text

6-27

 

 

 

Replacing Text

6-29

 

 

 

 

Correcting Misrecognized Text

6-29

 

Changing Capitalization of Text

6-31

 

Changing Paragraph Margins

6-31

 

Removing Extra Space from Paragraphs

6-31

Duplicating Text or Shapes

6-31

 

Changing Shapes

6-31

 

 

 

Moving Objects

6-32

 

 

 

Typing

6-32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Displaying Keyboards

6-33

 

 

 

Keyboard Position

6-34

 

 

 

Keys

6-34

 

 

 

 

 

 

Character Keys

6-34

 

 

 

Return

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

Tab

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Del

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shift

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caps

6-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Option

6-36

 

 

 

 

 

Arrow Keys

6-36

 

 

 

 

Type-AheadandAuto-Repeat

 

6-36

 

ix

 

Error Handling

6-37

 

 

 

 

 

Error Correction

6-37

 

 

 

 

 

Error Detection

6-38

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Routing and Communications

7-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The In/Out Box

7-2

 

 

 

 

 

The In Box

7-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Out Box

7-4

 

 

 

 

 

In/Out Box Items

7-4

 

 

 

 

 

Viewing Items in the In/Out Box

7-5

 

 

Viewing Routing Information

 

7-6

 

 

Routing Outgoing Items

7-7

 

 

 

 

Action Button and Picker

 

7-8

 

 

 

An Action Button’s Location

7-9

 

 

Action Picker Contents

 

7-10

 

 

Building an Action Picker

7-11

 

 

Routing Slips

7-12

 

 

 

 

 

Sender Picker

7-13

 

 

 

 

 

Recipient Pickers

7-15

 

 

 

 

Choosing a Printer

7-15

 

 

 

 

Choosing Fax or E-mailRecipients

7-16

 

Transport Picker

7-18

 

 

 

 

Send Button and Close Box

 

7-18

 

 

Other Routing Slip Elements

7-20

 

 

Format Picker

7-20

 

 

 

 

 

Preview Button

7-23

 

 

 

Sending Out Box Items

7-24

 

 

 

Routing Incoming Items

7-24

 

 

 

Receiving In Box Items

7-25

 

 

 

Receiving Remote In Box Items

 

7-26

 

Disposing of Received Items

7-26

 

Putting Away Received Items

7-27

 

Putting Away Items Automatically

7-28

Filing Items That Are Put Away

7-28

Extending the Tag Picker

7-29

 

x

Routing Status

7-29

 

 

Stopping a Send or Receive in Progress

7-31

Transport Preferences

7-32

 

Routing Alternatives

7-34

 

 

Routing by Intelligent Assistant

7-35

 

 

Programmed Sending

7-36

 

 

Chapter 8

Newton Services

8-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Automatic Busy Cursor

8-2

 

 

 

Notify Button and Picker

8-2

 

 

 

Alarms

8-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unacknowledged Alarms

8-5

 

 

Alarm Etiquette

8-5

 

 

 

 

Sound

8-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Find

8-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Text Searches

 

8-7

 

 

 

 

Date Searches

 

8-8

 

 

 

 

The Scope of a Search

8-8

 

 

 

Customizing the Standard Find Slip

8-9

 

Initiating or Canceling a Search

8-11

 

 

Search Status

 

8-11

 

 

 

 

Search Results

 

8-11

 

 

 

 

Filing

8-13

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filing Button and Slip

8-14

 

 

 

A Filing Button’s Location

8-15

 

 

A Filing Slip’s Contents

8-16

 

 

Editing Folders

8-18

 

 

 

Folder Tab

8-19

 

 

 

 

Intelligent Assistant

8-22

 

 

 

Invoking the Assistant

8-22

 

 

 

Interpreting the Request Phrase

8-23

 

 

Assist Slip

8-24

 

 

 

 

Task Slips

8-27

 

 

 

 

Help

8-28

 

 

 

 

 

xi

 

Preferences

 

8-30

 

 

 

 

 

System-widePreferences

8-30

 

 

Application Preferences

8-31

 

Appendix

Avoiding Common Mistakes

A-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Info Button

A-1

 

 

 

 

New and Show Buttons

A-1

 

 

Screen Size

A-1

 

 

 

 

Tapping v. Writing

A-1

 

 

 

Picker Placement and Alignment

A-2

 

Field Alignment

A-2

 

 

 

Close Box Size

A-2

 

 

 

 

Button Location

A-2

 

 

 

Button Spacing

A-2

 

 

 

 

Button Size

A-3

 

 

 

 

Capitalization

A-3

 

 

 

 

Picker Icons

A-3

 

 

 

 

Dismissing a Slip

A-3

 

 

 

Take-ActionButton

A-3

 

 

 

Fonts

A-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keyboard Button

A-4

 

 

 

Punctuation to Avoid

A-4

 

 

 

Extras Drawer Icons

A-4

 

 

 

Storage

A-5

 

 

 

 

 

Date and Time Input

A-5

 

 

Glossary GL-1

Index IN-1

xii

Figures

Chapter 1

Newton and Its Users

1-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1-1

Metaphors help people quickly grasp how

 

 

 

software works

 

1-5

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1-2

Users should feel they are directly controlling

 

 

 

something tangible

1-6

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1-3

An application adjusts its size, position, and layout to

 

 

fit the screen

1-12

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Container Views

2-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-1

Examples of container views

2-2

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-2

Standard controls for manipulating views

2-4

 

 

Figure 2-3

Various title styles

2-5

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-4

A matte border indicates a movable view

2-6

 

 

Figure 2-5

A striped border suggests routing

2-7

 

 

Figure 2-6

An alert box has a thick wavy border

 

2-8

 

 

Figure 2-7

Some views need the simplicity of a

 

 

 

 

 

plain border

2-8

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-8

Sparing use of some types of shadows is OK

2-9

 

Figure 2-9

A title or a folder tab tops a main view

 

2-10

 

 

Figure 2-10

A status bar anchors primary controls at the bottom

 

 

of a main view

 

2-11

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-11

Separator bars separate multiple items in a

 

 

 

scrolling view

2-12

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-12

Main views have matte or plain borders with

 

 

 

rounded corners

2-13

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-13

Examples of auxiliary views

2-14

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-14

Users can move most slips

2-15

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-15

Dismissing slips that complete actions

2-16

 

 

Figure 2-16

A notification alert tells the user something

 

 

 

important

2-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-17

A Snooze button enables a user to dismiss an alert

 

 

temporarily

 

2-18

 

 

 

 

xiii

Figure 2-18 A confirmation alert tells the user about a grave situation2-19

Figure 2-19

A status slip reports on a lengthy operation

2-20

Figure 2-20

A sequence of status messages traces the steps

 

of an operation

2-22

 

 

 

Figure 2-21

A gauge in a status slip measures elapsing

 

 

progress

2-23

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-22

A status slip can report a condition that demands

 

a user decision

2-24

 

 

 

Figure 2-23

A palette provides handy access to useful

 

 

settings

2-25

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-24

A drawer slides open and closed

2-26

 

Figure 2-25

Where to position a small auxiliary view

2-31

Figure 2-26

Dragging a view’s drag handle moves

 

 

 

the view

2-34

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-27

Dynamically adjust a view’s position, size, and layout

 

to fit the screen

 

2-35

 

 

 

Figure 2-28

A view may change size in response to user

 

 

actions

2-35

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-29

Ready to scroll Notepad notes into view from

 

above or below

2-36

 

 

 

Figure 2-30

Scrolling by tapping a down arrow

 

2-37

 

Figure 2-31

The universal scroll arrows at the bottom of a

 

MessagePad screen

2-39

 

 

 

Figure 2-32

How scroll arrows work in the Date Book’s

 

 

Day view

2-40

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-33

Scroll arrow color may indicate what scrolling

 

will reveal

2-41

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-34

A control for scrolling in four directions

2-42

Figure 2-35

An alternate control for scrolling in four

 

 

directions

2-42

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2-36

Automatic scrolling

 

2-43

 

 

 

Figure 2-37

How an overview relates to a detail view

2-45

Figure 2-38

The Overview button at the bottom of a

 

 

MessagePad screen

2-46

 

 

 

Figure 2-39

Getting an overview

2-47

 

 

 

xiv

Chapter 3

Controls

3-1

Figure 3-1

Tapping a button initiates an action

3-2

 

Figure 3-2

A text button’s name states what the

 

 

 

button does

 

 

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-3

Leave standard margins between a button’s name and

 

its borders

 

 

3-3

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-4

Name buttons distinctively wherever possible

3-5

Figure 3-5

Where to use a button named Cancel

3-6

 

Figure 3-6

A Stop button lets a user halt an operation

3-6

Figure 3-7

A picture button depicts what the button does

3-7

Figure 3-8

Where to use borders with small, self-bordered

 

picture buttons

3-8

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-9

Tapping a button highlights it

3-9

 

 

Figure 3-10

A button disappears when it isn’t available

 

3-10

Figure 3-11

Where to put buttons in a view

3-12

 

 

Figure 3-12

Group buttons by function

3-12

 

 

 

Figure 3-13

Regular spacing between buttons on a

 

 

 

MessagePad

 

3-13

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-14

A Close box compared to a large Close box

3-14

Figure 3-15

Where to use a regular Close box

3-15

 

Figure 3-16

Where to use a large Close box

3-16

 

 

Figure 3-17

Only one radio button in a cluster can

 

 

 

be selected

 

 

3-17

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-18

Each checkbox can be on or off

3-19

 

 

Figure 3-19

One checkbox vs. two radio buttons

3-20

 

Figure 3-20

A slider used for data input

3-21

 

 

 

Figure 3-21

Providing feedback for small, transparent

 

 

 

hot spots

 

3-22

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-22

How the Analog Clock button works

3-23

 

Figure 3-23

Where an Info button goes

3-24

 

 

 

Figure 3-24

Where a Recognizer button goes

3-24

 

Figure 3-25

The Recognizer button indicates the type of

 

 

recognition in effect

3-24

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-26

Where a Keyboard buttons goes

3-25

 

 

Figure 3-27

Where a New button goes

3-26

 

 

 

Figure 3-28

Where a Show button goes

3-26

 

 

Figure 3-29

Where a Filing button goes

3-27

 

 

 

Figure 3-30

A Filing button reports where a data item

 

 

 

is stored

3-28

 

 

 

 

 

xv

 

Figure 3-31

Where an Action button goes

3-29

 

 

 

Figure 3-32

Seeing an Item Info slip

3-30

 

 

 

Figure 3-33

A Rotate button lets users change the screen

 

 

 

orientation

3-31

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Pickers

4-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-1

The parts of list pickers

4-2

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-2

A list picker can contain a two-dimensionaltable

 

 

of items

 

4-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-3

Remove unavailable items from a list picker

4-5

 

Figure 4-4

Grouping items in list pickers

4-7

 

 

 

Figure 4-5

Pickers can pop up from buttons, labels, and

 

 

 

hot spots

 

4-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-6

How a list picker should align with its label

 

 

 

or button

 

4-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-7

Using a list picker from a button

4-10

 

 

Figure 4-8

Using a list picker from a label

4-10

 

 

 

Figure 4-9

List pickers that are too long to display all at once

 

 

have scroll arrows

4-12

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-10

A lengthy picker can include scroll arrows and

 

 

 

index tabs

4-13

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-11

How a two-levelhierarchy of list pickers works

4-15

 

Figure 4-12

A number picker simplifies specifying a numerical

 

 

value

4-16

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-13

Time pickers specify a time, a time range, or a

 

 

 

time offset

4-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-14

Date pickers specify one date or a date range

4-18

 

Figure 4-15

The parts of overview pickers

4-20

 

 

 

Figure 4-16

Entering a new value in an overview picker

4-22

 

Figure 4-17

An Info picker lists information items

4-24

 

 

Figure 4-18

The New picker lists types of data items that users

 

 

can create

4-25

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-19

The Show picker lists alternate ways to see an

 

 

 

application’s data

4-26

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-20

The Action picker lists commands for acting

 

 

 

on data

 

4-27

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-21

A People picker excerpts items from the Names File

 

 

and Owner Info applications

4-28

 

 

xvi

Chapter 5

Icons

5-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-1

 

Distinctive icon shapes are easier to recognize than

 

 

 

rectangular icons

5-3

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-2

 

Avoid text in icons

5-4

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-3

 

Small icon resembles large icon

5-5

 

 

Figure 5-4

 

Use icon elements consistently

5-5

 

 

Figure 5-5

 

The good, the bad, and the ugly in Extras

 

 

 

 

Drawer icons

5-7

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-6

 

Large icons crowd the Extras Drawer

5-8

 

Figure 5-7

 

An icon’s mask either highlights or animates

 

 

 

the icon

5-10

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-8

 

Combining an icon with its mask to animate

 

 

 

the icon

5-11

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-9

 

An icon in a slip title should decorate

 

 

 

 

and inform

 

5-11

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-10

An icon can label a button

5-12

 

 

 

Figure 5-11

Icons can help communicate picker item

 

 

 

 

functions

 

5-13

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Data Input

6-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-1

 

Users enter and edit data in input fields

6-2

 

Figure 6-2

 

How a picker works for data input

6-4

 

 

Figure 6-3

 

Data input using scrolling lists with or without

 

 

 

checkboxes

 

6-5

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-4

 

With radio buttons, a user can select one value

 

 

 

for a field

 

6-6

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-5

 

With checkboxes, a user can select more than one

 

 

 

value for a field

6-7

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-6

 

A slider used for data input

6-7

 

 

 

Figure 6-7

 

How an unlabeled text-inputline works

6-9

 

Figure 6-8

 

How labeled text input lines work

6-10

 

Figure 6-9

 

How expandos work

6-11

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-10

Interface element for multiple-lineor paragraph

 

 

 

text input

 

6-12

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-11

A user can rearrange a structured list by dragging

 

 

 

topic markers

6-13

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-12

Interface element for shape input

6-14

 

Figure 6-13

Interface element for general input

6-15

xvii

Figure 6-14

The Recognizer button and picker give users control

 

over recognition

6-16

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-15

Users may need to control recognition separately

 

in a slip

6-17

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-16

In an Alpha Sorter picker, users select a sort key

 

for ink text

 

6-19

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-17

Selecting words and shapes

6-23

 

 

Figure 6-18

Orientations of the scrubbing gesture

6-24

 

Figure 6-19

Scrubbing a little or a lot

6-25

 

 

Figure 6-20

Joining two words

6-26

 

 

 

Figure 6-21

Breaking a paragraph into two paragraphs

6-26

Figure 6-22

Inserting space in text

6-27

 

 

 

Figure 6-23

A caret marks the text insertion point

6-27

 

Figure 6-24

The Caret picker lists 14 hard-to-writecharacters and

 

three actions

6-28

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-25

How a Correction picker works

6-29

 

 

Figure 6-26

How a Corrector view works

6-30

 

 

Figure 6-27

The four built-inkeyboards

6-32

 

 

Figure 6-28

A Keyboard picker lists alternate on-screen

 

 

keyboards

 

6-33

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-29

A keyboard can be embedded in a data-

 

 

 

input slip

 

6-34

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Routing and Communications

7-1

 

 

Figure 7-1

The In/Out Box application displays either the In Box

 

 

or the Out Box

7-3

 

 

Table 7-1

Meanings of status words in the In/Out Box

 

 

 

headers

 

7-5

 

 

 

Figure 7-2

A Show button provides access to alternative

 

 

 

views

7-6

 

 

 

Figure 7-3

Viewing routing information in an Item Info slip

7-7

 

Figure 7-4

An Action picker lists the transports available

 

 

 

for sending

7-8

 

 

 

Figure 7-5

An Action button at the bottom of a view affects the

 

 

entire view

7-9

 

 

 

Figure 7-6

An Action button above an item affects only

 

 

 

that item

 

7-10

 

 

 

Figure 7-7

An Action picker can include two kinds

 

 

 

of actions

 

7-11

 

 

xviii

Figure 7-8

A routing slip shows sender, recipient, and type

 

of transport

7-13

 

 

 

Figure 7-9

Changing the sender’s name or location

7-14

Figure 7-10

Choosing a printer in a routing slip

7-16

Figure 7-11

Choosing fax or e-mailrecipients in a

 

 

 

routing slip

 

7-17

 

 

 

Figure 7-12

Switching to another transport in a group

7-18

Figure 7-13

Setting format and content options in a

 

 

routing slip

 

7-20

 

 

 

Figure 7-14

Format choices vary by transport and class

 

of data

7-21

 

 

 

Figure 7-15

A format can get supplemental information in

 

an auxiliary view

7-22

 

 

Figure 7-16

Previewing outgoing page images

7-23

Figure 7-17

The Out Box’s Send picker lets users send items to

 

output devices

7-24

 

 

Figure 7-18

The Receive picker lists the transports available

 

for receiving

7-25

 

 

Figure 7-19

Connection setup varies by transport

 

7-26

Figure 7-20

The Tag picker disposes of currently selected

 

In Box items

7-27

 

 

Figure 7-21

Status slips apprise users of lengthy transport

 

activities

7-30

 

 

 

Figure 7-22

Accessing transport preferences from the In/Out Box’s

 

Info picker

 

7-32

 

 

 

Figure 7-23

Some common preference items for

 

 

 

transports

 

7-33

 

 

 

Figure 7-24

A Call routing slip sets up an outgoing

 

 

 

phone call

 

7-34

 

 

 

Figure 7-25

Routing with the Intelligent Assistant

 

7-35

Chapter 8

Newton Services

8-1

 

 

 

 

Figure 8-1

A busy cursor indicates the system is temporarily

 

 

engaged

8-2

 

 

 

Figure 8-2

The Notify button signals an ongoing action or

 

 

deferred alert

8-3

 

 

Figure 8-3

The Notify picker lists ongoing actions and

 

 

deferred alerts

8-3

 

 

Figure 8-4

An alarm notification alert’s Snooze button can

 

 

postpone the alarm

8-4

xix

Figure 8-5

A standard Find slip specifies what to find and where

 

to look

8-7

 

 

 

Figure 8-6

Specifying text or date searches in a Find slip

8-7

Figure 8-7

Specifying a date in a Find slip

8-8

 

Figure 8-8

Searching specified applications

8-9

 

Figure 8-9

A custom Find slip displays application-specific

 

 

criteria at the top

8-10

 

 

Figure 8-10 A status slip shows the progress of a Find operation8-11

Figure 8-11 A Find overview lists items that match search criteria8-12

Figure 8-12 The Find slip reports which found item is currently displayed8-13

Figure 8-13 A Filing slip names available folders and storage locations8-14

Figure 8-14

A Filing button at the bottom of a view affects the

 

entire view

8-15

 

 

 

Figure 8-15

A Filing button above an item affects only

 

 

that item

8-16

 

 

 

 

Figure 8-16

A Filing slip can include storage locations, folders,

 

or both

8-17

 

 

 

 

Table 8-1

Headings for radio button clusters in

 

 

 

Filing slips

8-18

 

 

 

Figure 8-17

Slips for entering and editing folder names

8-19

Figure 8-18

A folder tab allows users to filter a view

 

 

by folder

8-20

 

 

 

 

Figure 8-19

A Folder picker can list available storage

 

 

locations

8-20

 

 

 

 

Figure 8-20

A folder tab can include a digital clock and

 

 

calendar

8-21

 

 

 

 

Figure 8-21

A folder tab can include a view title

8-21

 

Figure 8-22

The Assist button makes the Assistant try a written

 

action request

8-23

 

 

Figure 8-23

An Assist slip appears when the Assistant needs

 

more information

 

8-25

 

 

Figure 8-24

The Assistant’s Please picker lists known actions and

 

recent phrases

8-26

 

 

Figure 8-25

Online help has a topical outline and concise

 

 

instructions

8-28

 

 

 

Figure 8-26

The Prefs application shows system-wide

 

 

preference settings

8-30

 

 

Figure 8-27 A preferences slip containsapplication-specificsettings8-31

xx

P R E F A C E

About This Book

Newton 2.0 User Interface Guidelines describes how to create software products that optimize the interaction between people and devices that use Newton 2.0 software. The book explains the whys and hows of the Newton 2.0 interface in general terms and in specific details.

Newton 2.0 User Interface Guidelines helps you link the philosophy behind the Newton 2.0 interface to the actual implementation of the interface elements. Examples from a range of Newton software show good human interface design. These examples are augmented by descriptions and discussions of the reasoning behind the guidelines.

This book also contains examples of how not to design human interface; they are marked as such and appear with a discussion that points out what’s inappropriate and how to correct it.

Who Should Read This Book

This book is for people who design and develop software for Newton devices. If you are a designer, a human interface professional, or an engineer, this book contains information you need to design and create software that fits the Newton model. It also provides background information to help you plan your software product’s design.

Even if you don’t design and develop software for Newton, reading this book will help you understand the Newton interface. This understanding is useful to managers and planners who are thinking about developing Newton software, as well as to people who are studying human interface design in general.

xxi

P R E F A C E

This book assumes you are familiar with the concepts and terminology used with Newton devices, and that you have used a Newton device and its standard applications.

What’s in This Book

This book begins with a chapter that describes Newton devices such as the Apple MessagePad, what people do with them, and how they differ from personal computers. The first chapter also presents important principles you should keep in mind when designing Newton software, and explains how to involve users in designing the interface. The rest of the chapters define various parts of the Newton 2.0 interface. They describe each interface element in general language and show examples of how to use the elements correctly. For the more technical reader, the book specifies dimensions, spacing, and other specific implementation details for the Apple MessagePad. The book concludes with a list of common interface mistakes and a glossary.

Related Books

This book does not explain how to create Newton software with Newton Toolkit, the Newton development environment. For that you’ll need to refer to these other books, all of which come with Newton Toolkit:

Newton Programmer’s Guide. This set of books is the definitive guide and reference for Newton programming. This book explains how to write Newton programs and describes the system software routines that you can use to do so.

xxii