AOpen AK79GMAX User Manual
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Basically, AC97 CODEC is the standard structure of PCI sound card. As we know, computer is digital-based,but music is based onanalog-based.Therefore, there must be a process to turn digital into analog during the last stage processing of sound in computer. Hence, the component on sound card that play this important task is what we called CODEC.

Audio CODEC 97 (briefly called AC97) is the specification regulated by Intel, and it’s about the structure of audio conversion. The special place about CODEC is that it is separated from sound card (CODEC is an independent chipset). Therefore, PCI sound card could possess with 90db and do other application process as well. We called CODEC that meets this structure AC97 CODEC.

ACPI (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface)

ACPI is the power management specification of PC97 (1997). It intends to save more power by taking full control of power management to operating system and bypass BIOS. The chipset or super I/O chip needs to provide standard register interface to operating system (such as Windows 98). This is a bit similar as thePnP register interface. ACPI defines ATX momentary soft power switch to control the power state transition.

ACR (Advanced Communication Riser)

Building on the PC motherboard riser architecture, ACR slot is backward compatible with AMR but beyond the limitation of it. The ACR specification is designed to support modem, audio, Local Area Network (LAN) and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).




AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port)

The main function of AGP simply put is to tell monitor what screen information had to be shown, a visual transmission device actually. With the rapid developing of AGP card, we can see that it had been developed from single colorful AGP card to 2D and 3D graphic. AGP supports only memory read/write operation and single-mastersingle-slaveone-to-oneonly. Though AGP and PCI share the same algorithm of32-bit,its frequencies are 66MHz and 33MHz respectively. AGP interface had been developed from 2X to 8x.

1X AGP, data transfer rate is 66MHz x 4byte x 1 = 264MB/s 2X AGP, data transfer rate is 66MHz x 4byte x 2 = 528MB/s 4X AGP, data transfer rate is 66MHz x 4byte x 4 = 1056MB/s. 8X AGP, data transfer rate is 66MHz x 4byte x 8 = 2112MB/s.

AMR (Audio/Modem Riser)

The CODEC circuit of AC97 sound/modem solution can be put on motherboard or put on a riser card (AMR card) that connects to motherboard through AMR connector.

ATA (AT Attachment)

Before talking about ATA (AT Attachment), we must understand DMA (Direct Memory Access), which allows devices to skip the CPU devices and access memory directly. DMA specification could not only eliminate the workload of CPU, but also accelerate the transmission of data. DMA begins with a data transfer rate of 16.6MB/Sec, but afterward developed to new data rate of 33.3MB/Sec, which is twice the data rate and we called itUltra DMA.ATA details power and data signals between the drive and integrated drive controller and the computer's motherboard. Two drives (master and slave) are supported. The ATA specification allows the drive to connect directly to the ISA bus on the computer. ATA transfer rate then had been developed to 133MHz/Sec and would come out with fastest rate later (please refer toSerial ATA).

DMA, data transfer rate is 16.6MHz/s.




Ultra DMA, data transfer rate is 16.6MHz x 2 = 33MB/s.

ATA/66, data transfer rate is 16.6MHz x 4 = 66MB/s.

ATA/100, data transfer rate is 16.6MHz x 6 = 100MB/s.

ATA/133, data transfer rate is 16.6MHz x 8 = 133MB/s.

(ATA/133 uses both rising edge and falling edge as ATA/66 but clock cycle time is reduced to 30ns.)

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

BIOS, is a set of assembly routine/program that reside in EPROM orFlash ROM. BIOS controls Input/output devices and other hardware devices of motherboard. In general, to provide hardware independent portability, operation system and drivers is required to access BIOS without directly access hardware devices.


Bluetooth is a wireless transferring technology that enables short-rangewireless connections between desktop and laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cellular phones, printers, scanners, digital cameras and even home appliances. The principle of Bluetooth (a chipset) is to transfer information and voices at the frequency of ISM Band. Every Bluetooth technology devices do come with a standard address for you to connectone-to-oneorone-to-seven(to form aPico-net),with transferring range up to 10 meters (100 meters to follow), using low power radio. Bluetooth do not only possess high transfer rate of 1MB/s, it also could be encrypted with pin code. With hopping rate of 1600 hops per second, it’s difficult to be intercepted and are less interrupted by electromagnetic wave.




CNR (Communication and Networking Riser)

The CNR specification provides the PC industry the opportunity to deliver a flexible and cost reduced method of implementing LAN, home networking, DSL, USB, wireless, audio and modem subsystems widely used in today's "connected PCs". The CNR specification is an open industry specification and is supported by OEMs, IHV card manufacturers, silicon supplier and Microsoft.

DDR (Double Data Rate) RAM

DDR RAM utilizes the existing SDRAM (For ex,PC-100,PC-133)infrastructure and technology while doubling the nominal bandwidth available to systems in an easy to design and simple to adopt way. Based on FSB frequency, DDR RAM on the market are DDR200, DDR266 and DDR333 with more coming around soon.

DDR200, transfer bandwidth up to 200x64/8=1600MB/s (PC1600)

DDR266, transfer bandwidth up to 266x64/8=2100MB/s (PC2100)

DDR333, transfer bandwidth up to 333x64/8=2700MB/s (PC2700)

DDR400, transfer bandwidth up to 400x64/8=3200MB/s (PC3200)

ECC (Error Checking and Correction)

The ECC mode needs 8 ECC bits for 64-bitdata. Each time memory is accessed; ECC bits are updated and checked by a special algorithm. The ECC algorithm has the ability to detectdouble-biterror and automatically correctsingle-biterror while parity mode can only detectsingle-biterror.

EEPROM (Electronic Erasable Programmable ROM)

Also known as E2PROM. Both EEPROM andFlash ROM can bere-programmedby electronic signals, but the interface technology is different. Size of EEPROM is much smaller than flash ROM.