AOpen AK79GMAX User Manual

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CNR (Communication and Networking Riser)

The CNR specification provides the PC industry the opportunity to deliver a flexible and cost reduced method of implementing LAN, home networking, DSL, USB, wireless, audio and modem subsystems widely used in today's "connected PCs". The CNR specification is an open industry specification and is supported by OEMs, IHV card manufacturers, silicon supplier and Microsoft.

DDR (Double Data Rate) RAM

DDR RAM utilizes the existing SDRAM (For ex,PC-100,PC-133)infrastructure and technology while doubling the nominal bandwidth available to systems in an easy to design and simple to adopt way. Based on FSB frequency, DDR RAM on the market are DDR200, DDR266 and DDR333 with more coming around soon.

DDR200, transfer bandwidth up to 200x64/8=1600MB/s (PC1600)

DDR266, transfer bandwidth up to 266x64/8=2100MB/s (PC2100)

DDR333, transfer bandwidth up to 333x64/8=2700MB/s (PC2700)

DDR400, transfer bandwidth up to 400x64/8=3200MB/s (PC3200)

ECC (Error Checking and Correction)

The ECC mode needs 8 ECC bits for 64-bitdata. Each time memory is accessed; ECC bits are updated and checked by a special algorithm. The ECC algorithm has the ability to detectdouble-biterror and automatically correctsingle-biterror while parity mode can only detectsingle-biterror.

EEPROM (Electronic Erasable Programmable ROM)

Also known as E2PROM. Both EEPROM andFlash ROM can bere-programmedby electronic signals, but the interface technology is different. Size of EEPROM is much smaller than flash ROM.

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EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM)

Traditional motherboard stores BIOS code in EPROM. EPROM can only be erased by ultra-violet(UV) light. If BIOS has to be upgraded, you need to remove EPROM from motherboard, clear by UV light,re-program,and then insert back.

EV6 Bus

EV6 Bus is the technology of Alpha processor from Digital Equipment Corporation. EV6 bus uses both rising and falling clock edge to transfer data, similar as DDR RAM or ATA/66 IDE bus.

EV6 Bus Speed = CPU external bus clock x 2.

200 MHz EV6 bus, 200MHz = 100 MHz external bus clock x 2

FCC DoC (Declaration of Conformity)

The DoC is component certification standard of FCC EMI regulations. This standard allows DIY component (such as motherboard) to apply DoC label separately without a shielding of housing.

FC-PGA(FlipChip-PinGrid Array)

FC means Flip Chip, FC-PGAis a package of Intel for Pentium III for 0.18µm process CPU, which can be plugged into SKT370 socket.

FC-PGA2(FlipChip-PinGrid Array)

After FC-PGA,FC-PGA2is the package for 0.13µm process CPU developed by Intel, which can be plugged into SKT423/478 socket as well.

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Flash ROM

Flash ROM can be re-programmedby electronic signals. It is easier for BIOS to upgrade by a flash utility, but it is also easier to be infected by virus. Because of increase of new functions, BIOS size is increased from 64KB to 512KB (4M bit).

Hyper Threading

Hyper-Threadingtechnology is an innovative design from Intel that enablesmulti-threadedsoftware applications to process threads in parallel within each processor resulting in increased utilization of processor execution resources. As a result, an average improvement of ~40% in CPU resource utilization yields higher processing throughput.

IEEE 1394

IEEE 1394, which also called Firewire, is a serial data transfer protocol and interconnection system. The main feature of the Firewire that assures its adoption for the digital video and audio (A/V) consumer application is its low cost. Fire wire interface is capable of supporting various high-enddigital A/V applications, such as consumer A/V device control and signal routing, Digital Video (DV) editing, home networking, and more than 32 channels of digital mixing. Gone are those days of expensive video capture cards. Firewire allows for video capture from both newer DV camcorders with Firewire ports and older analog equipment using A/V to Firewire converters.

The advantages of the IEEE1394:

High data transfer rate – Start from 400 Mbps, (with 800/1600/3200 Mbps coming soon), which is about 30 times faster than USB 1.1.

Supports up to 63 devices (16 - daisy chained) with cable length up to about 4.5 m (14 feet).

Hot-pluggable(like USB). No need to turn of your device to connect or disconnect, and you don't need to reboot your PC. Also, it is aplug-and-playbus.

IEEE1394 is very easy to connect (Like USB1.1/2/0).

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Parity Bit

The parity mode uses 1 parity bit for each byte, normally it is even parity mode, that is, each time the memory data is updated, parity bit will be adjusted to have even count "1" for each byte. When next time, if memory is read with odd number of "1", the parity error is occurred and this is called single bit error detection.

PCI (Peripheral Component Interface) Bus

Developed by Intel, Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a local bus standard. A bus is a channel used to transfer data to (input) and from (output) a computer and to or from a peripheral device. Most PCs have a PCI bus usually implemented at 32-bitsproviding a 33 MHz clock speed with a throughput rate of 133 MBps.

PDF Format

With PDF file, it is easy to do universal document exchange. Virtually any document may be converted in Portable Document Format (PDF). Contents in PDF documents are exactly the same as the original file, including fonts and graphics, and they can be distributed by e-mailor stored on the World Wide Web, an intranet, a file system, or aCD-ROMfor other users to view on any platforms. You may download Acrobat Reader in order to read PDF file from its website (www.adobe.com).

PnP (Plug and Play)

Oversimplified, Plug-and-Playautomatically tells the software (device drivers) where to find various pieces of hardware (devices) such as modems, network cards, sound cards, etc.Plug-and-Play'stask is to match up physical devices with the software (device drivers) that operates them and to establish channels of communication between each physical device and its driver.

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POST (Power-OnSelf Test)

The BIOS self-testprocedure afterpower-on,sometimes, it is the first or the second screen shown on your monitor during system boot.

PSB (Processor System Bus) Clock

PSB Clock means the external bus clock of CPU.

CPU internal clock = CPU PSB Clock x CPU Clock Ratio

RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory)

A DRAM technology developed by Rambus Corporation*, to achieve high speed of memory through the use of multiple channels in parallel by 16-bits.Basically, RDRAM uses new structure of Multibank, which is quite different from FPM, EDO, SDRAM. Using different memory module as well, RDRAM uses “RIMM” with transfer rate of 600/700/800MHz, providing bandwidth as high to 1.6GB.

RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory Module)

184-pinmemory module that supportsRDRAM memory technology. A RIMM memory module may contain up to maximum of 16 RDRAM devices.

SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)

SDRAM is one of the DRAM technologies that allow DRAM to use the same clock as the CPU host bus (EDO and FPM are asynchronous and do not have clock signal). It is similar as PBSRAM to use burst mode transfer. SDRAM comes in 64-bit168-pinDIMM and operates at 3.3V, and have been gradually replaced by DDR RAM.

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SATA (Serial ATA)

The Serial ATA specification is designed to overcome speed limitations while enabling the storage interface to scale with the growing media rate demands of PC platforms. Serial ATA is to replace parallel ATA with the compatibility with existing operating systems and drivers, adding performance headroom for years to come. It is developed with data transfer rate of 150 Mbytes/second, and 300M/bs, 600M/bs to come. It reduces voltage and pins count requirements and can be implemented with thin and easy to route cables.

SMBus (System Management Bus)

SMBus is also called I2C bus. It is atwo-wirebus developed for component communication (especially for semiconductor IC). For example, set clock of clock generator forjumper-lessmotherboard. The data transfer rate of SMBus is only 100Kbit/s, it allows one host to communicate with CPU and many masters and slaves to send/receive message.

SPD (Serial Presence Detect)

SPD is a small ROM or EEPROM device resided on the DIMM orRIMM. SPD stores memory module information such as DRAM timing and chip parameters. SPD can be used byBIOS to decide best timing for this DIMM or RIMM.

USB 2.0 (Universal Serial Bus)

A Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an external bus (an interconnect) standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps. A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices, such as mouse, modems and keyboards. Introduced in 1996, USB has completed replaced serial and parallel ports. It also supports plug-and-playinstallations and hot pluggingPlug-and-playis the ability to add and remove devices to a computer while the computer is running and have the operating system automatically recognize the change. USB 2.0, which supports data transfer rates of 480 Mbps, has been widely used in motherboard these days.

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VCM (Virtual Channel Memory)

NEC’s Virtual Channel Memory (VCM) is a new DRAM core architecture that dramatically improves the memory system’s ability to service multimedia requirements. VCM increases memory bus efficiency and performance of any DRAM technology by providing a set of fast static registers between the memory core and I/O pins. Using VCM technology results in reduced data access latency and reduced power consumption.

Wireless LAN – 802.11b

802.11 is a specification developed by IEEE and Wireless LAN technology, which is an interface between a wireless client and a base station or between two wireless clients.

802.11 family includes the following specifications and with more coming:

802.11 = 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band, using either frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)).

802.11a = 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band, using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)

802.11b (11 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band, using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

ZIP file

A compressed file format to reduce file size. To unzip file, run shareware PKUNZIP (http://www.pkware.com/) for DOS and other operating system or WINZIP (http://www.winzip.com/) for windows environment.

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Troubleshooting

If you encounter any trouble to boot you system, follow the procedures accordingly to resolve the problem.

Start

Turn off the power and unplug the AC power cable, then remove all of the add-oncards and cables, including VGA, IDE, FDD, COM1, COM2 and printer.

Make sure if all jumper settings are correct.

Clear CMOS

Next

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Continue

Install the VGA card. Then connect your monitor and keyboard.

Yes

Next

Turn on the power

 

and check if the power

No

supply and CPU fan work

 

properly.

 

The problem is probably caused by power supply or motherboard failure. Please contact your reseller or local distributor for repairing.

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Continue

No

Check if there is display?

Yes

Press <Ctrl> and <Alt> key at the same time, hold them and then press <Del> to reboot the system.

No

Check if the system reboots?

Yes

Next

Perhaps your VGA card or monitor is defective.

It is very possible that your keyboard is defective.

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