Abit AR5E User Manual

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Installing the Mainboard

2-13

P-Rating

The P-Ratingwas defined by some manufacturers other than Intel to rate the performance of their CPU in comparison with Intel Pentium CPUs. For instance, Cyrix 6x86 P166+ has a higher actual speed compared with Intel Pentium P166, its internal clock needs only 133MHz versus 166MHz for Intel’s product. The main reason is that Cyrix has improved the internal architecture of the 6x86 CPU, which means that with the same internal clock speed, the actual clock speed will be different.

Having read the related terminology above, please refer to the information in appendices B, C or D for the type and specifications of your own CPU. We suggest that you note down these specifications, which will help you when you install the CPU.

CPU Settings:

¡I¡I CPU SOFT MENU¡I¡I

To configure the speed and the voltage of the CPU, you must enter to the CPU SOFT MENU in BIOS Setup.

2-14

Chapter 2

¯ Installing System Memory¡i DRAM Memory ¡j

When this mainboard was designed, we not only have taken into account the present needs, but we have also tried to care about demands for future upgrades:

1.Two 168-pinDIMM sockets:

If you want to extend your memory capacity, you will have no solution other than to use 168-pin3.3V unbuffered DIMM sockets.

2.Four 72-pinSIMM sockets:

Currently, the most common memory modules on the market are 72-pinSIMM modules. The four72-pinSIMM sockets of this mainboard will meet your needs.

3.Easy installation

You just need to insert the modules, without the help of God. Isn’t it great?

Besides the features mentioned above, you can use simultaneously 72-pinSIMM modules and168-pinDIMM modules, but you will rarely encounter this kind of configuration. Before you proceed with installation, be patient, first read what follows:

1.Factory default setting of the mainboard is for 70ns FP or EDO modules.

If your memory modules are faster than 70ns, say 60ns or 45ns, you can modify the BIOS settings in order to speed up the operating speed of the system. But if you don’t want to modify these settings, or if you don’t know how to modify them, it’s no big deal.

But if you set the external CPU clock at 66MHz or more, we recommend you use 60ns or even faster DRAM modules.

2.Memory error check and correction do not support this feature on this mainboard.

Since the Intel 430VX chipset does not support this feature, since the memory error check and correction feature may not be effective, and since you cannot easily find memory modules with memory check and correction feature, this mainboard does not support it.

Installing the Mainboard

2-15

3.Maximum memory capacity 128M Bytes supported by this mainboard.

Computer

¡i Relationships between memory modules and Pentium

knowledge

CPUs ¡j

 

Pentium, 6x86 and AMD-K5are all 64 bit CPUs, but72-pin

 

SIMM modules are only 32-bit.That’s why they have to be used

 

in pairs, because the CPU will always be only able to see 64 bits.

 

This means that 72-pinSIMM modules have to be installed in

 

pairs. For instance, SIMM1 and SIMM2 must form a pair, and

 

SIMM3 and SIMM4 must form another pair. Of course, the two

 

members of a pair must be of the same kind ¡i EDO or FP

 

DRAM ¡j, and you cannot use pairs from different “species”.

 

But the AR5 support different “pairs” and use different type of

 

memory modules, notice:

 

¡i SIMM1 and SIMM2¡j must use the same memory

 

type, as well as ¡i SIMM3 and SIMM4¡j.

 

¡i SIMM1 and SIMM2¡j use the same memory type, and

 

¡i SIMM3 and SIMM4¡j can use the same type, or a

 

different type, in order to permit you to obtain the best

 

speed configuration for each “single” pair, and to make

 

the system work at its maximum capacity. If one

 

memory pair is slower, it will have no influence on the

 

pair whose speed is higher.

 

166-pinDIMM modules are 64 bit, so you can use single modules.

 

On the AR5 mainboard, these modules can support not only EDO

 

and FR DRAM, but also Synchronous DRAM memory

 

configurations. The AR5 mainboard does not support SDRAM.

When you install DIMM modules on the mainboard, you don’t have to setup anything, just be sure that you use 3.3V unbuffered 168-pinDIMM modules, and insert them in the memory socket.

2-16

Chapter 2

Computer

Knowledge

¡i 168-pinDIMM modules specifications¡j

According to the standards defined by JEDEC, there are a lot of different types of specifications for 168-pinDIMM sockets. Here are the possible types:

3.3V UNBUFFERED DIMM

3.3V BUFFERED DIMM

5V UNBUFFERED DIMM

5V BUFFERED DIMM

These types of DIMM modules differ not only by the electrical design, but also by their architecture. So, if you buy different types of DIMM modules, you will not be able to insert them in the DIMM sockets. Currently, the standard for PC is 3.3V UNBUFFERED DIMM, which is the standard supported by this series.

After installing the DRAM, the BIOS of the mainboard will automatically detect the size of the memory installed on the mainboard. Below is a list of all the possible situations:

Scenario 1: You use only 72-pinSIMM modules:

The maximum memory size is 128M bytes.

Support possible for single density or double density memory modules.

Memory modules supported: 1Mx32 ¡i 4M¡j, 2Mx32

¡i 8M¡j, 4Mx32¡i 16M¡j or 8Mx32¡i 32M¡j.

¡i SIMM1 and SIMM2¡j is the first pair,¡i SIMM3 and SIMM4¡j is the second pair. Usually, you first insert the first pair, than the second pair, but it is possible to do the reverse.

You can also directly refer to table 2-1.

Scenario 2: You use only 168-pinDIMM modules:

The maximum memory size is 128M bytes.

Support possible for single density or double density memory modules.

Memory modules supported: 1Mx64 ¡i 8M¡j, 2Mx64

¡i 16M¡j or 4Mx64¡i 32M¡j.

Installing the Mainboard

2-17

DIMM1 is the first pair, DIMM2 is the second pair. Usually, you first insert modules in DIMM1 socket, than in DIMM2 socket, but it is possible to do the reverse.

You can also directly refer to table 2-2.

Scenario 3: You use 72-pinSIMM modules and168-pinDIMM modules:

The maximum memory size is: 128M Bytes.

Support possible for single density or double density memory modules.

Memory modules supported: Refer to case 1 and case 2 above.

Support possible for mixed use of single density and double density modules.

Since there is a lot of possible configurations, no table is given.

2-18

 

Chapter 2

Table 2-1 72-pinSIMM Module Installation

 

 

 

 

¡i SIMM1, SIMM2¡j

¡i SIMM3, SIMM4¡j

Total memory size

 

 

 

 

1st pair¡i or 2nd pair¡j

2nd pair¡i or 1st pair¡j

No

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

8MB

 

 

 

 

 

module

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

16MB

 

 

 

 

 

inserted

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

32MB

 

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

64MB

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

No

8MB

 

 

 

 

 

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

module

16MB

 

 

 

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

inserted

32MB

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

 

64MB

 

Since the installation described above is valid for the first pair as well as for the second pair, it will not be repeated.

 

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

16MB

 

 

 

 

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

24MB

 

 

 

 

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

40MB

 

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

72MB

 

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

24MB

 

 

 

 

 

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

32MB

 

 

 

 

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

48MB

 

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

80MB

 

 

 

 

 

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

40MB

 

 

 

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

48MB

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

64MB

 

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

96MB

 

 

 

 

 

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

72MB

 

 

 

 

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

80MB

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

96MB

 

 

 

 

 

 

8Mx32 ¡i 32Mx2¡j

128MB

 

 

 

 

 

Perhaps you have already found out the rules from the table above. This table, we belive, contains all possible configurations. In fact, you just need to insert two or four 72-pinSIMM modules in the socket to complete the installation.

Installing the Mainboard

 

2-19

 

Table 2-2 168-pinDIMM Module Installation

 

 

 

 

 

 

¡i DIMM1¡j

¡i DIMM2¡j

Total memory size

 

 

 

 

 

 

1st pair¡i or 2nd pair¡j

2nd pair¡i or 1st pair¡j

 

 

 

 

No

1Mx64 ¡i 8M¡j

8MB

 

 

module

2Mx64 ¡i 16M¡j

16MB

 

 

inserted

4Mx64 ¡i 32M¡j

32MB

 

 

1Mx64 ¡i 8M¡j

No

8MB

 

 

2Mx64 ¡i 16M¡j

module

16MB

 

 

4Mx64 ¡i 32M¡j

inserted

32MB

 

 

Since the installation described above is valid for the first pair as well as for the second pair, it will not be

 

 

repeated.

 

 

 

 

 

1Mx64 ¡i 8M¡j

16MB

 

 

1Mx64 ¡i 8M¡j

2Mx64 ¡i 16M¡j

24MB

 

 

 

4Mx64 ¡i 32M¡j

40MB

 

 

 

1Mx64 ¡i 8M¡j

24MB

 

 

2Mx64 ¡i 16M¡j

2Mx64 ¡i 16M¡j

32MB

 

 

 

4Mx64 ¡i 32M¡j

48MB

 

 

 

1Mx32 ¡i 4Mx2¡j

40MB

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 32M¡j

2Mx32 ¡i 8Mx2¡j

48MB

 

 

 

4Mx32 ¡i 16Mx2¡j

64MB

 

In fact, the table above shows that you just need to insert the DIMM module in any of the two sockets to complete the installation of the memory.

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Chapter 2

Introduction of BIOS

3-1

Chapter 3 Introduction of BIOS

The BIOS is a program located on a Read-OnlyMemory chip on the mainboard. This program will not be lost when you turn the computer off. This program is also referred to as the boot program. It is the only channel for the hardware circuit to communicate with the operating system. Its main function is to manage the setup of the mainboard and interface cards parameters, including simple parameters such as time, date, hard disk drive, as well as more complex parameters such as hardware synchronization, device operating mode,CPU SOFT MENU™ techniques, setup of CPU voltage and speed. The computer will operate normally, or will operate at its best, only if all these parameters are correctly configured through the BIOS.

MDon’t change the parameters inside the BIOS unless you know what you are doing

The parameters inside the BIOS are used to setup the hardware synchronization or the device operating mode. If the parameters are not correct, they will produce errors, the computer will crash, and sometimes you will even not be able to boot the computer after it has crashed. We recommend that you do not change the parameters inside the BIOS unless you are familiar with them. If you are not able to boot your computer anymore, please refer to the section “Erase CMOS data” in Chapter 2.

When you start the computer, it is controlled by the BIOS program. The BIOS first operates an auto-diagnosticfor all the necessary hardware, configurates the parameters of the hardware synchronization, and detects all the hardware. Only when these tasks are completed does it give up control of the computer to the program of the next level, which is the operating system. Since the BIOS is the only channel for hardware and software to communicate, it will be the key factor to system stability, and to ensure that your system performs at its best. After the BIOS has achieved theauto-diagnosticandauto-detectionoperations, it will display the following message:

TO ENTER SETUP BEFORE BOOT PRESS CTRL-ALT-ESCOR DEL KEY

3-2

Chapter 3

Three to five seconds after the message is displayed, if you press the Del key, or if you press simultaneously theCtrl Alt Esc keys, you will access the BIOS Setup menu. At that moment, the BIOS will display the following message:

ROM PCI/ISA BIOS(XXXXXXXX)

 

CMOS SETUP UTILITY

 

AWARD SOFTWARE, INC.

 

 

 

¡I¡I CPU SOFT MENU¡I¡I

 

LOAD SETUP DEFAULTS

STANDARD CMOS SETUP

 

LOAD BIOS DEFAULTS

BIOS FEATURES SETUP

 

PASSWORD SETTING

CHIPSET FEATURES SETUP

 

IDE HDD AUTO DETECTION

POWER MANAGEMENT SETUP

 

SAVE & EXIT SETUP

PCI & ONBOARD I/O SETUP

 

EXIT WITHOUT SAVING

ESC : Quit

 

¡ô¡õ¡÷¡ö : Select Item

F10: Save & Exit Setup

 

(Shift)F2: Change color

Description of each function

 

 

Fig 3 BIOS Setup main menu

In the BIOS Setup main menu of Figure 3, you can see several options. We will explain these options step by step in the following pages of this chapter, but let us first see a short description of the function keys you may use here:

Press Esc to quit the BIOS Setup.

Press ¡ô¡õ¡÷¡ö (up, down, left, right) to choose, in the main menu, the option you want to confirm or to modify.

Press F10 when you have completed the setup of BIOS parameters to save these parameters and to exit the BIOS Setup menu.

Press Page Up/Page Down or +/- keys when you want to modify the BIOS parameters for the active option.

Computer

CMOS DATA

knowledge

Maybe you have heard somebody saying that their CMOS

 

 

DATA was lost. What is the CMOS? Is it important? The

 

CMOS is the memory used to store the BIOS parameters that

 

you have configured. This memory is passive. You can read its

 

data, and you can also store data in it. But this memory has to

 

be powered by a battery, in order to avoid any loss of its data

 

when the computer is turned off. Since you may have to change

 

the CMOS battery when it is out of power and indoing so, you

 

will loose all CMOS data, therefore, we recommend that you

 

write down all the parameters of your hardware, or to put a

 

label with these parameters on your hard disk.