3M 2006 ADHESIVES AND TAPES SELECTION GUIDE User Manual
Adhesives and Tapes
Hundreds of adhesives and tapes.
3M Industrial Adhesives and Tapes
Division represents more than 50 years of
ThatÕs the full range from repositionable
Reduce or eliminate operations such
helping companies worldwide improve
to strength enough to replace rivets,
as riveting, drilling, welding, surface
product performance and appearance, and
screws, and welds.
refinishing, and cleanup in many
increase production efficiency.
Today you can rely on 3M for the most
applications, surfaces stay smooth
versatile and comprehensive line of adhesives
Save time and work.
and tapes available. On the following
pages, youÕll find 3M solutions for bonding
or fastening materials ranging from metal
lighter materials and even dissimilar
and rubber to glass and low surface energy
materials as design and
plastics. And youÕll find all of the following:
3M representatives are located throughout
A national authorized distributor network
the United States, Canada, and 50 other
provides sales assistance and local
countries for sales assistance.
product availability. Authorized converters
can also help you adapt 3M adhesives
For technical service, a highly trained team
and tapes to meet special requirements
is ready to help you evaluate adhesives
for shape, size, and production.
and tapes for specific applications.
to help you design and build better products.
Get connected to all 3M adhesives and tapes.
Download data pages.
Request samples for evaluation.
Or call with questions:
3Mª™ VHBª™ Tapes
™ Dual™ ReclosableFasteners
Based on your answers to the following questions, you can decide if it will be worth
your time to evaluate specific 3M adhesives and tapes for your operation.
Tensile is pull exerted equally over the entire joint. Pull direction is
joinwiththestrengthyouneed? straight and away from the adhesive bond.
Some materials are harder to bond than others. But with 3M adhesive and tape technologies, even many materials once defined as
Strength can be readily matched to the substrate and stress characteristics to which the bond will be subjected. Most adhesives and tapes perform better when the primary stress is tensile or shear. In most industrial applications, however, a combination of stresses are involved that may include cleavage and peel.
Shear is pull directed across the adhesive, forcing the substrates to slide over each other.
Cleavage is pull concentrated at one edge of the joint, exerting a
prying force on the bond. The other edge of the joint is theoretically under zero stress.
Peel is concentrated along a thin line at the edge of the bond where one substrate is flexible. The line is the exact point where an adhesive would separate if the flexible surface were peeled away from its mating surface. Once peeling has begun, the stress line stays out in front of the advancing bond separation.
Q Doyouwanttoeliminatethestressconcentrationcaused byspotwelds,rivets,screws,orothermechanicalfasteners andmaintainsurfaceintegrity?
Adhesives distribute stress evenly over the entire bonded area. A rivet or screw hole in the substrate concentrates stress at the hole and can decrease physical properties of the substrate. With uniform stress distribution of adhesives and tapes, lighter, thinner materials can be used without concerns about distortion, splitting, or crazing at the mechanically fastened site. Elimination of holes in metal also reduces the chances for rust and corrosion.
3M adhesives and tapes are generally hidden between the bonded substrates. Surfaces stay smooth and clean for a more attractive appearance and less surface refinishing.
Laminates of dissimilar materials can often produce combinations superior in strength and performance to either substrate alone. The flexibility of many 3M adhesives and tapes compensates for differences in the coefficients of expansion between such materials as aluminum and wood.
The viscoelasticity of many 3M adhesives and tapes improves resistance to vibration fatigue by imparting flexibility to a joint or bonded area.
Adhesives perform better with some part configurations than with others. With the variety of 3M adhesive forms such as pastes, aerosol sprays, and tapes, you should be able to find an adhesive to meet the requirements of most parts that can be assembled with mechanical or fusion fastening. A spray adhesive would be effective, for example, to cover foam cushioning, but would not be a consideration for a part with a narrow bonding area. For cleaner, more efficient application,
With many adhesives and tapes, continuous contact between mating surfaces effectively bonds and seals against dirt, dust, water, and other environmental conditions.
Adhesives and tapes also provide a film barrier to reduce or prevent bimetallic corrosion that often occurs in bonding two different types of metal.
Some adhesives do not hold well when exposed to very low or very high temperatures, high humidity, chemicals, or even water. Other adhesives are specially formulated to resist harsh environments.
In some instances, adhesive bonding can be slow and require critical processing. Some epoxies, for example, require heat, pressure and fixturing to bond metal to metal in structural strength assemblies.
With the wide range of 3M adhesives and tapes, however, a variety of open times are available. Depending on your end use requirements, you can select 3M pressure sensitive adhesives that bond on contact or a 3M
When assembled with most adhesives or tapes, parts are generally difficult or virtually impossible to disassemble without damaging the part. As an exception, hot melt adhesives can be reheated and reused, but in most instances reuse would be messy and impractical. As already noted, repositionable adhesives are available, but application is restricted to lighter duty attachment or closure. Reclosable fasteners are a hybrid technology using mechanical fastening and pressure sensitive adhesive. The adhesive permanently bonds two reclosable mating strips to the substrates that need to be opened and closed. See pages 73 through 77 for details.
With 3M adhesives and tapes, you can see cost reduction through reduced material requirements, weight reductions, and elimination of drilling, welding, screwing, finishing, and similar operations. In most cases, adhesives require minimal training. And many adhesives require little or no investment in major equipment.
At one time, adhesive and glue were used synonymously. In industry today, however, designers and engineers are using terms like
6longer a characteristic of many adhesives.
3M adhesives can be classified in several ways.
glass, metal, rubber, and other low porosity substrates, they
harden in seconds through reaction with surface moisture.
3M adhesives are available as liquids, pastes, tapes, films, and shaped solids. Each has characteristics to be considered for application effectiveness and efficiency.
Liquids and pastes readily fill voids to enhance mechanical adhesion. Many liquids can be sprayed to cover large areas.
Films and pressure sensitive tapes offer advantages unique to their form:
¥Uniform thickness throughout the joint.
¥Confinement of the adhesive to the immediate bonding area.
¥Clean bonding without dripping or overflow.
¥Minimum adhesive waste.
Hot melts are supplied as solid sticks, cartridges, pellets, or similar shapes. Handling and storage is easy and neat.
Another classification for industrial applications is by relative strength and solidification process. Generally, those adhesives that bond through a chemical reaction are stronger than those that bond through a physical change.
3Mª Structural Strength Adhesives bond the
¥Epoxy adhesives are available in one and
¥Acrylic adhesives are
oily metals. The distinction is high strength bonding without the surface preparation needed for epoxies and urethanes.
¥Urethane adhesives are generally lower cost
a distinctive characteristic.
¥Cyanoacrylate adhesives are high strength liquid formulations known as instant adhesives. On rigid plastic,
¥Anaerobic adhesives are liquids that cure to a tough plastic in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of metal. Typical applications include threadlocking, retaining, gasketing, and sealing.
¥Hot melt adhesives melt and flow under heat to wet the substrates and make bonds quickly upon cooling. Products available with a variety of characteristics such as short set times, sprayable formulas, and permanent PSA properties. Applications range from sealing to bonding automotive interior trim.
¥Rubber adhesives are
¥Contact bond adhesives are usually rolled, brushed, or sprayed on the two surfaces to be mated and permitted to become dry to the touch with a variety of open times. When the surfaces are pressed together, near ultimate bond strength is achieved.
P ressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) found in 3M tapes grip immediately to mating surfaces. With dwell time, the adhesive conforms to surface irregularities.
¥Curing hot melts (Polyurethane Reactive [PUR] adhesives) are
¥Structural bonding tapes combine the
with the ultimate strength of liquid epoxy. Cured with heat, the bond reaches high shear strength with leather flexibility.
¥Reclosable fasteners combine adhesive and mechanical fastening principles. Pressure sensitive adhesive permanently bonds two reclosable mating strips to the substrates that need to be opened and closed multiple times.
Adhesives attach to the surfaces of two substrates, unlike a process that fuses substrates into a unified whole such as welding metal or solvent activation of plastics. In selecting a 3M adhesive or tape, surface condition must be considered: roughness, smoothness, porosity, coated, uncoated, cleanliness, flexibility, size of the part, and surface energy of the part.
Adhesive paste, for example, flows readily into a rough surface for improved effective adhesion. Flexible materials such as paper or thin gauge metal can be bonded with a thin adhesive transfer tape. Large rigid parts with smooth clean surfaces can be bonded with a variety of 3M products ranging from double coated foam tapes to
Surface energy ranges from high to low. To illustrate the concept of surface energy, think of water on the unwaxed hood of a car.
The unwaxed hood has high surface energy and water on the hood
flows into puddles. In comparison, a waxed hood has low surface 7 energy and the water beads up rather than flows out. Similar to
water, adhesive on a high surface energy surface flows and Òwets outÓ the surface. ÒWetting outÓ is required to form a strong bond.
As a rule of thumb, the higher the surface energy, the greater the
strength of adhesion.
Specially formulated adhesives are available for low surface energy surfaces. The following illustrations and surface rankings give you an idea of relative surface energy.
Regardless of surface energy, the substrate must be unified, dry, and clean to maximize adhesive contact.
Kapton¨ Industrial Film
NOTE: Theseeovidepraluedsasarmulata guioden.modiﬁcationFor facscaegieneners.ubstantially alter sur
In considering cost, consider more than just the cost per gallon or roll. The true value of a 3M adhesive or tape is determined by applied cost per unit. This includes adhesive coverage and the time and labor to apply it. Coverage is usually expressed in terms of
8adhesive thickness or weight.
For a true cost picture, there are a number of facts and questions to consider; questions not only about the adhesive itself, but also substrates, application methods, and more.
A common error is excessive or meaningless test standards that might rule out satisfactory products. Use the lowest cost adhesive consistent with end use performance.
100% adhesive coverage is not always necessary. 50% may be completely satisfactory. Or even a single bead of adhesive or strip of high strength tape.
High absorption materials, for example, soak up low viscosity adhesives and need multiple coats. In that case, a higher viscosity product or spraying is needed.
Many adhesives are now low or no VOC's, or 100% solids, and require little or no special ventilation equipment. PSA tapes in application are solventless.
Equipment needs only be consistent with the desired production rate. A collapsible squeeze tube may be all thatÕs necessary to bond plastic parts. Tape can be simply rolled on by hand. If more demanding equipment is needed for the application, 3M technical service will work with you to evaluate processes and equipment.
The level of training will vary. A
Less expensive substrates and simplified designs can reduce overall cost and increase the market appeal of the end product.
An evaluation of your answers will indicate an appropriate selection of adhesives for the job and true cost. The final adhesive selection will be based on a comparison between applied cost per unit and specific required performance.
3Mª Structural Adhesives
The brand name
Today, industries worldwide take advantage of the wide selection of 3Mª
golf clubs, and home furniture.
Each adhesive has high cohesive strength to bond high strength materials and potentially replace mechanical fasteners. Depending on the adhesive, you can bond metals, wood, rubber, ceramic, composites, engineering grade plastics, glass, and more.
Products include the following:
As an alternative to mechanical or fusion fastening, the reasons for 3Mª
design latitude, cleaner lines, material substitution, less machining, lighter weight, more durability, and often less cost.
To meet application and
Whatever properties you need Ð durable adhesion, flexibility, creep resistance, heat and environmental resistance, or
With handling strength in 2 hours and full cure in 24 hours, 3Mª
With a 400ml cartridge, the 3Mª EPXª Pneumatic Applicator applies 3Mª
With no surface preparation, 3Mª
Structural Acrylic Adhesive DP8005 bonds the
DP810 requires minimal surface preparation for
mitered corners of a
bonding metal hinges into awning frames.
plastic P.O.P. display, eliminating nails that would
Reaches handling strength in only 10 minutes.
Adhesive 2216 B/A provides a tough, flexible
bonds steel couplings into aluminum tubing of a
bond between honeycomb and the framework in
bicycle frame. Couplings are threaded for easy
entry step panels of commuter aircraft.
assembly and disassembly.