3M 2006 ADHESIVES AND TAPES SELECTION GUIDE User Manual

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Adhesives and Tapes

DesignGuideforBonding,

Ataching,andFastening

One resource.

Hundreds of adhesives and tapes.

3M Industrial Adhesives and Tapes

¥•Bondstrengthmatchedtothejob.

¥•Increasemanufacturingefficiency.

Division represents more than 50 years of

ThatÕs the full range from repositionable

Reduce or eliminate operations such

helping companies worldwide improve

to strength enough to replace rivets,

as riveting, drilling, welding, surface

product performance and appearance, and

screws, and welds.

refinishing, and cleanup in many

increase production efficiency.

¥•Virtualyinvisiblefastening.In most

applications.

 

¥•Bond,sealandfilgapsinonestep.

Today you can rely on 3M for the most

applications, surfaces stay smooth

versatile and comprehensive line of adhesives

and clean.

Save time and work.

and tapes available. On the following

¥•Increasedmaterialoptions.Use thinner,

 

pages, youÕll find 3M solutions for bonding

 

or fastening materials ranging from metal

lighter materials and even dissimilar

 

and rubber to glass and low surface energy

materials as design and cost-saving

 

plastics. And youÕll find all of the following:

solutions.

 

2

68

Solutionsthroughservice.

3M representatives are located throughout

A national authorized distributor network

the United States, Canada, and 50 other

provides sales assistance and local

countries for sales assistance.

product availability. Authorized converters

 

can also help you adapt 3M adhesives

For technical service, a highly trained team

and tapes to meet special requirements

is ready to help you evaluate adhesives

for shape, size, and production.

and tapes for specific applications.

 

Unlimited solutions

to help you design and build better products.

www.3M.com/industrial

Get connected to all 3M adhesives and tapes.

Download data pages.

Request samples for evaluation.

Or call with questions: 1-800-362-3550

TableofContents

 

Knowingwhentouse3MAdhesivesandTapes

4

3MAdhesiveandTapeClassifications

6

SubstratesandAdhesion

7

AdhesiveEconomics

8

 

StructuralAdhesives

9

3Mª™ Scotch-Weldª

 

3Mª™Scotch-Weldª™Epoxy,Acrylic,

 

andUrethaneAdhesives

10-14

 

InstantAdhesives

15

3Mª™Scotch-Weldª

 

 

AnaerobicAdhesives

16-17

3Mª™Scotch-Weldª

 

 

Polyurethane

 

3Mª™Scotch-Weldª

 

ReactiveAdhesives

18-21

Non-StructuralAdhesives

22

3Mª

 

 

IndustrialAdhesives

 

3Mª

 

 

(Plastic,Rubber,andInsulation)

23-25

ContactAdhesives

26-27

3Mª

 

 

 

HotMeltAdhesives

28-31

3Mª™Scotch-Weldª

 

 

HotMeltSprayAdhesives

32

3Mª™Scotch-Weldª

 

3Mª™Sealants

33

AerosolAdhesives

34-35

3Mª

 

 

AerosolChemicals

36

3Mª

 

 

ConcreteRepairProducts

37

3Mª

 

 

Adhesive/SubstrateSelectionGuide

38-44

BondingTapes

45

3Mª

 

 

3Mª™ VHBª™ Tapes

46-48

StructuralBondingTapes

49

3Mª

 

 

DoubleCoatedFoamTapes

50-51

3Mª

 

 

DoubleCoatedTapes

52-54

3Mª

 

 

Removable/RepositionableTapes

55

3Mª

 

 

AdhesiveTransferTapes

56-58

3Mª

 

 

ExtendedLinerTapes

59

3Mª

 

 

AdhesiveTransferTapes

 

3Mª

 

 

onDifferentLiners

60-61

MembraneSwitchAdhesives

62-63

3Mª

 

 

 

®ATGAdhesiveSystems

64

Scotch¨

 

TapeSelectionGuide

65-71

ReclosableFastenersandOtherTechnologies

72

DualReclosableFasteners

73-75

3Mª

Lockª

 

 

ReclosableFasteners

76-77

3Mª™ Scotchmateª

 

SingleCoatedFoamTapes

78

3Mª

 

 

Overviewofother3M Technologies

79

ProductIndex

80-83

 

 

66-68

Knowingwhentouse3Madhesivesandtapestoimproveyourproductandprocess

Based on your answers to the following questions, you can decide if it will be worth

your time to evaluate specific 3M adhesives and tapes for your operation.

4

Q Canadhesivesholdtogetherthematerialsyouwantto

Tensile is pull exerted equally over the entire joint. Pull direction is

 

joinwiththestrengthyouneed? straight and away from the adhesive bond.

Some materials are harder to bond than others. But with 3M adhesive and tape technologies, even many materials once defined as Òhard-to-bond,Ósuch as low surface energy plastics, can be bonded with strength greater than the materials bonded. The list of potential substrates ranges from glass, wood, cardboard, and rubber to steel, concrete, foam, polycarbonate, and just about any other material you can name.

Strength can be readily matched to the substrate and stress characteristics to which the bond will be subjected. Most adhesives and tapes perform better when the primary stress is tensile or shear. In most industrial applications, however, a combination of stresses are involved that may include cleavage and peel.

Tensile Shear

Shear is pull directed across the adhesive, forcing the substrates to slide over each other.

Cleavage is pull concentrated at one edge of the joint, exerting a

prying force on the bond. The other edge of the joint is theoretically under zero stress.

Peel is concentrated along a thin line at the edge of the bond where one substrate is flexible. The line is the exact point where an adhesive would separate if the flexible surface were peeled away from its mating surface. Once peeling has begun, the stress line stays out in front of the advancing bond separation.

Q Doyouwanttoeliminatethestressconcentrationcaused byspotwelds,rivets,screws,orothermechanicalfasteners andmaintainsurfaceintegrity?

Adhesives distribute stress evenly over the entire bonded area. A rivet or screw hole in the substrate concentrates stress at the hole and can decrease physical properties of the substrate. With uniform stress distribution of adhesives and tapes, lighter, thinner materials can be used without concerns about distortion, splitting, or crazing at the mechanically fastened site. Elimination of holes in metal also reduces the chances for rust and corrosion.

Cleavage

Peel

4

3

 

 

5

QWouldinvisiblefasteningimproveyourproductsappearance?

3M adhesives and tapes are generally hidden between the bonded substrates. Surfaces stay smooth and clean for a more attractive appearance and less surface refinishing.

QDoyouwanttoatachdissimilarsubstrates?

Laminates of dissimilar materials can often produce combinations superior in strength and performance to either substrate alone. The flexibility of many 3M adhesives and tapes compensates for differences in the coefficients of expansion between such materials as aluminum and wood.

QWilyourpartbesubjectedtovibration?

The viscoelasticity of many 3M adhesives and tapes improves resistance to vibration fatigue by imparting flexibility to a joint or bonded area.

6

QIsthedesignofyourpartrightforadhesivebonding?

Adhesives perform better with some part configurations than with others. With the variety of 3M adhesive forms such as pastes, aerosol sprays, and tapes, you should be able to find an adhesive to meet the requirements of most parts that can be assembled with mechanical or fusion fastening. A spray adhesive would be effective, for example, to cover foam cushioning, but would not be a consideration for a part with a narrow bonding area. For cleaner, more efficient application, die-cutpressure sensitive adhesive foam tape can be precisely placed on smaller,irregularly-shapedbonding surfaces.

QDoyouwanttobondandsimultaneouslysealbetween

thesubstrates?

With many adhesives and tapes, continuous contact between mating surfaces effectively bonds and seals against dirt, dust, water, and other environmental conditions.

Adhesives and tapes also provide a film barrier to reduce or prevent bimetallic corrosion that often occurs in bonding two different types of metal.

QWilyourfinishedassemblybeexposedtoharsh environmentalconditions?

5

Some adhesives do not hold well when exposed to very low or very high temperatures, high humidity, chemicals, or even water. Other adhesives are specially formulated to resist harsh environments.

QDoyouneedhighspeedbonding?

In some instances, adhesive bonding can be slow and require critical processing. Some epoxies, for example, require heat, pressure and fixturing to bond metal to metal in structural strength assemblies.

With the wide range of 3M adhesives and tapes, however, a variety of open times are available. Depending on your end use requirements, you can select 3M pressure sensitive adhesives that bond on contact or a 3M two-partpaste adhesive with open times ranging from 2 to 90 minutes. Repositionable formulations are also available for repeated openings and closings.

QDoesyourpartneedtobedisassembledfor

maintenanceorservice?

When assembled with most adhesives or tapes, parts are generally difficult or virtually impossible to disassemble without damaging the part. As an exception, hot melt adhesives can be reheated and reused, but in most instances reuse would be messy and impractical. As already noted, repositionable adhesives are available, but application is restricted to lighter duty attachment or closure. Reclosable fasteners are a hybrid technology using mechanical fastening and pressure sensitive adhesive. The adhesive permanently bonds two reclosable mating strips to the substrates that need to be opened and closed. See pages 73 through 77 for details.

QDoyouwanttocutcosts,increaseproductionand

simplifyyouroperation?

With 3M adhesives and tapes, you can see cost reduction through reduced material requirements, weight reductions, and elimination of drilling, welding, screwing, finishing, and similar operations. In most cases, adhesives require minimal training. And many adhesives require little or no investment in major equipment.

3Madhesiveandtapeclassifications–Ðyourealycan’tÕ say“glueÒ ”anyÓ more

6

At one time, adhesive and glue were used synonymously. In industry today, however, designers and engineers are using terms like two-partlow-odoracrylic, very high bond tape, PUR systems, cyanoacrylate, and more. Glue is now considered to be something sticky which is no

6longer a characteristic of many adhesives.

3M adhesives can be classified in several ways.

glass, metal, rubber, and other low porosity substrates, they

 

harden in seconds through reaction with surface moisture.

Classifybyform

3M adhesives are available as liquids, pastes, tapes, films, and shaped solids. Each has characteristics to be considered for application effectiveness and efficiency.

Liquids and pastes readily fill voids to enhance mechanical adhesion. Many liquids can be sprayed to cover large areas.

Films and pressure sensitive tapes offer advantages unique to their form:

¥Uniform thickness throughout the joint.

¥Confinement of the adhesive to the immediate bonding area.

¥Clean bonding without dripping or overflow.

¥Minimum adhesive waste.

¥Die-cutinto complex shapes to facilitate bonding of complex parts or parts with narrow bonding surfaces.

Hot melts are supplied as solid sticks, cartridges, pellets, or similar shapes. Handling and storage is easy and neat.

Classifybystrength

Another classification for industrial applications is by relative strength and solidification process. Generally, those adhesives that bond through a chemical reaction are stronger than those that bond through a physical change.

Structuraladhesivesbondbychemicalreaction.

3Mª Structural Strength Adhesives bond theload-bearingparts of a product. As a rule of thumb, structural strength adhesives reach a minimum of 1,000 psi overlap shear strength. 3M formulations include the following:

¥Epoxy adhesives are available in one andtwo-partliquids and pastes. Of all 3M adhesives, these provide the highest strength and elevated temperature resistance.

¥Acrylic adhesives aretwo-partliquids and pastes to bond the widest variety of substrates includinghard-to-bondplastics and

oily metals. The distinction is high strength bonding without the surface preparation needed for epoxies and urethanes.

¥Urethane adhesives are generally lower costtwo-partliquids and pastes that cure quickly to an elastic bond in applications requiring flexibility between dissimilar materials. Impact resistance is

a distinctive characteristic.

¥Cyanoacrylate adhesives are high strength liquid formulations known as instant adhesives. On rigid plastic,

¥Anaerobic adhesives are liquids that cure to a tough plastic in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of metal. Typical applications include threadlocking, retaining, gasketing, and sealing.

Non-structuraladhesivesbondwithaphysicalchange.

Non-structuraladhesives vary in strength from repositionable to strength equal to or greater than the strength of the substrate being bonded. These adhesives are typically less than 1000 psi and bond materials in cushions, gaskets, insulation, veneers, and general assembly. 3M formulations include the following:

¥Hot melt adhesives melt and flow under heat to wet the substrates and make bonds quickly upon cooling. Products available with a variety of characteristics such as short set times, sprayable formulas, and permanent PSA properties. Applications range from sealing to bonding automotive interior trim.

¥Rubber adhesives aresolvent-basedorwater-basedand solidify through evaporation of the carrier. Products are designed for adhesion to various substrates, application methods, and environmental resistance of the bonded product.

¥Contact bond adhesives are usually rolled, brushed, or sprayed on the two surfaces to be mated and permitted to become dry to the touch with a variety of open times. When the surfaces are pressed together, near ultimate bond strength is achieved.

Pressuresensitiveadhesives

P ressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) found in 3M tapes grip immediately to mating surfaces. With dwell time, the adhesive conforms to surface irregularities.

3Mhybridclassifications

¥Curing hot melts (Polyurethane Reactive [PUR] adhesives) are moisture-curing urethanes that apply like a hot melt adhesive but cool to bond strength usually associated with two-part structural adhesives.

¥Structural bonding tapes combine thebond-on-contactspeed and convenience of a pressure sensitive adhesive tape

with the ultimate strength of liquid epoxy. Cured with heat, the bond reaches high shear strength with leather flexibility.

¥Reclosable fasteners combine adhesive and mechanical fastening principles. Pressure sensitive adhesive permanently bonds two reclosable mating strips to the substrates that need to be opened and closed multiple times.

Substratesandadhesion–Ðasurfacephenomenon,soknowsurfaceswel

Adhesives attach to the surfaces of two substrates, unlike a process that fuses substrates into a unified whole such as welding metal or solvent activation of plastics. In selecting a 3M adhesive or tape, surface condition must be considered: roughness, smoothness, porosity, coated, uncoated, cleanliness, flexibility, size of the part, and surface energy of the part.

Adhesive paste, for example, flows readily into a rough surface for improved effective adhesion. Flexible materials such as paper or thin gauge metal can be bonded with a thin adhesive transfer tape. Large rigid parts with smooth clean surfaces can be bonded with a variety of 3M products ranging from double coated foam tapes to two-partstructural adhesives. Some plastics have plasticizers which migrate to the surface and degrade the bond over time, so aplasticizer-resistantadhesive or tape is essential. If the substrate has been powder coat painted, the coating is the bonding surface rather than the substrate, and you would want to consider a 3M tape or adhesive developed specifically for that surface.

Surface energy ranges from high to low. To illustrate the concept of surface energy, think of water on the unwaxed hood of a car.

The unwaxed hood has high surface energy and water on the hood

flows into puddles. In comparison, a waxed hood has low surface 7 energy and the water beads up rather than flows out. Similar to

water, adhesive on a high surface energy surface flows and Òwets outÓ the surface. ÒWetting outÓ is required to form a strong bond.

As a rule of thumb, the higher the surface energy, the greater the

strength of adhesion.

Specially formulated adhesives are available for low surface energy surfaces. The following illustrations and surface rankings give you an idea of relative surface energy.

Regardless of surface energy, the substrate must be unified, dry, and clean to maximize adhesive contact.

MetalSurfaces

HighSurfaceEnergy

LowSurfaceEnergy

(HighSurfaceEnergy)

Plastics(HSE)

Plastics(LSE)

 

7

 

8

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

mJ/m2

Surfaces

mJ/m2

Surfaces

mJ/m2

Surfaces

1103

Copper

50

Kapton¨ Industrial Film

37

PVA

840

Aluminum

47

Phenolic

36

Polystyrene

753

Zinc

46

Nylon

36

Acetal

526

Tin

45

Alkyd Enamel

35

Polane¨ Paint

458

Lead

43

Polyester

33

EVA

700-1100

Stainless Steel

43

Epoxy Paint

31

Polyethylene

250-500

Glass

43

Polyurethane Paint

29

Polypropylene

 

 

42

ABS

28

Tedlar¨ Polyvinyl

 

 

42

Polycarbonate

 

Fluoride Film

 

 

39

PVC Rigid

18

Teflon¨ Fluoropolymer

 

 

38

Noryl¨ Resin

 

 

 

 

38

Acrylic

 

 

NOTE: Theseeovidepraluedsasarmulata guioden.modificationFor facscaegieneners.ubstantially alter sur

Adhesiveeconomics

In considering cost, consider more than just the cost per gallon or roll. The true value of a 3M adhesive or tape is determined by applied cost per unit. This includes adhesive coverage and the time and labor to apply it. Coverage is usually expressed in terms of

8adhesive thickness or weight.

For a true cost picture, there are a number of facts and questions to consider; questions not only about the adhesive itself, but also substrates, application methods, and more.

QHasarealisticacceptancetestconclusivelyscreened

outalowercostbondingsolution?

A common error is excessive or meaningless test standards that might rule out satisfactory products. Use the lowest cost adhesive consistent with end use performance.

QHasaminimumcoveragebeendeterminedthat

consistentlymeetsperformancerequirements?

100% adhesive coverage is not always necessary. 50% may be completely satisfactory. Or even a single bead of adhesive or strip of high strength tape.

QHavealphysicalpropertiesofthesubstrate

beenconsidered?

High absorption materials, for example, soak up low viscosity adhesives and need multiple coats. In that case, a higher viscosity product or spraying is needed.

QDoestheadhesiverequirespecialventilationor

safetyequipment?

Many adhesives are now low or no VOC's, or 100% solids, and require little or no special ventilation equipment. PSA tapes in application are solventless.

QCantheadhesiveortapebeappliedwithlowcost

equipment,orevennoequipment?

Equipment needs only be consistent with the desired production rate. A collapsible squeeze tube may be all thatÕs necessary to bond plastic parts. Tape can be simply rolled on by hand. If more demanding equipment is needed for the application, 3M technical service will work with you to evaluate processes and equipment.

10

11

QIstheadhesiveortapeeasytousetosave

trainingtime?

The level of training will vary. A one-partstructural adhesive will require a more skilled operator than is necessary to seal a carton with a hot melt adhesive.

QDoestheadhesiveortapegivetheengineergreater

flexibilityindesignandmaterials?

Less expensive substrates and simplified designs can reduce overall cost and increase the market appeal of the end product.

An evaluation of your answers will indicate an appropriate selection of adhesives for the job and true cost. The final adhesive selection will be based on a comparison between applied cost per unit and specific required performance.

3Mª Structural Adhesives

9

The brand name ÒScotch-WeldÓis based on aircraft company conclusions made in the early 1950Õs that this class of 3Mload-bearingadhesive exhibited assembly strength comparable to welding.

Today, industries worldwide take advantage of the wide selection of 3Mª Scotch-Weldª Adhesives and innovative dispensing for many applications. Examples include: bushing assembly in appliances, headlight assembly in cars, fiberglass decks in boats, relays and controls in electronic equipment, lawn sprinklers, POP displays, office partitions, pump casting components,

golf clubs, and home furniture.

Each adhesive has high cohesive strength to bond high strength materials and potentially replace mechanical fasteners. Depending on the adhesive, you can bond metals, wood, rubber, ceramic, composites, engineering grade plastics, glass, and more.

Products include the following:

¥3Mª Scotch-Weldª Epoxy, Acrylic, and Urethane Adhesives

¥3Mª Scotch-Weldª Instant Adhesives

¥3Mª Scotch-Weldª Anaerobic Adhesives

¥3Mª Scotch-Weldª Polyurethane Reactive (PUR) Adhesives

and Applicator

12

3Mª Scotch-Weldª Epoxy,Acrylic,andUrethaneAdhesives

Load-bearingformulationsformetals,rubber,glassandmore

As an alternative to mechanical or fusion fastening, the reasons for 3Mª

10Scotch-Weldª Epoxy, Acrylic and Urethane Adhesives are many: greater

design latitude, cleaner lines, material substitution, less machining, lighter weight, more durability, and often less cost.

To meet application and end-userequirements, there are formulations for bonding steel, aluminum, copper, low surface energy plastics, rubber, glass, wood, masonry and more. Depending on adhesive, select fromduo-pakcartridges, cans, tubes, pails, and drums.

Whatever properties you need Ð durable adhesion, flexibility, creep resistance, heat and environmental resistance, or void-fillingÐ youÕll likely find a 3Mª Scotch-Weldª Structural Adhesive to meet your requirements and expectations.

13

With handling strength in 2 hours and full cure in 24 hours, 3Mª Scotch-Weldª Epoxy Adhesive DP420 bonds the shaft into the head a golf club. Flexibility of the toughenedtwo-partformulation helps absorb repeated impact for a secure bond. Available in 37ml, 200ml and 400mlduo-pakcartridges for use with any of the convenienthand-held3Mª EPXª Applicators.

With a 400ml cartridge, the 3Mª EPXª Pneumatic Applicator applies 3Mª Scotch-Weldª Two-PartEpoxy Adhesive to bond ABS components of an automotive breather valve. The toughened epoxy at the inlet port seals in the high pressure and air/fuel mixture.

 

 

15

 

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

With no surface preparation, 3Mª Scotch-Weldª

 

 

3Mª Scotch-Weldª Low Odor Acrylic Adhesive

 

Structural Acrylic Adhesive DP8005 bonds the

 

 

DP810 requires minimal surface preparation for

 

mitered corners of a simulated-woodcomposite

 

 

bonding metal hinges into awning frames.

 

 

 

 

 

plastic P.O.P. display, eliminating nails that would

Reaches handling strength in only 10 minutes.

 

compromise appearance.

 

 

 

 

17

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

 

 

Brush-applied3Mª Scotch-Weldª Epoxy

 

3Mª Scotch-Weldª Two-PartEpoxy Adhesive

 

 

 

 

 

Adhesive 2216 B/A provides a tough, flexible

 

bonds steel couplings into aluminum tubing of a

 

 

bond between honeycomb and the framework in

 

bicycle frame. Couplings are threaded for easy

 

 

entry step panels of commuter aircraft.

 

assembly and disassembly.